Language Wikipedia

Tuesday, August 21st, 2018


Cavalli–sforza L L 1991 Genes people and languages Scientific American 223 104–110 Cavalli–Sforza L L & Feldman M.W 1981 Cultural transmission and evolution: A quantitative approach Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press Chabris C F 1999 Prelude or requiem for the “Mozart effect”? Nature 400 826–828 Chagnon N A 1988 Life histories blood revenge and warfare in a tribal population Science 239 985–992 Chagnon N A 1992 Yanomamö: The last days Eden New York: Harcourt Brace Chagnon N A 1996 Chronic problems in understanding tribal violence and warfare In G Bock & J Goode (Eds.) The genetics criminal and antisocial behavior New York: Wiley. This is an excellent characterization a person who cannot be deterred If someone is too addled to know that an act would harm someone he cannot be inhibited by the injunction “Don't harm people or else!” The M'Naughten rule aims to forgo spiteful punishment — retribution that harms the perpetrator with no hope deterring him or people similar to him The insanity defense achieved its present notoriety with dueling rent-a-shrinks and ingenious abuse excuses when it was expanded from a practical test whether the cognitive system responding to deterrence is working to the more nebulous tests what can be said to have produced the behavior In the 1954 Durham decision Bazelon invoked “the science psychiatry” and “the science psychology” to create a new basis for the insanity defense: Take the case a person's mother tongue which is a learned cultural skill par excellence A parrot and a child both learn something when exposed to speech but only the child has a mental algorithm that extracts words and rules from the sound wave and uses them to utter and understand an unlimited number new sentences The innate endowment for language is in fact an innate mechanism for learninglanguage.2 In the same way for children to learn about culture they cannot be mere video cameras that passively record sights and sounds They must be equipped with mental machinery that can extract the beliefs and values underlying other people's behavior so that the children themselves can become competent members the culture.3 Astell Mary 337–38 Astonishing Hypothesis The (Crick) 41 Atran Scott 230 Austad Steven 397 Australia 68–69 404 autism.       u.s Constitution and 298       see also feminism; sex differences Wooldridge Adrian 301 302 Woolf Virginia 404 409 413 Words and Rules (Pinker) 81 Multidecade child-obsessed parenting Harris points out is an evolutionarily recent practice In foraging societies mothers carry their children on their hips or backs and nurse them on demand until the next child arrives two to four years The child is then dumped into a play group with his older siblings and cousins switching from being the beneficiary almost all the mother's attention to almost none it Children sink or swim in the milieu other children. Yes every snowflake is unique and no category will do complete justice to every one its members But intelligence depends on lumping together things that share properties so that we are not flabbergasted by every new thing we encounter As William James wrote “A polyp would be a conceptual thinker if a feeling ‘Hollo! thingumbob again!’ ever flitted through its mind.” We perceive some traits a new object place it in a mental category and infer that it is likely to have the other traits typical that category ones we cannot perceive If it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck it probably is a duck If it's a duck it's likely to swim fly have a back f which water rolls and contain meat that's tasty when wrapped in a pancake with scallions and hoisin sauce. “pinker's thinking and writing are first-rate; maybe even better than that The Blank Slate is much-needed long overdue and — if you are interested in what might be called the ‘human nature wars’ — somewhere between that old standby ‘required reading,’ and downright indispensable It is unlikely to change the minds those who are rigidly committed to the blank slate perspective but for anyone whose ‘nature’ includes even a modicum open-mindedness it should prove a revelation.” — David Barash Human Nature Review   “Pinker is one those rare writers who is at once persuasive and comprehensive informative and entertaining.” — Kevin Shapiro Commentary   And who says the doctrine the soul is more humane than the understanding the mind as a physical organ? I see no dignity in letting people die hepatitis or be ravaged by Parkinson's disease when a cure may lie in research on stem cells that religious movements seek to ban because it uses balls cells that have made the “ontological leap” to “spiritual souls.” Sources immense misery such as Alzheimer's disease major depression and schizophrenia will be alleviated not by treating thought and emotion as manifestations an immaterial soul but by treating them as manifestations physiology and So what's left the left? an observer might ask Singer replies “If we shrug our shoulders at the avoidable suffering the weak and the poor those who are getting exploited and ripped f or who simply do not have enough to sustain life at a decent level we are not the left If we say that that is just the way the world is and always will be and there is nothing we can do about it we are not part the left The left wants to do something about this situation.”47 Singer's leftism like traditional leftism is defined by a contrast with a defeatist Tragic Vision But its goal — “doing something” — has been downsized considerably from Robert Kennedy's goal in the 1960s “building a new world society.” For that matter if human cloning ever became possible (and there appears to be no technical obstacle) every cell in a person's body would have the special ability that is supposedly unique to a conceptus namely developing into a human being True the genes in a cheek cell can become a person only with unnatural intervention but that is just as true for an egg that is fertilized in vitro Yet no one would deny that children conceived by IVF. Building and maintaining sense organs is metabolically expensive so these organs evolve only when they improve an organism's fitness.[65] More than half the brain is devoted to processing sensory information and the brain itself consumes roughly one-fourth one's metabolic resources so the senses must provide exceptional benefits to fitness.[65] Perception accurately mirrors the world; animals get useful accurate information through their senses.[65] Armstrong S L Gleitman L R & Gleitman H 1983 What some concepts might not be Cognition 13 263–308  {462}  Aronson E 1980 The social animal San Francisco: W H Freeman Atran S 1995 Causal constraints on categories and categorical constraints on biological reasoning across cultures In D Sperber D Premack & A J Premack (Eds.) Causal cognition New York: Oxford University Press Atran S 1998 Folk biology and the anthropology science: Cognitive universals and cultural particulars Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 547–609 Austad S 2000 Varied fates from similar states Science 290 944 Axelrod R 1984 The evolution cooperation New York:. All this is an essential background to the discussions to come To say that women and men do not have interchangeable minds that people have desires other than power and that motives belong to individual people and not just to entire genders is not to attack feminism or to compromise the interests women despite the misconception that gender feminism speaks in their name All the arguments in the remainder this chapter have been advanced most forcefully by women ~ WHY ARE PEOPLE so afraid the idea that the minds men and women are not identical in every respect? Would we really be better f if everyone were like Pat the androgynous nerd from Saturday Night Live? The fear course is that different implies unequal — that if the sexes differed in any way then men would have to be better or more dominant or have all. People sometimes fear that if the genes affect the mind at all they must determine it in every detail That is wrong for two reasons The first is that most effects genes are probabilistic If one identical twin has a trait there is usually no more than an even chance that the other will have it despite their having a complete genome in common Behavioral geneticists estimate that only about half the variation in most psychological traits within a given environment correlates with the genes In the chapter on children we will explore what this means and where the other half the variation. While in the refugee camps Herman had fallen in love with Masha whom he meets again in New York and with whom he carries on a consuming affair (later in the book he will marry her too) Yadwiga and Masha are in part male fantasies: the first pure but simple the second ravishing but histrionic Herman's conscience prevents him from leaving Yadwiga; his passion prevents him from leaving Masha This brings much misery all around but Singer does not let us hate Herman too much because we see how the capricious horror the Holocaust has left him a fatalist with no confidence that his decisions can affect the course his life Moreover Herman is amply punished for his duplicity by a life high anxiety which Singer portrays with comic at times sadistic relish. Pinker follows Chomsky in arguing that the fact that children can learn any human language with no explicit instruction suggests that language including most of grammar is basically innate and that it only needs to be activated by interaction Chomsky himself does not believe language to have evolved as an adaptation but suggests that it likely evolved as a byproduct of some other adaptation a so-called spandrel But Pinker and Bloom argue that the organic nature of language strongly suggests that it has an adaptational origin.[75] Despite ALL THE steam coming out people's ears in the modern debate on the sexes there are wide expanses common ground No one wants to accept sex discrimination or rape No one wants to turn back the clock and empty the universities and pressions women even if that were possible No reasonable person can deny that the advances in the freedom women during the past century are an incalculable enrichment the human condition. The SCIENCES OF human nature are pressing on two political hot buttons not just one The first is how we conceptualize the entity known as “society.” The political philosopher Roger Masters has shown how sociobiology (and related theories invoking evolution genetics and brain science) inadvertently took sides in an ancient dispute between two traditions of understanding the social order.5       see also natural selection As for the inevitability aggression — another dangerous idea he was accused holding — what Wilson had written was that in the course human evolution “aggressiveness was constrained and the old forms primate dominance replaced by complex social skills.”17 The accusation that Wilson (a lifelong liberal Democrat) was led by personal prejudice to defend racism sexism inequality slavery and genocide was especially unfair — and irresponsible because Wilson became a target vilification and harassment by people who read the manifesto but. An immediate reply to this worry is that the danger arises whether the differences between groups are genetic or environmental in origin An average is an average and an actuarial decision maker should care only about what it is not what caused it Moreover the fact that discrimination can be economically rational would be truly dangerous only if our policies favored ruthless economic optimization regardless all other costs But in fact we have many policies that allow moral principles to trump economic efficiency For example it is illegal to sell your vote sell your organs or sell your children even though an economist could argue that any voluntary exchange leaves both parties better f These decisions come naturally in modern democracies and we can just as resolutely choose public policies and private mores that disallow race and gender Even the emotional comfort a belief in an afterlife can go both ways Would life lose its purpose if we ceased to exist when our brains die? On the contrary nothing invests life with more meaning than the realization that every moment sentience is a precious gift How many fights have been averted how many friendships renewed how many hours not squandered how many gestures affection fered because we sometimes remind ourselves that “life is short”? ~ Affection expressed and felt age grades age statuses age terms ambivalence anthropomorphization antonyms baby talk belief in supernatural religion beliefs false beliefs about death beliefs about disease beliefs about fortune and misfortune binary cognitive distinctions biological mother and social mother normally the same person black (color term) body adornment childbirth customs childcare childhood fears childhood fear loud noises childhood fear strangers choice making (choosing alternatives) classification classification age Darwin Charles. ~ Not only is acknowledging human nature compatible with social and moral progress but it can help explain the obvious progress that has taken place over millennia Customs that were common throughout history and prehistory — slavery punishment by mutilation execution by torture genocide for convenience endless blood feuds the summary killing strangers rape as the spoils war infanticide as a form birth control and the legal ownership women — have vanished from large parts. ~ ANOTHER BASIC POINT about the brain has been lost in the recent enthusiasm for plasticity A discovery that neural activity is crucial for brain development does not show either that learning is crucial in shaping the brain or that genes fail to shape the brain The study neural development is ten framed in terms nature and nurture but it is more fruitful to think it as a problem in developmental biology — how a ball identical cells differentiates into a functioning organ Doing so stands the conventional assumptions associationism on their head Primary sensory cortex rather than being the firmest part the brain on top which successive stories can only be even more plastic may be the part the brain that is most dependent on the input for proper development. Roback J 1993 Beyond equality Georgetown Law Journal 82 121–133 Rogers A R 1994 Evolution time preference by natural selection American Economic Review 84 460–481 Roiphe K 1993 The morning after: Sex fear and feminism on campus Boston: Little Brown Romer P 1991 Increasing returns and new developments in the theory growth In W Barnett B. Cornet C d'Aspremont J Gabszewicz & A Mas–Collel (Eds.) International Symposium in Economic Theory and Econometrics New York: Cambridge University Press Romer P & Nelson R R 1996 Science economic growth and public policy In B L R Smith & C. E Barfield (Eds.) Technology R&D and the economy Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution. In the sociological tradition a society is a cohesive organic entity and its individual citizens are mere parts People are thought to be social by their very nature and to function as constituents a larger superorganism This is the tradition Plato Hegel Marx Durkheim Weber Kroeber the sociologist  {285}  Talcott Parsons the anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss and postmodernism in the humanities and social sciences. And this explains why the usual exemptions from responsibility should not be granted to all males or all abuse victims or all humanity even when we think we can explain what led them to act as they did The explanations may help us understand the parts the brain that made a behavior tempting but they say nothing about the other parts the brain (primarily in the pre-frontal cortex) that could have inhibited the behavior by anticipating how the community would respond to it We are that community and our major lever influence consists in appealing to that inhibitory brain system Why should we discard our lever on the system for inhibition just because we are coming to understand the system for temptation? If you believe we shouldn't that is enough to hold people responsible for their actions — without appealing to a will a soul a self or any other ghost in the machine. 32. shipman 1994 p 252 33. E Marshal “A sinister plot or victim of politics?” Science 289 2000 p 571 34. Shipman 1994 p 243 35. Quoted in R Wright “The biology of violence,” New Yorker Ma pp 68–77; quotation from p 69 36. Daly & Wilson 1988 37. Daly & Wilson 1988; Rogers 1994; Wilson & Herrnstein 1985 38. Quoted by Frederick Goodwin in R Wright “The biology of violence,” New Yorker March 13,1995 p 70 39. C Holden “The violence of the lambs,” Science 289 2000 pp 580–581. The feline Hobbes like his human namesake has shown why an amoral egoist is in an untenable position He is better f if he never gets shoved into the mud but he can hardly demand that others refrain from shoving him if he himself is not willing to forgo shoving others And since one is better f not shoving and not getting shoved than shoving and getting shoved it pays to insist on a moral code even if the price is adhering to it oneself As moral philosophers through the ages have pointed out a philosophy living based on “Not everyone just me!” falls apart as soon as one sees oneself from an objective standpoint as a person just like others It is like insisting that “here,” the point in space one happens to be occupying at the moment is a special place in the universe.3 Nepotism is a universal human bent and a universal scourge large organizations It is notorious for sapping countries led by hereditary dynasties  {246}  and for bogging down governments and businesses in the Third World A recurring historic solution was to give positions local power to people who had no family ties such as eunuchs celibates slaves or people a long way from A more recent solution is to outlaw or regulate nepotism though the regulations always come with tradefs and exceptions Small businesses — or as they are ten called “family businesses” or “Mom-and-Pop businesses” — are highly nepotistic and thereby can conflict with principles equal opportunity and earn the resentment the surrounding community. But some the most painful shocks come from the social world — from the manipulations and betrayals other people According to the fable a scorpion asked a frog to carry him across a river reassuring the frog that he wouldn't sting him because if he did he would drown too Halfway across the scorpion did sting him and when the sinking frog asked why the scorpion replied “It's in my nature.” Technically speaking a scorpion with this nature could not have evolved but Trivers has explained why it sometimes seems as if human nature is like the fabled scorpion nature condemned to apparently pointless conflict. It all hit the fan in 1998 when Judith Rich Harris an unaffiliated scholar (whom the press quickly dubbed “a grandmother from New Jersey”) published The Nurture Assumption A Newsweek cover story summed up the topic: “Do Parents Matter? A Heated Debate About How Kids Develop.” Harris brought the three laws out the journals and tried to get people to recognize their implications: that the conventional wisdom about childrearing among experts and laypeople alike. Stinginess disapproval sucking wounds synesthetic metaphors thumb sucking tickling toys playthings <<  {440}  >>   NOTES PREFACE 1. Herrnstein & Murray 1994 p 311 2. Harris 1998a p 2 3. Thornhill & Palmer 2000 p 176; quotation modified to make it gender-neutral. Backlash aside is it possible that the experts’ advice might be sound? Perhaps the parent trap is the mixed blessing scientists’ knowing more and more about the effects parenting Parents can be forgiven for carving out some time for themselves but if the experts are right they must realize that every such decision is a compromise. Bell Curve The (Herrnstein and Murray) viii 301 302 Benbow Camilla 342 353 356 Benedict Ruth 25 Benny Jack 278 Bentham Jeremy 285 Berkeley George 22 Father: What's that music you're listening to son? SON: It's a band called “Limp Bizkit,” Dad FATHER:. After nineteen chapters you can probably guess where I will seek a  {404}  diagnosis for these three ailing endeavors The giveaway lies in a statement (attributed to Virginia Woolf) that can be found in countless English course outlines: “On or about December 1910 human nature changed.” She was referring to the new philosophy modernism that would dominate the elite arts and criticism for much the twentieth century and whose denial human nature was carried over with a vengeance to postmodernism which seized control in its later decades The point this chapter is that the elite arts criticism and scholarship are in trouble because the statement is wrong Human nature did not change in 1910 or in.   “Anyone who has read Pinker's earlier books — including How the Mind Works and The Language Instinct — will rightly guess that his latest effort is similarly sweeping erudite sharply argued richly footnoted and fun to read It's also highly persuasive.” — Michael Lemonick Time   “[Pinker] makes his main argument persuasively and with.

The change in the status women has several causes One is the inexorable logic the expanding moral circle which led also to the abolition despotism slavery feudalism and racial segregation.1 In the midst the Enlightenment the early feminist Mary Astell (1688–1731) wrote:  {338}  If absolute Sovereignty be not necessary in a State how comes it to be so in a Family? or if in a Family why not in a State? since no reason can be alleg'd for the one that will not hold more strongly for the other If all Men are born free how is it that all Women are born slaves? As they must be if the being subjected to the inconstant uncertain unknown arbitrary Will Men be the perfect Condition Slavery?2 Roiphe Katie 343 Roman Catholic Church 186–87 225 11. paul Billings quoted in B H Kevles & D J Kevles “Scapegoat biology,” Discover October 1997 pp 59–62 quotation from p 62 12. B H Kevles & D J Kevles “Scapegoat biology,” Discover October 1997 pp 59–62 quotation from p 62 13. Daphne White quoted in M Wilkinson “Parent group lists ‘dirty dozen’ toys,” Boston Globe December 5,2000 p A5 14. H Spivak & D Prothrow-Stith “The next tragedy Jonesboro,” Boston Globe April 5 1998 15. C Burrell “Study inmates cites abuse factor,” Associated. 5. conference at the Stanford University Humanities Center Ap 6. G Steiner PN Review 25 March–April 1999 7. J Engell & A Dangerfield Harvard Magazine May–June 1998 pp 48–55 111 8. A Louch Philosophy and Literature 22 April 1998 pp 231–241 9. C Woodring Columbia University Press 1999 10. J M Ellis Yale University Press 1997 11. G Wheatcrt Prospect August/September 1998 12. R E Scholes Yale University Press 1998 13. A Kernan (Ed.) Princeton University. 11. bouchard et al 1990; Pedersen et al 1992 12. Bouchard et al 1990; Bouchard 1998 13. Scarr & Carter-Saltzman 1979 14. Loehlin & Nichols 1976 15. Bouchard 1998; Gutknecht Spitz & Carlier 1999 16. McGue 1997 17. Etcf 1999; Persico Postlewaite & Silverman 2001 18. Jackson & Huston 1975 19. Bouchard 1994; Bouchard et al 1990 20. Kamin 1974; Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 116 21. Neisser et al 1996; Snyderman & Rothman 1988. “the Blank Slate deserves to be read carefully and with an open mind This landmark book makes an important contribution to the argument about nature vs nurture in humans Whether or not most readers end up on Pinker's side the fence one can hope that his thoroughness and reasoning will shed light into the darker corners where research has been suppressed by taboos and where freedom thought and speech have been inhibited by fear consequences for asking forbidden questions.” — Nancy Jeannette Friedlander The San Diego Union-Tribune   “This book is a modern magnum opus The scholarship alone is mind-boggling a monument careful research meticulous citation breadth input from diverse fields great writing and humor.” — Tom Paskal The Montreal Gazette   The dynamic between Calvin and Hobbes (the cartoon characters) is inherent to social organisms and there are reasons to believe that the solution  {188}      31. dawkins 1976/1989 p 20 emphasis added 32. Levins & Lewontin 1985 pp 88 128; Lewontin 1983 p 68; Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 287 In Lewontin 1982 p 18 the quotation is paraphrased as “ruled by our genes.” 33. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 149 34. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 260 35. Rose 1997 p 211 36. Freeman 1999 37. Turner and Sponsel's letter may be found . /gradstudents/dhume/darkness_in_el_dorado 38. Chagnon 1988; Chagnon 1992. Kurt VONNEGUT'S STORY “Harrison Bergeron” is as transparent as Dickinson's poem is cryptic Here is how it begins: The year was 2081 and everybody was finally equal They weren't only equal before God and the law They were equal every which way Nobody was smarter than anybody else Nobody was better looking than anybody else Nobody was stronger or quicker than anybody else All this equality was due to the 211th 212th and 213th Amendments to the Constitution and to the unceasing vigilance agents the United States Handicapper General.3  {425}  Degler C N 1991 In search human nature: The decline and revival Darwinism in American social thought New York: Oxford University Press Dehaene S 1997 The number sense: How the mind creates mathematics New York: Oxford University Press Dehaene S Spelke L Pinel P Stanescu R & Tsivkin S 1999 Sources mathematical thinking: Behavioral and brain–imaging evidence Science 284 970–974 Denfeld R 1995 The new Victorians: A young woman's challenge to the old feminist order New York: Warner Books Dennett D C 1984 Elbow room: The varieties free will worth wanting Cambridge Mass.:. Logic 221 236 Lomax Alan Jr 108 Lord the Flies (Golding) 124 Lorenz Konrad 124 324 Los Angeles Times 211–12. We face the same problem in reverse when considering euthanasia and living wills at the end life Most people do not depart this world in a puff smoke but suffer a gradual and uneven breakdown the various parts the brain and body Many kinds and degrees existence lie between the living and the dead and that will become even more true as medical technology improves. Though it is a scene considerable sadness it has a streak sly humor as we watch these pathetic souls forgo their chance to savor a moment rare good fortune and slip instead into petty quarreling And Singer's biggest joke is on us Dramatic conventions and a belief in cosmic justice lead us to expect that suffering has ennobled these characters and that we are about to witness a scene great drama and pathos Instead we are shown what we ought to have expected all along: real human beings with all their follies Nor is the episode a display cynicism or misanthropy: we are not surprised when later in the story Herman and Tamara share moments tenderness or that a wise Tamara will fer him his only chance at redemption It is a scene that has the voice the species in it: that infuriating endearing mysterious predictable and eternally fascinating thing we call human nature • romanticism environmentalism and the love nature: The Nazis amplified a Romantic strain in German culture that believed the Volk were a people destiny with a mystical bond to nature and the land The Jews and other minorities in contrast took root in the degenerate cities • Philology and linguistics: The concept the Aryan race was based on a prehistoric tribe posited by linguists the Indo-Europeans who were thought to have spilled out an ancient homeland thousands years ago and to have conquered much Europe and Asia • Religious belief: Though Hitler disliked Christianity he was not an atheist and was emboldened by the conviction that he was carrying out a divinely ordained This inspired the War Powers Clause which gave Congress not the president the power to declare war (It was infamously circumvented in the years the Vietnam conflict during which Johnson and Nixon never formally declared a. Dryden John 6 dualism 8–9 10       see also Ghost in the Machine; mind–matter divide; soul Dunbar Robin 298 Durham decision 184 Responsibility 131–33 166 174–85 retaliation law 324–25       see also revenge Rethinking Innateness (Bates and Elman) 34–35 84 Return Beauty 417 Mcelroy Wendy 342 363 364 370 McGinnis John 296 297 298 McGue Matt 376 McGuinness Diane 342 Machiavelli Niccolo 285 A network neurons can represent different concepts depending on  {79}  which ones are active If neurons for “yellow,” “flies,” and “sings” are active the network is thinking about a canary; if neurons for “silver,” “flies,” and “roars” are active it is thinking about an airplane An artificial neural network computes in the following manner Neurons are linked to other neurons by connections that work something like synapses Each neuron counts up the inputs from other neurons and changes its activity level in response The network learns by allowing the input to change the strengths the connections The strength a connection determines the likelihood that the input neuron will excite or inhibit the output neuron. Are the dirty tricks the preceding chapter just another example people taking fense at claims about behavior that make them uncomfortable? Or as I have hinted are they part a systematic intellectual current: the attempt to safeguard the Blank Slate the Noble Savage and the Ghost in the Machine as a source meaning and morality? The leading theoreticians the radical science movement deny that they believe in a blank slate and it is only fair that their positions be examined carefully In addition I will look at the attacks on the sciences human nature that have come from their political opposites the contemporary right ~ 34. d Berlinski “The deniable Darwin,” Commentary June 1996 See R Bailey “Origin the specious,” Reason July 1997 The Pope's views on evolution are discussed in Chapter 11 35. A 1991 essay quoted in R Bailey “Origin the specious,” Reason July 1997 36. Quoted in R Bailey “Origin the specious,” Reason July 1997 37. R Bailey “Origin the specious,” Reason July 1997 38. L Kass “The end courtship,” Public Interest 126 Winter 1997. Of course such virtue cannot be the dominant mode of human interaction or else we could dispense with the gargantuan apparatus designed to keep exchanges fair — money cash registers banks accounting firms billing departments courts — and base our economy on the honor system At the other extreme people also commit acts of outright treachery including larceny fraud extortion murder and other ways of taking a benefit at someone else's expense Psychopaths who lack all traces of a conscience are the most extreme example but social psychologists have documented what they call Machiavellian traits in many individuals who fall short of outright Most people of course are in the middle of the range displaying mixtures of reciprocity pure generosity and greed  {260}  We are forced to conclude that human nature is almost unbelievably malleable responding accurately and contrastingly to contrasting cul tural conditions — Margaret Mead (1935)37 Others likened the mind to some kind sieve: Much what is commonly called “human nature” is merely culture thrown against a screen nerves glands sense organs muscles etc — Leslie White (1949)38 Or to the raw materials for a factory: Human nature is the rawest most undifferentiated raw material — Margaret Mead (1928)39 As A MATTER fact the arts and humanities are not in trouble According to recent assessments based on data from the National Endowment for the Arts and the Statistical Abstract the United States they have never been in better In the past two decades symphony orchestras booksellers libraries and new independent films have all increased in number Attendance is up in some cases at record levels at classical music concerts live theater opera performances and art museums as we see in blockbuster shows with long lines and scarce tickets The number books in print (including books art poetry and drama) has exploded as have book sales Nor have people become passive consumers art The year 1997 broke records for the proportion adults drawing taking art photographs buying art and doing creative writing. Sejnowski Terrence 84 self unified 42–43  {506}  The themes this book were first presented at forums whose hosts and audiences provided vital feedback They include the Center for Bioethics at the University Pennsylvania; the Cognition Brain and Art Symposium at the Getty Research Institute; the Developmental Behavior Genetics conference at the University Pittsburgh; the Human Behavior and Evolution Society; the Humane Leadership Project at the University Pennsylvania; the Institute on Race and Social Division at Boston University; the School Humanities Arts and Social Sciences at MIT; the Neurosciences Research Program at the Neurosciences Institute; the Positive Psychology Summit; the Society for Evolutionary Analysis in Law; and the Tanner Lectures on Human Values at Yale University. 12. broadcast on Radio Free LA January 1997 Transcript available at .org/chomsky/rage or as a cached page on .com 13. Daly Salmon & Wilson 1997; Mount 1992 14. Johnson Ratwik & Sawyer 1987; Salmon 1998 15. Fiske 1992 16. Fiske 1992 p 698 17. Trivers 1974; Trivers 1985 18. Agrawal Brodie & Brown 2001; Godfray 1995; Trivers 1985 19. Haig 1993 20. Daly & Wilson 1988;. Gottschall J & Gottschall R 2001 The reproductive success rapists: An exploration the per–incident rape–pregnancy rate Paper presented at the Annual Meeting the Human Behavior and Evolution Society London Gottschall J & Jobling I (Eds.) In preparation Evolutionary psychology and literary studies: Toward integration Gould S J 1976a Biological potential vs biological determinism In S J Gould (Ed.) Ever since Darwin: Reflections in natural history New York: Norton Gould S J 1976b Criminal man revived Natural History 85 16–18 Gould S J 1980 The panda's thumb New York: Norton Gould S J 1981 The mismeasure man New York: Norton Gould S.J 1992 Life in a punctuation Natural History 101 10–21. A culture is not a symbolic pattern preserved like a butterfly in amber Its place is not in a museum but in the practical activities daily life where it evolves under the stress competing goals and other competing cultures Cultures do not exist as simply static “differences” to be celebrated but compete with one another as better and worse ways getting things done — better and worse not from the standpoint some observer but from the standpoint the peoples themselves as they cope and aspire amid the gritty realities  {68}  But there is something odd in these stories about negative messages hidden barriers and gender prejudices The way science is to lay out every hypothesis that could account for a phenomenon and to eliminate all but the correct one Scientists prize the ability to think up alternative explanations and proponents a hypothesis are expected to refute even the unlikely ones Nonetheless discussions the leaky pipeline in science rarely even mention an alternative to the theory barriers and bias One the rare exceptions was a sidebar to a 2000 story in Science which quoted from a presentation at the National Academy Engineering by the social scientist Patti Hausman: Descartes Rene 8 9–10 42 126 215 determinism 112–13 122 127 174–85 Modernism and postmodernism cling to a theory perception that was rejected long ago: that the sense organs present the brain with a tableau raw colors and sounds and that everything else in perceptual experience is a learned social construction As we saw in preceding chapters the visual system the brain comprises some fifty regions that take raw pixels and effortlessly organize them into surfaces colors motions and three-dimensional objects We can no more turn the system f and get immediate access to pure sensory experience than we can override our stomachs and tell them when to release their digestive enzymes The visual system moreover does not drug us into a hallucinatory fantasy disconnected from the real world It evolved to feed us information about the consequential things out there like rocks cliffs animals and other people and their intentions. The key biological fact is that boys and girls have different genitalia and it is this biological difference that leads adults to interact differently with different babies whom we conveniently color-code in pink or blue to make it unnecessary to go peering into their diapers for information about But the pink-and-blue theory is becoming less and less credible Here are a dozen kinds evidence that suggest that the difference between men and women is more than genitalia-deep.       genetics and 47 50–51 176 178       peer groups and 391–92 Most all the learned-behavior and public health theories are moral declarations public avowals that the declarer is opposed to violence Condemning violence is all to the good course but not if it is disguised as an empirical claim about our psychological makeup Perhaps the purest example this wishful confusion comes from Ramsey Clark attorney general in the Johnson administration and the author the 1970 bestseller Crime in America In arguing that the criminal justice system should replace punishment with rehabilitation Clark explained: Since we are not just products our environments there will be costs People have inherent desires such as comfort love family esteem autonomy aesthetics and self-expression regardless their history reinforcement and they suffer when the freedom to exercise the desires is thwarted Indeed it is difficult to define psychological pain without some notion human nature (Even the young Marx appealed to a “species character,” with an impulse for creative activity as the basis for his theory alienation.) Sometimes we may choose to impose suffering to control behavior as when we punish people who cause avoidable suffering in others But we cannot pretend that we can reshape behavior without infringing in some way on other people's freedom and happiness Human nature is the reason we do not surrender our freedom to behavioral engineers. Aggressive parents ten have aggressive children but people who conclude that aggression is learned from parents in a “cycle violence” never consider the possibility that violent tendencies could be inherited as well as learned Unless one looks at adopted children and shows that they act more like their adoptive parents than like their biological parents cycles violence prove nothing Similarly the psychologists who note that men commit more acts violence than women and then blame it on a culture masculinity are wearing intellectual blinkers that keep them from noticing that men and women differ in their biology as well as in their social roles American children are exposed to violent role models course but they are also exposed to clowns preachers folk singers and drag queens; the question is why children find some people more worthy imitation than others. The immediate problem with Malthusian prophecies is that they underestimate the effects technological change in increasing the resources that support a comfortable In the twentieth century food supplies increased exponentially not linearly Farmers grew more crops on a given plot land Processors transformed more the crops into edible food Trucks ships and planes got the food to more people before it spoiled or was eaten by pests Reserves oil and minerals increased rather than decreased because engineers could find more them and figure out new ways to get. The dread a permanently wicked human nature takes two forms One is a practical fear: that social reform is a waste time because human nature is unchangeable The other is a deeper concern which grows out the Romantic belief that what is natural is good According to the worry if scientists  {160}  suggest it is “natural” — part human nature — to be adulterous violent ethnocentric and selfish they would be implying that these traits are good not just unavoidable.   Chapter 12 In Touch With Reality   What a piece work is a man! How noble in reason! How infinite in faculty! In form in moving how express and admirable! In action how like an angel! In apprehension how like a god! — William Shakespeare   Many explanations blame “culture,” conceived as a superorganism that teaches issues commands and doles out rewards and punishments A Boston Globe columnist must have been oblivious to the circularity his reasoning when he wrote: So why is America more violent than other industrialized Western democracies? It's our cultural predisposition to violence We pummel each other maul each other stab each other and shoot each other because it's our cultural imperative. But if the brain is a complex organ with many parts the moral does not follow Primary sensory cortex is not the bedrock the mind but a gadget one many in the brain that happens to be specialized for certain kinds signal processing in the first stages sensory analysis Let's suppose that primary sensory cortex really were formless getting all its structure from the input Would that mean that the entire brain is formless and gets all its structure from the input? Not at all For one thing even primary sensory cortex is just one part a huge intricate system To put things in perspective here is a recent diagram the wiring the primate visual system:39  {88}      Racism 15 16–17 108 145 149 202 205 273       see also prejudice A SECOND MISINTERPRETATION neural plasticity can be traced to the belief that there is nothing in the mind that was not first in the senses The most highly publicized discoveries about cortical plasticity concern primary sensory cortex the patches gray matter that first receive signals from the senses (via the thalamus and other subcortical organs) Writers who use plasticity to prop up the Blank Slate assume that if primary sensory cortex is plastic the rest the brain must be even more plastic because the mind is built out sensory experience For example one neuroscientist was quoted as saying that Sur's rewiring experiments “challenge the recent emphasis on the power the genes” and “will push people back toward more consideration environmental factors in creating normal brain organization.”38 Keeley L H 1996 War before civilization: The myth the peaceful savage New York: Oxford University Press Keil F C 1989 Concepts kinds and cognitive development Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Keil F C 1995 The growth casual understandings natural kinds In D Sperber D Premack & A J Premack (Eds.) Causal cognition New York: Oxford University Press Kelling G L & Sousa W H 2001 Do police matter? An analysis the impact New York City's police reforms (Civic Report 22) New York: Manhattan Institute for Policy Research Kelman H 1958 Compliance identification and internalization: Three processes attitude change Journal Conflict Resolution 2 51–60 Kennedy J 1993 Drawings in the blind New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press. Sherman Cindy 411 Shockley William 153 Shosha (Singer) 251 Shweder Richard 26 272 sibling conflict 248–250 266–70 389–90 50. fehr & Gachter 2000; Gaulin & McBurney 2001 pp 333–335 51. Fehr & Gachter 2000; Ridley 1997 52. Williams Harkins & Latane 1981 53. Klaw 1993; McCord 1989; Muravchik 2002; Spann 1989 54. J Muravchik “Socialism's last stand,” Commentary March 2002 pp 47–53 quotation from p 53 55. Fiske 1992 56. Cashdan 1989; Cosmides & Tooby 1992; Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1989; Fiske 1992; Hawkes O'Connell & Rogers 1997; Kaplan Hill & Hurtado 1990; Ridley 1997 57. Ridley 1997,p 111 58. Junger. The reality is that children learn to value and use violence to solve their problems and deal with strong feelings They learn it from role models in their families and communities They learn it from the heroes we put in front them on television the movies. 21. cowen 1998 22. Actually “human character changed,” from her essay “Character in Fiction.” 23. Crick 1994; Gardner 1983; Peretz Gagnon & Bouchard 1998 24. Miller 2000a 25. Dutton 2001 26. Dissanayake 1992; Dissanayake 2000 27. Pinker 1997 chap 8 28. Marr 1982; Pinker 1997 chap 8; Ramachandran & Hirstein 1999; Shepard 1990 See also Gombrich 1982/1995; Miller 2001 29. Pinker 1997 chap 8 30. Kaplan 1992; Orians 1998; Orians & Heerwgen 1992; Wilson 1984. From each according to his abilities to each according to his needs — Karl Marx Smith the explainer capitalism assumes that people will selfishly give their labor according to their needs and will be paid according to their abilities (because the payers are selfish too) Marx the architect communism and socialism assumes that in a socialist society the future the butcher the brewer and the baker will provide us with dinner out benevolence or self-actualization — for why else would they cheerfully exert themselves according to their abilities and not according to. In THE WEALTH NATIONS Adam Smith wrote that there is “a certain propensity in human nature to truck barter and exchange one thing for another.” The exchange goods and favors is a human universal and may have an ancient history In archaeological sites tens millennia old pretty seashells and sharp flints are found hundreds miles from their sources which suggests that they got there by networks Nonetheless Intelligent Design has been embraced by leading neoconservatives including Irving Kristol Robert Bork Roger Kimball and Gertrude Himmelfarb Other conservative intellectuals have also sympathized with creationism for moral reasons such as the law pressor Philip Johnson the writer William F Buckley the columnist Tom Bethell and disconcertingly the bioethicist Leon Kass — chair George W Bush's new Council on Bioethics and thus a shaper the nation's policies on biology and A story entitled “The Deniable Darwin” appeared astonishingly on the cover Commentary which means that a magazine that was once a leading forum for secular Jewish intellectuals is now more skeptical evolution than is. Tiger Lionel 111 Tilghman Shirley 358 Tinbergen Niko 70 tobacco industry 275 393 Todorov Tzvetan 134 Tolstoy Leo 247–48 In the traditional conception a ghost in the machine our bodies are inhabited by a self or a soul that chooses the behavior to be executed by the body These choices are not compelled by some prior physical event like one billiard ball smacking into another and sending it into a corner pocket The idea that our behavior is caused by the physiological activity a genetically shaped brain would seem to refute the traditional view It would make our behavior an automatic consequence molecules in motion and leave no room for an uncaused behavior-chooser. Chapter 11: The Fear Nihilism   1. October 22,1996; reprinted in the English edition L'Osservatore Romano Octo 2. Macnamara 1999; Miller 1999; Newsome 2001; Ruse 2000 3. SeeNagel 1970; Singer 1981 4. Cummins 1996; Trivers 1971; Wright 1994 5. Zahn-Wexleretal 1992 6. Brown 1991 7. Hare 1993; Lykken 1995; Mealey 1995; Rice 1997 8. Rachels 1990 9. Murphy 1999. Ardrey Robert 124  {492}  aristocracy 5–6 301–2 Aristotle 266 Arlo and Janis 163 Arnhart Larry 299 Art (Bell) 413 42. edward Hagen “Chagnon and Neel saved hundreds lives,” The Fray Slate December 8,2000 ( . /gradstudents/dhume/dark .html); S L Katz “The Yanomamö and the 1960s measles epidemic” (letter) Science 292 June 8,2001 p 1837 43. In the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette quoted in John J Miller “The Fierce People: The wages anthropological incorrectness,” National Review November 20,2000 44. Chagnon 1992 chaps 5–6 45. Valero & Biocca 1965/1996 46. Ember 1978; Keeley 1996; Knauft 1987 47. Tierney. To repeat: none this means that sex discrimination has vanished or that it is justified when it occurs The point is only that gender gaps by themselves say nothing about discrimination unless the slates men and women are blank which they are not The only way to establish discrimination is to compare their jobs or wages when choices and qualifications are equalized And in fact a recent study data from the National Longitudinal Survey Youth found that childless women between the ages twenty-seven and thirty-three earn 98 cents to men's Even to people who are cynical about the motivations American employers this should come as no shock In a cutthroat market any company stupid enough to overlook qualified women or to overpay unqualified men would be driven out business by a more meritocratic competitor. Although interactions with non-kin are generally less altruistic compared to those with kin cooperation can be maintained with non-kin via mutually beneficial reciprocity as was proposed by Robert Trivers.[20] If there are repeated encounters between the same two players in an evolutionary game in which each them can choose either to "cooperate" or "defect," then a strategy mutual cooperation may be favored even if it pays each player in the short term to defect when the other cooperates Direct reciprocity can lead to the evolution cooperation only if the probability w another encounter between the same two individuals exceeds the cost-to-benefit ratio the altruistic act: Similarities within a home don't shape children; differences within a home don't shape children Perhaps Harris says we should look outside the home ~ IF YOU GREW up in a different part the world from where your parents grew up consider this question: Do you sound like your parents or like the people you grew up with? What about the way you dress or the music you listen to or the way you spend your free time? Consider the same question about your children if they grew up in a different part the world from where you grew up — or for that matter even if they didn't In almost every case people model themselves after their peers not their parents. People vary in the traits relevant to employment Most people can think logically work with people tolerate conflict or unpleasant surroundings and so on but not to an identical extent; everyone has a unique prile strengths and tastes Given all the evidence for sex differences (some biological some cultural some both) the statistical distributions for men and women in these strengths and tastes are unlikely to be identical If one now matches the distribution traits for men and for women with the distribution the demands the jobs in the economy the chance that the proportion men and women in each pression will be identical or that the mean salary men and women will be identical is very close to zero — even if there were no barriers or discrimination. It IS A pleasure to acknowledge the friends and colleagues who improved this book in innumerable ways Helena Cronin Judith Rich Harris Gefrey Miller Orlando Patterson and Donald Symons fered deep and insightful analyses every aspect and I can only hope that the final version is worthy their wisdom I prited as well from invaluable comments by Ned Block David Buss Nazli Choucri Leda Cosmides Denis Dutton Michael Gazzaniga David Geary George Graham Paul Gross Marc Hauser Owen Jones David Kemmerer David Lykken Gary Marcus Roslyn Pinker Robert Plomin James Rachels Thomas Sowell John Tooby Margo Wilson and William Zimmerman My thanks also go to the colleagues who reviewed chapters in their areas expertise: Josh Cohen Richard Dawkins Ronald Green Nancy Kanwisher Lawrence Katz Glenn Loury Pauline Maier Anita Patterson Mriganka Sur and Milton J Wilkinson. The stupidest conflict in this year's count is Cameroon Early in the year Cameroon was experiencing widespread problems with violent crime The government responded to this crisis by creating and arming militias and paramilitary groups to stamp out the crime extrajudicially Now while violent crime has fallen the militias and paramilitaries have created far more chaos and death than crime ever would have Indeed as the year wore on mass graves were discovered that were tied to the paramilitary The pattern is familiar from other regions the world (including our own) and shows that civil libertarians’ concern about abusive police practices is an indispensable counterweight to the monopoly on violence we grant. Childrearing see parenting chimpanzees 45 61–62 89 134 143 316 367  {494} . Geertz C 1973 The interpretation cultures: Selected essays New York: Basic Books Gelman S A Coley J D & Gottfried G M 1994 Essentialist beliefs in children: The acquisition concepts and theories In L A Hirschfeld & S A Gelman (Eds.) Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture New York: Cambridge University Press Getty J A 2000 The future did not work (Reviews Furet's “The passing an illusion” and Cour–tois et al.'s “The black book communism”) Atlantic Monthly 285 113–116 Ghiglieri M P 1999 The dark side man: Tracing the origins male violence Reading Mass.: Perseus Books Gibbons A 1997 Archaeologists rediscover cannibals Science 277,635–637. But surpassing all stupendous inventions what sublimity mind was his who dreamed finding means to communicate his deepest thoughts to any other person though distant by mighty intervals place and time! talking with those who are in India; speaking to those who are not yet born and will not be born for a thousand or ten thousand years; and with what facility by the different arrangements twenty characters upon. Hirschfeld L A & Gelman S A 1994 Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture New York: Cambridge University Press Hirshleifer J 1987 On the emotions as guarantors threats and promises In J Dupre (Ed.) The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Hobbes.T 1651/1957 Leviathan New York: Oxford University Press Hfrage U Lindsey S Hertwig R & Gigerenzer G 2000 Communicating statistical information Science 290 2261–2262 Hogan P C 1997 Literary universals Poetics Today 18 224–249 Holden C 1987 The genetics personality Science 237 598–601. 32. blum 1997; Buss 1994; Geary 1998; Ridley 1993; Symons 1979  {452}  33. Buss 1994; Kenrick et al 1993; Salmon & Symons 2001; Symons 1979 34. Buss 2000 35. Alexander 1987 36. Brown 1991; Symons 1979 37. K Kelleher “When students ‘hook up,’ someone inevitably gets let down,” Los Angeles Times August 13,2001 38. Symons 1979 39. Daly Salmon & Wilson 1997 40. Wilson &. I suspect there is another reason why the explanations are so easily confused We all know that people sometimes have ulterior motives They may be publicly generous but privately greedy publicly pious but privately cynical publicly platonic but privately lusting Freud accustomed us to the idea that ulterior motives are pervasive in behavior exerting their effects from an inaccessible stratum the mind Combine this with the common misconception that the genes are a kind essence or core the person and you get a mongrel Dawkins and Freud: the idea that the metaphorical motives the genes are the deep unconscious ulterior motives the person That is an error Brooklyn is not expanding. 22. trivers 1976; Trivers 1981; Trivers 1985 23. Trivers & WiUard 1973 24. Jensen 1998 chap 13 25. Blum 1997; Eagly 1995; Geary 1998; Halpern 2000; Kimura 1999 26. Salmon & Symons 2001; Symons 1979 27. Daly & Wilson 1988 Surgery anecdote from Barry 1995 28. Geary 1998; Maccoby & Jacklin 1987 29. Geary 1998; Halpern 2000; Kimura 1999 30. Blum 1997; Geary 1998; Halpern 2000; Hedges & Nowell 1995; Lubinski & Benbow 1992 31. Hedges & Nowell 1995; Lubinski & Benbow 1992. Human societies like living things have become more complicated and cooperative over time Again it is because agents do better when they team up  {168}  and specialize in pursuit their shared interests as long as they solve the problems exchanging information and punishing cheaters If I have more fruit than I can eat and you have more meat than you can eat it pays each us to trade our surplus with the other If we face a common enemy then as Benjamin Franklin put it “We must all hang together or assuredly we shall all hang separately.” 21. hrdy 1999 22. Trivers 1976; Trivers 1981 23. Trivers 1985 24. Harris 1998a; Plomin & Daniels 1987; Rowe 1994; Sulloway 1996; Turkheimer 2000 25. Trivers 1985 p 159 26. Used as the epigraph to Judith Rich Harris's The nurture assumption 27. Dunn & Plomin 1990 28. Hrdy 1999 29. Daly & Wilson 1988; Wilson 1993 30. Wilson 1993 31. Trivers 1972; Trivers 1985. Marks I M & Nesse R M 1994 Fear and fitness: An evolutionary analysis anxiety disorders Ethology and Sociobiology 15 247–261 Marr D 1982 Vision San Francisco: W H Freeman Marslen–Wilson W.D & Tyler L.K 1998 Rules representations and the English past tense Trends in Cognitive Science 2 428–435 Martin N G Eaves L J Heath A C Jardine R Feingold L M & Eysenck H J 1986 Transmission social attitudes Proceedings the National Academy Scie–4368 Martindale C 1990 The clockwork muse: The predictability artistic change New York: –Basic Books Marx K 1845/1989 Theses on Feuerbach In K Marx & F Engels Basic writings on politics and philosophy New York: Anchor Books. Tooby John 134 233–34 238 365 toolmaking 220 238 323 Tootsie 403 Turner and Sponsel admitted that their charge against Neel “remains only an inference in the present state our knowledge: there is no ‘smoking gun’ in the form a written text or recorded speech by Neel.” That turned out to be an understatement Within days scholars with direct knowledge the events — historians epidemiologists anthropologists and filmmakers — demolished the charges. I should say at the outset that I find these latest-and-best blank-slate theories highly implausible — indeed barely coherent Nothing comes out nothing and the complexity the brain has to come from somewhere It cannot come from the environment alone because the whole point having a brain is to accomplish certain goals and the environment has no idea what those goals are A given environment can accommodate organisms that build dams migrate by the stars trill and twitter to impress the females scent-mark trees write sonnets and so on To one species a snatch human speech is a warning to flee; to another it is an interesting new sound to incorporate into its own vocal repertoire; to a third it is grist for grammatical analysis Information in the world doesn't tell you what to do. Venter C et al 2001 The sequence the human genome Science 291 1304–1348 Verhage M Maia A S Plomp J J Brussaard A B Heeroma J H Vermeer H Toonen R E Hammer R E van der Berg T K Missler M Geuze H J & Sudhf T C 2000 Synaptic assembly the brain in the absence neurotransmitter secretion Science 287 864–869 Vonnegut K 1968/1998 Welcome to the monkey house New York: Doubleday Waddington D H 1957 The strategy the genes London: Allen & Unwin Wakefield J C 1992 The concept mental disorder: On the boundary between biological facts and social values American Psychologist 47 373–388 Walker L J 1984 Sex differences in the development moral reasoning: A critical review Child Development 55 677–691. This chapter is about the assumptions about cognition — in particular concepts words and images — that underlie recent relativistic movements in intellectual life The best way to introduce the argument is with examples from the study perception our most immediate connection to the world They immediately show that the question whether reality is socially constructed or directly available has not been properly framed Neither alternative is correct. So conflicted and ingenious a creature makes an endlessly interesting  {420}  focus for the meditations fiction It seems to me true that Homo sapiens will never settle into any Utopia so complacently as to relax all its conflicts and erase all its perversity-breeding Literature has three voices wrote the scholar Robert Storey: those the author the audience and the These novelists are reminding us the voice the species an essential constituent all the arts and a fitting theme with which to wrap up my. 72. daly&wilson 1988 73. Daly&Wilson 1988 pp 225–226 74. Daly & Wilson 1988; Frank 1988; Schelling 1960 75. Brown 1985; Horowitz 2001 76. Daly&Wilson 1988 77. Daly & Wilson 1988; Fox & Zawitz 2000; Nisbett & Cohen 1996 78. Daly & Wilson 1988 p 127 79. Daly&Wilson 1988 p 229 80. Chagnon 1992; Daly&Wilson 1988; Frank 1988 81. Nisbett & Cohen 1996 82. Nisbett &. 73. m Kakutani “The strange case the writer and the criminal,” New York Times Book Review September 20,1981 74. S McGraw “Some used their second chance at life; others squandered it,” The Record (Bergen County N.J.) October 12,1998 75. Rice 1997 76. Trivers 1976 77. Goleman 1985; Greenwald 1988; Krebs & Denton 1997; Lockard & Paulhaus 1988; Rue 1994; Taylor 1989; Trivers 1985; Wright 1994 78. Nesse& Lloyd 1992 79. Gazzaniga 1998 80. Damasio. Human NATURE is a scientific topic and as new facts come in our conception it will change Sometimes the facts may show that a theory grants our minds too much innate structure For example perhaps our language faculties are equipped not with nouns verbs adjectives and prepositions but only with a distinction between more nounlike and more verblike parts speech At other times a theory may turn out to have granted our minds too little innate structure No current theory personality can explain why both members a pair identical twins reared apart liked to keep rubber bands around their wrists and pretend to sneeze in crowded elevators. The existence a human nature is not a reactionary doctrine that dooms us to eternal oppression violence and greed course we should try to reduce harmful behavior just as we try to reduce afflictions like hunger disease and  {173}  the elements But we fight those afflictions not by denying the pesky facts nature but by turning some them against the others For efforts at social change to be effective they must identify the cognitive and moral resources that make some kinds change possible And for the efforts to be humane they must acknowledge the universal pleasures and pains that make some kinds change desirable • the universality ethnocentrism and other forms group-against-group hostility across societies and the ease with which such hostility can be aroused in people within our own • The partial heritability intelligence conscientiousness and antisocial tendencies implying that some degree inequality will arise even in perfectly fair economic systems; and that we therefore face an inherent tradef between equality and • The prevalence defense mechanisms self-serving biases and cognitive dissonance reduction by which people deceive themselves about their autonomy wisdom and Evolutionary psychology is an approach that views human nature as the product a universal set evolved psychological adaptations to recurring problems in the ancestral environment Proponents suggest that it seeks to integrate psychology into the other natural sciences rooting it in the organizing theory biology (evolutionary theory) and thus understanding psychology as a branch biology Anthropologist John Tooby and psychologist Leda Cosmides note: A woman is cleaning out her closet and she finds her old American flag She doesn't want the flag anymore so she cuts it up into pieces and uses the rags to clean her bathroom A family's dog was killed by a car in front their house They had heard that dog meat was delicious so they cut up the dog's body and cooked it and ate it for dinner A man goes to the supermarket once a week and buys a dead chicken But before cooking the chicken he has sexual intercourse with it Then he cooks it and.       reciprocity and 255–56 258 260 285 304 American Academy Pediatrics 311 American Anthropological Association 108 115 American Association for the Advancement Science 111 Some costs would be borne by men or by both sexes The two most obvious are the possibility reverse discrimination against men and a false presumption sexism among the men and women who make decisions about hiring and salary today Another cost borne by both sexes is the inefficiency that could result if employment decisions were based on factors other than the best match between the demands a job and the traits the person. ~ MODERN PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY as every introductory textbook makes clear has roots in John Locke and other Enlightenment thinkers For Locke the Blank Slate was a weapon against the church and tyrannical monarchs but these threats had subsided in the English-speaking world by the nineteenth century Locke's intellectual heir John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) was perhaps the first to apply his blank-slate psychology to political concerns we recognize today He was an early supporter women's suffrage compulsory education and the improvement the conditions the lower classes This interacted with his stands in psychology and philosophy as he explained in his autobiography: I would submit that the world native Americans knew was more stable happier and less barbaric than our society today there were no employment problems community harmony was strong substance abuse unknown crime nearly nonexistent What warfare there was between tribes was largely ritualistic and seldom resulted in indiscriminate or wholesale slaughter While there were hard times life was for the most part stable and predictable Because the native people respected what was around them there was no loss water or food resources because pollution or extinction no lack materials for the daily essentials such as baskets canoes shelter or Not that there haven't been skeptics:     Boston Globe 86 309 339 360 370 382 394–95 Botticelli Sandro 408 Bouchard Thomas. Such in outline is the ficial theory I shall ten speak it with deliberate abusiveness as “the dogma the Ghost in the Machine.”6 The Ghost in the Machine like the Noble Savage arose in part as a reaction to Hobbes Hobbes had argued that life and mind could be explained in mechanical terms Light sets our nerves and brain in motion and that is what it means to see The motions may persist like the wake a ship or the vibration a plucked string and that is what it means to imagine “Quantities” get added or subtracted in the brain and that is what it means. 23. rumelhart & McClelland 1986 p 143 24. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 148 25. Boas 1911 My thanks to David Kemmerer for the examples 26. Degler 1991; Fox 1989; Freeman 1999 27. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 84 28. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 95 29. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 96 30. Durkheim 1895/1962 pp 103–106 31. Durkheim 1895/1962 p 110 32. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 161 33. Quoted in Tooby & Cosmides. Smith Adam 161 233 285 287 288 290 302 Smith Edgar 262 Smith John Maynard 108 167 284. Richards Robert 154 Ridley Matt 256 risk 231–33 Roback Jennifer 353 357 robots 61       see also artificial intelligence Rockefeller John D 16 Rockwell Norman 402 Even many scientists are perfectly content with the radicals’ social constructionism not so much because they agree with it but because they are preoccupied in their labs and need picketers outside their window like they need another hole in the head As the anthropologist John Tooby and the psychologist Leda Cosmides note the dogma that biology is intrinsically disconnected from the human social order fers scientists “safe conduct across the politicized minefield modern academic life.”55 As we shall see even today people who challenge the Blank Slate or the Noble Savage are still sometimes silenced by demonstrators or denounced as Nazis Even when such attacks are sporadic they create an atmosphere intimidation that distorts scholarship far. The filling niches in peer groups then is largely a matter chance But once we allow Lady Luck into the picture she can act at other stages in life When reminiscing on how we got to where we are we all can think forks in the road where we could have gone on very different life paths If I hadn't gone to that party I wouldn't have met my spouse If I hadn't picked up that brochure I wouldn't have known about the field that would become my life's calling If I hadn't answered the phone if I hadn't missed that flight if only I had caught that ball Life is a pinball game in which we bounce and graze through a gantlet chutes and bumpers Perhaps our history collisions and near misses explains what made us what we are One twin was once beaten up by a bully the other was home sick that day One inhaled a virus the other didn't One twin got the top bunk bed the other got the bottom. Regardless its good and bad effects the Blank Slate is an empirical hypothesis about the functioning the brain and must be evaluated in terms whether or not it is true The modern sciences mind brain genes and evolution are increasingly showing that it is not true The result is a rearguard effort to salvage the Blank Slate by disfiguring science and intellectual life:  {422}  denying the possibility objectivity and truth dumbing down issues into dichotomies replacing facts and logic with political posturing. Second behavioral genetic methods address variation within the group people being examined not variation between groups people If the twins or adoptees in a sample are all middle-class American whites a heritability estimate can tell us about why middle-class American whites differ from other-middle-class American whites but not why the middle class differs from the lower or upper class why Americans differ from non-Americans or why whites differ from Asians or blacks. Schwartz Felice 353 Schwarzenegger Arnold 226 science studies 198 Scopes Monkey Trial 130 Scott Dred 292 Scott James 170 Searle John 65 327–28. A more practical fear determinism is captured in a saying by A A Milne: “No doubt Jack the Ripper excused himself on the grounds that it was human nature.” The fear is that an understanding human nature seems to eat away at the notion personal responsibility In the traditional view the self or soul having chosen what to do takes responsibility when things turn out badly As with the desk Harry Truman the buck stops here But when we attribute an action to a person's brain genes or evolutionary history it seems that we no longer hold the individual accountable Biology becomes the perfect alibi the get-out--jail-free card the ultimate doctor's excuse note As we have seen this accusation has been made by the religious and cultural right who want to preserve the soul and the academic left who want to preserve a “we” who can construct our own futures though in circumstances not our own choosing.   HUMAN NATURE WITH A HUMAN FACE   W hen Galileo attracted the unwanted attention the Inquisition in 1633 more was at stake than issues in astronomy By stating that the Earth revolved around the sun rather than vice versa Galileo was contradicting the literal truth the Bible such as the passage in which Joshua issued the successful command “Sun stand thou still.” Worse he was challenging a theory the moral order the universe.       arts and 417 418       deterrence and 182 324–27       rape and 359–60       stepparenting and 164–65 Robert Trivers' theory parental investment predicts that the sex making the largest investment in lactation nurturing and protecting fspring will be more discriminating in mating and that the sex that invests less in fspring will compete for access to the higher investing sex (see Bateman's principle).[92] Sex differences in parental effort are important in determining the strength sexual selection If we set the boundary for personhood at birth we should be prepared to allow an abortion minutes before birth despite the lack any significant difference between a late-term fetus and a neonate It seems more reasonable to draw the line at viability But viability is a continuum that depends on the state current biomedical technology and on the risks impairment that parents are willing to tolerate in their child And it invites the obvious rejoinder: if it is all right to abort a twenty-four-week fetus then why not the barely distinguishable fetus twenty-four weeks plus one day? And if that is permissible why not a fetus twenty-four weeks plus two days or three days and so on until birth? On the other hand if it is impermissible to abort a fetus the day before its birth then what about two days before and three days and so on all the way back to conception?       human nature and 404–20       modernism and 409–13 417–18       postmodernism and see postmodernism       prevalence 404–5 Moral and legal proscriptions are not the only way to reduce discrimination in the face possible group differences The more information we have about the qualifications an individual the less impact a race-wide or sex-wide average would have in any statistical decision concerning that person The best cure for discrimination then is more accurate and more extensive testing mental abilities because it would provide so much predictive information about an individual that no one would be tempted to factor in race or gender (This however is an idea with no political future.) Loury G 2002 The anatomy racial inequality: Stereotypes stigma and the elusive quest for racial justice in the United States Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Lubinski D & Benbow C 1992 Gender differences in abilities and preferences among the gifted: Implications for the math–science pipeline Current Directions in Psychological Science 1 61–66 Lumsden C & Wilson E O 1981 Genes mind and culture Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Lutz D 1984 The relative influence European writers on late eighteenth–century American political thought American Political Science Review 78 189–197 Lykken D T 1995 The antisocial personalities Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Lykken D T 2000 The causes and costs crime and a controversial cure Journal Personality 68 559–605. Nothing can please many and please long but just representations general nature Particular manners can be known to few and therefore few only can judge how nearly they are copied The irregular combinations fanciful invention may delight a-while by that novelty which the common satiety life sends us all in quest; but the pleasures sudden wonder are soon exhausted and the mind can only repose on the stability truth Today we may be seeing a new convergence explorations the human condition by artists and scientists — not because scientists are trying to take over the humanities but because artists and humanists are beginning to look to the sciences or at least to the scientific mindset that sees us as a species with a complex psychological endowment In explaining this connection I cannot hope to compete with the words the artists themselves and I will conclude with the overtures three fine novelists. This is not to say that the primary auditory cortex can handle visual input right out the box The cortex still must tune its synaptic connections in response to the patterns in the input The rewired ferrets are a remarkable demonstration how the developing sensory cortex organizes itself into a well-functioning system But as in the other examples plasticity they do not show that input from the senses can transform an amorphous brain into doing whatever would come in handy The cortex has an intrinsic structure that allows it to perform certain kinds computation Many examples “plasticity” may consist making the input mesh with that structure ~ These are some the issues that face the people a democracy in  {149}  deciding what to do about discrimination The point is not that group differences may never be used as a basis for discrimination The point is that they do not have to be used that way and sometimes we can decide on moral grounds that they must not be used that way ~ THE BLANK SLATE then is not necessary to combat racism and sexism Nor is it necessary to combat Social Darwinism the belief that the rich and the poor deserve their status and so we must abandon any principle economic justice in favor extreme laissez-faire policies. Vonnegut is a beloved author who has never been called a racist sexist elitist or Social Darwinist Imagine the reaction if he had stated his message in declarative sentences rather than in a satirical story Every generation has its designated jokers from Shakespearean fools to Lenny Bruce who give voice to truths that are unmentionable in polite society Today part-time humorists like Vonnegut and full-time ones like Richard Pryor Dave Barry and the writers The Onion are continuing that tradition ~ M'naughten rule 183–84 modernism 170–71 409–13 417–18. Liberalism 5 11 103 118 153 281 283–305. Ozick Cynthia 343 Paddock Paul 236–37 Paddock William 236–37 Paglia Camille 342 343 369–70 Paine Thomas 288 Painted. Another result is that elite art could no longer be appreciated without a support team critics and theoreticians They did not simply evaluate and interpret art like movie critics or book reviewers but supplied the art with its rationale Tom Wolfe wrote The Painted Word after reading an art review in the New York Times that criticized realist painting because it lacked “something crucial,” namely “a persuasive theory.” Wolfe explains: ~ THIS RUTHLESS DISSECTION the human moral sense does not mean that morality is a sham or that every moralist is a self-righteous prig Moral psychology may be steeped in emotion but then many philosophers have argued that morality cannot be grounded in reason alone anyway As Hume wrote “ ‘Tis not contrary to reason to prefer the destruction the whole world to the scratching my finger.”17 The emotions sympathy gratitude and guilt are the source innumerable acts kindness great and small and a measured righteous anger and ethical certitude must have sustained great moral leaders throughout history. Malthus depressingly concluded that an increasing proportion humanity would starve and that efforts to aid them would only lead to more misery because the poor would breed children doomed to hunger in their turn Many recent prophets gloom reiterated his argument In 1967 William and Paul  {237}  Paddock wrote a book called Famine 1975! and in 1970 the biologist Paul Ehrlich author The Population Bomb predicted that sixty-five million Americans and four billion other people would starve to death in the 1980s In 1972 a group big thinkers known as the Club Rome predicted that either natural resources would suffer from catastrophic declines in the ensuing decades or that the world would choke in pollutants. As we saw at the beginning this chapter the visual brain is an immensely complicated system that was designed by the forces evolution to give us an accurate reading the consequential things in front us The “intelligent eye,” as perceptual psychologists call it does not just compute the shapes and motions people before us It also guesses their thoughts and intentions by noticing how they gaze at approach avoid help or hinder other objects and people And these guesses are then measured against everything else we know about people — what we infer from gossip from a person's words and deeds and from Sherlock Holmes-style deductions The result is  {215}  the knowledge base or semantic memory that also underlies our use language. 61. c Holden “Parity as a goal sparks bitter battle,” Science 289 July 21,2000 p 380 62. Quoted in Young 1999 pp 22 34–35 63. Estrich 2000; Furchtgott-Roth & Stolba 1999; Goldin 1990; Gottfredson 1988; Hausman 1999; Kleinfeld 1999; Lehrman 1997; Lubinski & Benbow 1992; Roback 1993; Schwartz 1992; Young 1999 64. Browne 1998; Furchtgott-Roth & Stolba 1999; Goldin 1990 65. In a random sample 100 members the International Association for the Study Child Language I counted 75 women and 25 men The Stanford Child Language Research Forum lists 18 past keynote speakers on its web site ( /~clrf ): 15 women and. But as Masters points out Durkheim and Parsons were in the sociological tradition yet they were conservatives One can easily see how conservative beliefs can favor the preservation society as an entity and thereby downplay the desires individuals Conversely Locke was in the social contract tradition but he is a patron saint liberalism and Rousseau who coined the expression “social contract,” was an inspiration for liberal and revolutionary thinkers Social contracts like any contract can become unfair to some the signatories and may have to be renegotiated progressively or redrawn from scratch in a revolution So the clash between the sociological and economic traditions can explain some the heat ignited by the sciences human nature but it is not identical to the firefight between the political left and the political right The rest the chapter will scrutinize that second and hotter button. Petrinovich L F 1995 Human evolution reproduction and morality New York: Plenum Press Petrinovich L F O'Neill P & Jorgensen M 1993 An empirical study moral intuitions: Toward an evolutionary ethics Journal Personality and Social Psychology 64 467–478 Pinker S 1979 Formal models language learning Cognition 7 217–283 Pinker S 1984a Language learnability and language development (Reprinted with a new introduction 1996) Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Pinker S 1984b Visual cognition: An introduction Cognition 18 1–63 Pinker S 1989 Learnability and cognition: The acquisition argument structure Cambridge Mass.:. Nor are the possibilities for moral progress over Today some people want to enlarge the circle to include great apes warm-blooded creatures or animals with central nervous systems Some want to count in zygotes blastocysts fetuses and the brain-dead Still others want to embrace species ecosystems or the entire planet This sweeping change in sensibilities the driving force in the moral history our species did not require a blank slate or a ghost in the machine It could have arisen from a moral gadget containing a single knob or slider that adjusts the size the circle embracing the entities whose interests we treat as comparable to. Sen A 2000 East and West: The reach reason New York Review Books July 20 The Seville Statement on Violence 1990 American Psycholog–1168 Shalit W 1999 A return to modesty: Discovering the lost virtue New York: Free Press Sharma J Angelucci A & Sur M 2000 Induction visual orientation modules in auditory cortex Nature 404 841–847 Sharpe G 1994 William Hill's bizarre bets London: Virgin Books Shastri L 1999 Advances in SHRUTI: A neurally motivated model relational knowledge representation and rapid inference using temporal synchrony Applied Intelligence 11 79–108. Deterrence 180–85 324–29 330–32 Devil's Dictionary The (Bierce) 240 DeVore Irven 111 238 de. Now at last neuroscience is beginning to catch up with psychology by discovering changes in the brain that underlie learning As we shall see the boundaries between swatches cortex devoted to different body parts talents and even physical senses can be adjusted by learning and practice Some neuroscientists are so excited by these discoveries that they are trying to push the pendulum in the other direction emphasizing the plasticity the cerebral cortex But for reasons that I will review in Chapter 5 most neuroscientists believe that these changes take place within a matrix genetically organized structure There is much we don't understand about how the brain is laid out in development but we know that it is not indefinitely malleable by experience ~ So while Gould Lewontin and Rose deny that they believe in a blank slate their concessions to evolution and genetics — that they let us eat sleep urinate defecate grow bigger than a squirrel and bring about social change — reveal them to be empiricists more extreme than Locke himself who at least recognized the need for an innate faculty “understanding.” ~ Betzig L L 1997 Human nature: A critical reader New York: Oxford University Press Bishop K M Coudreau G & O'Leary D D M 2000 Regulation of area identity in the mammalian neocortex by Emx2 and Pax6 Science 288 344–349 Blair J & Cipolotti L 2000 Impaired social response reversal: A case of “acquired sociopathy.” Brain 123 1122–1141 Blinkhorn S 1982 Review of S.J Gould's “The mismeasure of man.” Nature 296 506 Bloom P 1994 Generativity within language and other cognitive domains Cognition 51,177–189 Bloom P 1996 Intention history and artifact concepts Cognition 60 1–29  {463}  Ellis B J 1992 The evolution sexual attraction: Evaluative mechanisms in women In J H Barkow L Cosmides & J Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation culture New York: Oxford University Press Ellis L & Beattie C 1983 The feminist explanation for rape: An empirical test Journal Sex Research 19,74–91 Elman J L Bates E A Johnson M H Karmilf–Smith A Parisi D & Plunkett K 1996 Rethinking innateness: A connectionistperspective on development Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Ember C 1978 Myths about hunter–gatherers Ethnology 27 239–248 Epstein J 1994 On the mathematical biology arms races wars and revolutions In L Nadel & D Stein (Eds.) 1992 lectures in complex systems Vol 5 Reading Mass.: Addison Wesley. The SECOND LAW: The effect being raised in the same family is smaller than the effect the genes By now you appreciate that our genes play a role in making us different from our neighbors and that our environments play an equally important role At this point everyone draws the same conclusion We are shaped both by our genes and by our family upbringing: how our parents treated us and what kind home we grew. 55. tooby & Cosmides 1992 p 49 56. Chimps: Montagu 1973b p 4 Heritability IQ: Kamin 1974; Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 116 IQ as reification: Gould 1981 Personality and social behavior: Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 chap 9 Sex differences: Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 156 Pacific clans: Gould 1998a p 262 57. Daly 1991 58. Alcock 2001 59. Buss 1995; Daly & Wilson 1988; Daly & Wilson 1999; Etcf 1999; Harris 1998a; Hrdy 1999; Ridley 1993; Ridley 1997; Symons 1979; Wright 1994 60. Plominetal 2001 PART III: HUMAN NATURE WITH A HUMAN FACE   Gopnik A Meltzf A N & Kuhl P K 1999 The scientist in the crib: Minds brains and how children learn New York: William Morrow Gordon M T & Riger S 1991 The female fear: The social cost rape Urbana: University Illinois Press Gottfredson L S 1988 Reconsidering fairness: A matter social and ethical priorities Journal Vocational Behavior 29 379–410 Gottfredson L S 1997 Mainstream science on intelligence: An editorial with 52 signatories history and bibliography Intelligence 24 13–23 Gottfredson M R & Hirschi T 1990 A general theory crime Stanford Calif.: Stanford University Press. “not another book on nature and nurture! Are there really people out there who still believe that the mind is a blank slate? Isn't it obvious to anyone with more than one child to anyone who has been in a heterosexual relationship or to anyone who has noticed that children learn language but house pets don't that people are born with certain talents and temperaments? Haven't we all moved beyond the simplistic dichotomy between heredity and environment and realized that all behavior comes out an interaction between the two?” This is the kind reaction I got from colleagues when I explained my plans for this book At first glance the reaction is not unreasonable Maybe nature versus nurture is a dead issue Anyone familiar with current writings on mind and behavior has seen claims to the middle ground. With what is called the “crisis representation” brought about by postmodernism however it is ten questioned whether an image can be thought to simply represent or misrepresent a supposedly prior or external image-free reality Reality is seen rather as always subject to or as the product modes representation In this view we inescapably inhabit a world images or representations and not a “real world” and true or false images it In other words if a tree falls in a forest and there is no artist to paint it not only did the tree make no sound but it did not fall and there was no tree there to. A belief in the soul in turn meshes with our moral convictions The core morality is the recognition that others have interests as we do — that they “feel want taste grief need friends,” as Shakespeare put it — and therefore that they have a right to life liberty and the pursuit their interests But who are those “others”? We need a boundary that allows us to be callous to rocks and plants but forces us to treat other humans as “persons” that possess inalienable rights Otherwise it seems we would place ourselves on a slippery slope that ends in the disposal inconvenient people or in grotesque deliberations on the value individual lives As Pope John Paul II pointed out the notion that every human carries infinite value by virtue possessing a soul would seem to give us that boundary. For these reasons I think political beliefs will increasingly cut across the centuries-old divide between the Tragic and Utopian Visions They will diverge by invoking different aspects human nature by giving different weightings to conflicting goals or by fering different assessments the likely outcomes particular courses action. Linguistics 14–15 35–39 154 208 390–91 417 Lippmann Walter 201 Lipstick Lesbians 343 living. Second the 34,000 genes take up only about 3 percent the human genome The rest consists DNA that does not code for protein and that used to be dismissed as “junk.” But as one biologist recently put it “The term ‘junk DNA’ is a reflection our ignorance.”11 The size placement and content the noncoding DNA can have dramatic effects on the way that nearby genes are activated to make proteins Information in the billions bases in the non-coding regions the genome is part the specification a human being above and beyond the information contained in the 34,000 genes. Evolutionary psychology is primarily interested in finding commonalities between people or basic human psychological nature From an evolutionary perspective the fact that people have fundamental differences in personality traits initially presents something a puzzle.[70] (Note: The field behavioral genetics is concerned with statistically partitioning differences between people into genetic and environmental sources variance However understanding the concept heritability can be tricky – heritability refers only to the differences between people never the degree to which the traits an individual are due to environmental or genetic factors since traits are always a complex interweaving both.) Tetlock points out that it is in the very nature our commitments to other people to deny that we can put a price on them: “To transgress these normative boundaries to attach a monetary value to one's friendships or one's children or one's loyalty to one's country is to disqualify oneself from certain societal roles to demonstrate that one just ‘doesn't get it’ — one does not understand what it means to be a true friend or parent or citizen.”15 Taboo tradefs which pit a sacred value against a secular one (such as money) are “morally corrosive: the longer one contemplates indecent proposals the more irreparably one compromises one's moral identity.”16 With technological advances in the late 20th century neurolinguists have also incorporated non-invasive techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrophysiology to study language processing in individuals without impairments.[48] The living and nonliving too no longer occupy different realms In 1628 William Harvey showed that the human body is a machine that runs by hydraulics and other mechanical principles In 1828 Friedrich Wohler showed that the stuff life is not a magical pulsating gel but ordinary compounds following the laws chemistry Charles Darwin showed how the astonishing diversity life and its ubiquitous signs design could arise from the physical process natural selection among replicators Gregor Mendel and then James Watson and Francis Crick showed how replication itself could be understood in physical terms. These developments presented intellectuals with a choice Cooler heads could have explained that the discoveries were irrelevant to the political ideals equal opportunity and equal rights which are moral doctrines on how we ought to treat people rather than scientific hypotheses about what people are like Certainly it is wrong to enslave oppress discriminate against or kill people regardless any foreseeable datum or theory that a sane scientist. In some cases the overlap between two groups is so small that we feel comfortable discriminating against one the groups absolutely For example no one objects to keeping chimpanzees out our schools even though it is conceivable that if we tested every chimp on the planet we might find one that could learn to read and write We apply a speciesist stereotype that chimps cannot prit from a human education figuring that the odds finding an exception do not outweigh the costs examining every. 16. see also Miller Galanter & Pribram 1960; Pinker 1997 chap 2; Pinker 1999 chaps 1,10 17. Baker 2001 18. Baker 2001 19. Shweder 1994; see Ekman & Davidson 1994 and Lazarus 1991 for discussion 20. See Lazarus 1991 for a review theories emotion 21. Mallon & Stich 2000 22. Ekman & Davidson 1994; Lazarus 1991 23. Ekman & Davidson 1994 24. Fodor 1983; Gardner 1983; Hirschfeld & Gelman 1994; Pinker 1994; Pinker 1997 25. Elman et al 1996; Karmilf-Smith 1992. Mcginnis notes that even the freedoms speech assembly and the press were motivated by features human nature The framers justified them as means preventing tyranny: a network freely communicating citizens can counteract the might the individuals in government As we now say they can “speak truth to power.” The dynamic power sharing protected by these rights might go way back in evolutionary history The primatologists Frans de Waal Robin Dunbar and Christopher Boehm have shown how a coalition lower-ranking primates can depose a single alpha Like McGinnis they suggest this may be a crude analogue political democracy. ~ The unification our understanding life with our understanding matter and energy was the greatest scientific achievement the second half the twentieth century One its many consequences was to pull the rug out  {31}  from under social scientists like Kroeber and Lowie who had invoked the “sound scientific method” placing the living and nonliving in parallel universes We now know that cells did not always come from other cells and that the emergence life did not create a second world where before there was just one Cells evolved from simpler replicating molecules a nonliving part the physical world and may be understood as collections molecular machinery — fantastically complicated machinery course but machinery nonetheless. Stryker M P 1994 Precise development from imprecise rules Science 263 1244–1245 Sulloway F J 1995 Birth order and evolutionary psychology: A meta–analytic overview Psychological Inquiry 6 75–80 Sulloway F J 1996 Born to rebel: Family conflict and radical genius New York: Pantheon Sur M 1988 Visual plasticity in the auditory pathway: Visual inputs induced into auditory thala–mus and cortex illustrate principles adaptive organization in sensory systems In M A Arbib & S Amari (Eds.) Dynamic interactions in neural networks (Vol 1: Models and data) New York: Springer–Verlag. The romantic notion that all malefactors are depraved on accounta they're deprived has worn thin among experts and laypeople alike Many psychopaths had difficult lives course but that does not mean that having a difficult life turns one into a psychopath There is an old joke about two social workers discussing a problematic child: “Johnny came from a broken home.” “Yes Johnny could break any home.” Machiavellian personalities can be found in all social classes — there are kleptocrats robber barons military dictators and rogue financiers — and some psychopaths such as the cannibal Jeffrey Dahmer have come from decent upper-middle-class homes And none this means that all people who resort to violence or crime are psychopaths only that some the worst. Pol Pot 158 Pope Alexander 138 373 Popper Karl 151 287 population 236–37 Population Bomb The (Ehrlich) 237 Posner Richard 287 The other point contact may be more important still Ultimately what draws us to a work art is not just the sensory experience the medium but its emotional content and insight into the human condition And these tap into the timeless tragedies our biological predicament: our mortality our finite knowledge and wisdom the differences among us and our conflicts interest with friends neighbors relatives and lovers All are topics the sciences human nature The idea that art should reflect the perennial and universal qualities the human species is not new Samuel Johnson in the preface to his edition Shakespeare's plays comments on the lasting appeal that great intuitive psychologist: Thornhill and Palmer's theory reinforces many points an equity-feminist analysis It predicts that from the woman's point view rape and consensual sex are completely different It affirms that women's repugnance toward rape is not a symptom neurotic repression nor is it a social construct that could easily be the reverse in a different culture It predicts that the suffering caused by rape is deeper than the suffering caused by other physical traumas or body violations That justifies our working harder to prevent rape and punishing the perpetrators more severely than we do for other kinds assault Compare this analysis with the dubious claim by two gender feminists that an aversion to rape has to be pounded into women by every social influence they. Boyd Brian 417 Braceras Jennifer 353 Braille 94–96 brain 21 41–45 74 83–100 423–24 Like all conspiracy theories the idea that language is a prisonhouse denigrates its subject by overestimating its power Language is the magnificent faculty that we use to get thoughts from one head to another and we can co-opt it in many ways to help our thoughts along But it is not the same as thought not the only thing that separates humans from other animals not the basis of all culture and not an inescapable prisonhouse an obligatory agreement the limits of our world or the determiner of. According to Steven Pinker who builds on the work by Noam Chomsky the universal human ability to learn to talk between the ages 1 – 4 basically without training suggests that language acquisition is a distinctly human psychological adaptation (see in particular Pinker's The Language Instinct) Pinker and Bloom (1990) argue that language as a mental faculty shares many likenesses with the complex organs the body which suggests that like these organs language has evolved as an adaptation since this is the only known mechanism by which such complex organs can develop.[74] These attacks are transparently political and easy to discount More pernicious is the way that the First Law is commonly interpreted: “So you're saying it's all in the genes,” or more angrily “Genetic determinism!” I have already commented on this odd reflex in modern intellectual life: when it comes to genes people suddenly lose their ability to distinguish 50 percent from 100 percent “some” from “all,” “affects” from “determines.” The diagnosis for this intellectual crippling is clear: if the effects the genes must on theological grounds be zero then all nonzero values are equivalently heretical But the worst fallout from the Blank Slate is not that people misunderstand the effects the genes It is that they misunderstand the effects the environment ~ Pryor Richard 262–63 425 psychiatry 181 184 psychoanalysis 40       see also Freud Sigmund The theory rehabilitation is based on the belief that healthy rational people will not injure others that they will understand that the individual and his society are best served by conduct that does not inflict injury and that a just society has the ability to provide health and purpose and opportunity for all its citizens Rehabilitated an individual will not have the capacity — cannot bring himself — to injure another or take or destroy   Chapter 9 The Fear Imperfectibility But Nature then was sovereign in my mind And mighty forms seizing a youthful fancy Had given a charter to irregular hopes In any age uneventful calm Among the nations surely would my heart Have been possessed by similar desire; But Europe at that time was thrilled with joy France standing on the top golden hours And human nature seeming born again — William Wordsworth1   The more we reflect on this state the more convinced we shall be that it was the least subject any to revolutions the best for man and that nothing could have drawn him out it but some fatal accident which for the public good should never have happened The example the savages most whom have been found in this condition seems to confirm that mankind was formed ever to remain in it that this condition is the real youth the world and that all ulterior improvements have been so many steps in appearance towards the perfection individuals but in fact towards the decrepitness the species.3 First among the authors that Rousseau had in mind was Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) who had presented a very different picture: Acquisition second and additional languages can come at any age through exposure in daily life or courses Children learning a second language are more likely to achieve native-like fluency than adults but in general it is very rare for someone speaking a second language to pass completely for a native speaker An important difference between first language acquisition and additional language acquisition is that the process additional language acquisition is influenced by languages that the learner already knows.[103] The first step in connecting culture to the sciences human nature is to recognize that culture for all its importance is not some miasma that seeps into people through their skin Culture relies on neural circuitry that accomplishes the feat we call learning Those circuits do not make us indiscriminate mimics but have to work in surprisingly subtle ways to make the transmission culture possible That is why a focus on innate faculties mind is not an alternative to a focus on learning culture and socialization but rather an attempt to explain how. Not everyone will be comforted by such reassurances though because they eat away at the third cherished assumption modern intellectual life Love will and conscience are in the traditional job description for the soul and have always been placed in opposition to mere “biological” functions If those faculties are “biological” too — that is evolutionary adaptations implemented in the circuitry the brain — then the ghost is left with even less to do and might as well be pensioned f for good <<  {59}  >>   Maccoby E E & Martin J A 1983 Socialization in the context the family: Parent–child m action In P H Mussen & E M Hetherington (Eds.) Handbook child psychology: Socialization personality and social development (4 ed Vol 4) New York: Wiley Macnamara J 1999 Through the rearview mirror: Historical reflections on psychology Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Macnamara J & Reyes G E (Eds.) 1994 The logical foundations cognition New York: Oxford University Press Maguire E A Gadian D G Johnsrude I S Good C D Ashburner J Frackowiak R S J & Frith C D 2000 Navigation–related structural change in the hippocampi taxi drivers P–4403 Maier P 1997 American scripture: Making the Declaration Independence New York: Knopf. One cause the decline in academia is competition from the efflorescence science and engineering Another may be a surfeit Ph.D.s pumped out by graduate programs that failed to practice academic birth control But the problem is as much a reduction in the demand by students as an increase in the supply pressors While the total number bachelor's degrees rose by almost 40 percent between 1970 and 1994 the number degrees in English declined by 40 percent It may get worse: only 9 percent high school students today indicate an interest in majoring in the One university was so desperate to restore enrollment in its College Arts and Sciences that it hired an advertising firm to come up with a “Think for a Living” campaign Here are some the slogans they came. The second fear is that if people are endowed with violent motives they can't help being violent or must be violent all the time like the Tasmanian Devil in Looney Tunes who tears through an area leaving a swath destruction in his wake This fear is a reaction to archaic ideas killer apes a thirst for blood a death wish a territorial imperative and a violent brain In fact if the brain is equipped with strategies for violence they are contingent strategies connected to complicated circuitry that computes when and where they should be deployed Animals deploy aggression in highly selective ways and humans whose limbic systems are enmeshed with outsize frontal lobes are  {316}  course even more calculating Most people today live their adult lives without ever pressing their violence buttons. Every time that a social phenomenon is directly explained by a psychological phenomenon we may be sure that the explanation is false The group thinks feels and acts quite differently from the way in which  {24}  members would were they isolated If we begin with the individual in seeking to explain phenomena we shall be able to understand nothing what takes place in the group Individual natures are merely the indeterminate material that the social factor molds and transforms Their contribution consists exclusively in very general attitudes in vague and consequently plastic       stereotypes and 201–2       see also associationism; behavioral genetics; behaviorism; emotions; evolutionary psychology; memory; number sense; personality; theory mind psychopathy 51 125 259–63 315 Public. Fox R 1989 The search for society: Quest for a biosocial science and morality New Brunswick N.J.: Rutgers University Press Frangiskakis J M Ewart A K Morris A C Mervis C B Bertrand J Robinson B F Klein B P Ensing G J Everett L A Green E D Proschel C Gutowski N J Noble M Atkinson D L Odelberg S J & Keating M T 1996 LIM–Kinasel hemizygosity implicated in impaired visuospatial constructive cognition Cell 86 59–69 Frank R 1999 Luxury fever: When money fails to satisfy in an era excess New York: Free Press Frank R H 1985 Choosing the right pond: Human behavior and the quest for status New York: Oxford University Press Frank R H 1988 Passions within reason: The strategic role the emotions New York: Norton. Under a less competitive form social organization the theory elitism might well be replaced by a different theory — the theory egalitarianism This theory might say that ordinary people can do anything that is in their interest and do it well when (1) they are highly motivated and (2) they work In other words any us could become a Richard Feynman or a Tiger Woods if only we were highly enough motivated and worked collectively. Oklahoma City bombing (1995) 309 olfactory (smell) system 93 Onion The 414 425 orangutans 367 Ortega y Gasset Jose 24 308 Orwell George 321 425–28 ~ THE MOST OBVIOUS arena in which we confront native ways thinking is the schoolhouse Any theory education must be based on a theory human nature and in the twentieth century that theory was ten the Blank Slate or the Noble Savage Traditional education is based in large part on the Blank Slate: children come to school empty and have knowledge deposited in them to be reproduced later on tests (Critics traditional education call this the “savings and loan” model.) The Blank Slate also underlies the common philosophy that the early school-age years are an opportunity zone in which social values are shaped for life Many schools today use the early grades to instill desirable attitudes toward the environment gender sexuality and ethnic diversity. The first eight bars which range from almost 10 percent to almost 60 percent come from indigenous peoples in South America and New Guinea The nearly invisible bar at the bottom represents the United States and Europe in the twentieth century and includes the statistics from two world wars Moreover Keeley and others have noted that native peoples are dead serious when they carry out warfare Many them make weapons as damaging as their technology permits exterminate their enemies when they can get away with it and enhance the experience by torturing captives cutting f trophies and feasting. Tetlock observes that these fiascoes came about because any politician who honestly presented the inexorable tradefs would be crucified for violating a taboo He would be guilty “tolerating poisons in our food and water,” or worse “putting a dollar value on human life.” Policy analysts note that we are stuck with wasteful and inegalitarian entitlement programs because any politician who tried to reform them would be committing political suicide Savvy opponents would frame the reform in the language taboo: “breaking our faith with the elderly,” “betraying the sacred trust veterans who risked their lives for their country,” “scrimping on the care and education the young.” Finally neuroscience is showing that the brain's basic architecture develops under genetic control The importance learning and plasticity notwithstanding brain systems show signs innate specialization and cannot arbitrarily substitute for one In these three chapters I have given you a summary the current scientific case for a complex human nature The rest the book is about its implications <<  {103}  >>   14. c P Freund Reason March 1998 pp 33–38 15. Quoted in Cowen 1998 pp 9–10 16. J Engell & A Dangerfield “Humanities in the age money,” Harvard Magazine May–June 1998 pp 48–55 111 17. J Engell & A Dangerfield “Humanities in the age money,” Harvard Magazine May–June 1998 pp 48–55 111  {459}  18. Cowen 1998; N Gillespie “All culture all the time,” Reason April 1999 pp 24–35 19. Cowen 1998 20. Quoted in Cowen. Fate 397–98 Fausto–Sterling Anne 346 Fear Flying (Jong) 253 fears 231 Feminine Mystique The (Friedan) 351 Evolutionary psychologists use several strategies to develop and test hypotheses about whether a psychological trait is likely to be an evolved adaptation Buss (2011)[52] notes that these methods include: The naturalistic fallacy leads quickly to its converse the moralistic fallacy: that if a trait is moral it must be found in nature That is not only does “is” imply “ought,” but “ought” implies “is.” Nature including human nature is stipulated to have only virtuous traits (no needless killings no rapacity no exploitation) or no traits at all because the alternative is too horrible to accept That is why the naturalistic and moralistic fallacies are so ten associated with the Noble Savage and the. Machiavellian traits 259–60 MacKinnon Catharine 171 365 McVeigh Timothy 309 311 Madison James 287 296 297–98 Maeterlinck Maurice 287 Sadato N Pascual–Leone A Grafman J Ibanez V Delber M.–P Dold G & Hallett M 1996 Activation the primary visual cortex by Braille reading in blind subjects Nature 380 526–528 Sahlins M 1976 The use and abuse biology: An anthropological critique sociobiology Ann Arbor: University Michigan Press Salmon C A 1998 The evocative nature kin terminology in political rhetoric Politics and the Life Sciences 17 51–57 Salmon C A & Symons D 2001 Warrior lovers New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press Samelson F 1982 Intelligence and some its testers (Review S J Gould's “The mismeasure man”).Science 215 656–657. 5. descartes 1641/1967 Meditation VI p 177 6. Ryle 1949 pp 13–17 7. Descartes 1637/2001 part V p 10 8. Ryle 1949 p 20 9. Cohen 1997 10. Rousseau 1755/1986 p 208 11. Rousseau 1762/1979 p 92 12. Quoted in Sowell 1987 p 63 13. Originally in Red Flag (Beijing) June 1 1958; quoted in Courtois et al 1999 14. J Kalb “The downtown gospel according to Reverend Billy,” New York Times February. Now some discoveries about the mind and brain really could have an impact on our attitudes toward responsibility — but they may call for expanding the domain responsibility not contracting it Suppose desires that sometimes culminate in the harassment and battering women are present in many men Does that really mean that men should be punished more leniently for such crimes because they can't help it? Or does it mean they should be punished more surely and severely because that is the best way to counteract a strong or widespread urge? Suppose a vicious psychopath is found to have a defective sense sympathy which makes it harder for him to appreciate the  {185}  suffering his victims Should we mitigate the punishment because he has diminished capacity? Or should we make the punishment more sure and severe to teach him a lesson in the only language he understands? With science the leading wing modern rationalism has come the progressive demystification the world Falling in love should it still occur is for the modern temper to be explained not by demonic possession (Eros) born the soul-smiting sight the beautiful (Aphrodite) but by a rise in the concentration some still-to-be-identified polypeptide hormone in the hypothalamus The power religious sensibilities and understandings fades too Even if it is true that the great majority Americans still press a belief in God He is for few us a God before whom one trembles. • a sense of probability which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events that is the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.7  {221}  • An intuitive economics which we use to exchange goods and favors It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return. Yet when it comes to the science human beings this same audience says: Give us schmaltz! “Pessimism” is considered a legitimate criticism observations human nature and people expect theories to be a source sentimental uplift “Shakespeare had no conscience; neither do I,” said George Bernard Shaw This was not a confession psychopathy but an affirmation a good playwright's obligation to take every character's point view seriously Scientists human behavior have the same obligation and it does not require them to turn f their consciences in the spheres in which they must be exercised. Zentner M R & Kagan J 1996 Perception music by infants Nature 383 29 Zhou R & Black I B 2000 Development neural maps: Molecular mechanisms In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Zimbardo P G Maslach C & Haney C 2000 Reflections on the Stanford Prison Experiment: Genesis transformations consequences In T Blass (Ed.) Current perspectives on the Milgram N.J.: Erlbaum Zimler J & Keenan J M 1983 Imagery in the congenitally blind: How visual are visual images? Journal Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition 9 269–282.       denials 149–50       heritability 47 146–47 150 297 374–75 376–78 Tajfel H 1981 Human groups and social categories New York: Cambridge University Press Talmy L 2000 The cognitive culture system In L Talmy (Ed.) Toward a cognitive semantics (Vol 2:Typology and process in concept structuring) Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Taylor J K 1992 Reclaiming the mainstream: Individualist feminism rediscovered Buffalo N.Y.: Prometheus Books Taylor S E 1989 Positive illusions: Creative self–deception and the healthy mind New York: Basic Books Tesser A 1993 The importance heritability in psychological research: The case logical Review 100,129–142 Tessier–Lavigne M & Goodman C S 1996 The molecular biology axon guidance Science 274 1123–1132. ~ ONCE WE RECOGNIZE what modernism and postmodernism have done to the elite arts and humanities the reasons for their decline and fall become all  {412}  too obvious The movements are based on a false theory of human psychology the Blank Slate They fail to apply their most vaunted ability — stripping away pretense — to themselves And they take all the fun out. • androgens have permanent effects on the developing brain not just transient effects on the adult Girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia overproduce androstenedione the androgen hormone made famous by the baseball slugger Mark McGwire Though their hormone levels are brought to normal soon after birth the girls grow into tomboys with more rough-and-tumble play a greater interest in trucks than dolls better spatial abilities and when they get older more sexual fantasies and attractions involving other girls Those who are treated with hormones only later in childhood show male patterns sexuality when they become young adults including quick arousal by pornographic images an autonomous sex drive centered on genital stimulation and the equivalent wet But this wall too is falling New ideas from four frontiers knowledge — the sciences mind brain genes and evolution — are breaching the wall with a new understanding human nature In this chapter I will show how they are filling in the blank slate declassing the noble savage and exorcising the ghost in the machine In the following chapter I will show that this new conception human nature connected to biology from below can in turn be connected to the humanities and social sciences above That new conception can give the phenomena culture their due without segregating them into a parallel universe ~ Sexual competition 319 346 347       arts and 407–8 Altruism 242–43 255–61 271 303–4       experiments on 256–58       gender 341–43 361–62 365–66 367  {497}  Ferguson Andrew. Reproduction is always costly for women and can also be for men Individuals are limited in the degree to which they can devote time and resources to producing and raising their young and such expenditure may also be detrimental to their future condition survival and further reproductive output Parental investment is any parental expenditure (time energy etc.) that benefits one fspring at a cost to parents' ability to invest in other components fitness (Clutton-Brock 1991: 9; Trivers 1972) Components fitness (Beatty 1992) include the well-being existing fspring parents' future reproduction and inclusive fitness through aid to kin (Hamilton 1964) Parental investment theory is a branch life history theory Clark R 1970 Crime in America: Observations on its nature causes prevention and control New York: Simon & Schuster Claverie J.–M 2001 What if there are only 30,000 human genes? Science 291 1255–1257 Cohen J 1997 The natural goodness humanity In A Reath B Herman & C Korsgaard (Eds.) Reclaiming the history ethics: Essays for John Rawls New York: Cambridge University Press Colapinto J 2000 As nature made him: The boy who was raised as a girl New York: HarperCollins Collins W A Maccoby E E Steinberg L Hetherington E M & Bornstein M H 2000 Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture American Psychologist 5S 218–232 Conquest R 2000 Reflections on a ravaged century New York: Norton. Chagnon Napoleon 115–19 314 323 334 431 Chamberlain Neville 333 Chandigarh 170 Cheers 403 Chekhov.   Chapter 17 Violence The story the human race is war Except for brief and precarious interludes there has never been peace in the world; and long before history began murderous strife was universal and unending.1 Wright R 1994 The moral animal: Evolutionary psychology and everyday life New York: Pantheon Wright R 2000 NonZero: The logic human destiny New York: Pantheon Yinon Y & Dovrat M 1987 The reciprocity–arousing potential the requestor's occupation its status and the cost and urgency the request as determinants helping behavior Journal Applied Social Psychology 17 429–435 Young C 1999 Ceasefire! Why women and men must join forces to achieve true equality New York: Free Press Zahavi A & Zahavi A 1997 The handicap principle: A missing piece Darwin's puzzle New York: Oxford University Press Zahn–Wexler C Radke–Yarrow M Wagner E & Chapman M 1992 Development concern for others Developmental Psychology 28 126–136. Mcclelland J L Rumelhart D E & the PDP Research Group 1986 Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure cognition (Vol 2: Psychological and biological models).Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press McCloskey M 1983 Intuitive physics Scientific American 248 122–130 McCloskey M & Cohen N J 1989 Catastrophic interference in connectionist networks: The sequential learning problem In G H Bower (Ed.) The psychology learning and motivation (Vol 23) New York: Academic Press McCord W M 1989 Voyages to Utopia: From monastery to commune: The search for the perfect society in modern times New York: Norton. ~ Antigones (Steiner) 266–67 431 AntZ 244 248 267 Apted Michael 373 archaeology 55 architecture modernist x 170–71 410 Chapter 5: The Slate's Last Stand   1. Venter et al 2001 2. See e.g the contributors to Rose & Rose 2000 3. R McKie in The Guardian Febru See also S J Gould “Humbled by the genome's mysteries,” New York Times Febru 4. The Observer February 11,2001 5. E Pennisi “The human genome,” Sriewe 291 2001 1177–1180; see pp 1178–1179. ~ SO WHAT HAPPENED in 1910 that supposedly changed human nature? The event that stood out in Virginia Woolf's recollection was a London exhibition the paintings the post-Impressionists including Cezanne Gauguin Picasso and van Gogh It was an unveiling the movement called modernism and when Woolf wrote her declaration in the 1920s the movement was taking over. I thank many others who graciously responded to requests for information or fered suggestions that found their way into the book: Mahzarin Banaji Chris Bertram Howard Bloom Thomas Bouchard Brian Boyd Donald Brown Jennifer Campbell Rebecca Cann Susan Carey Napoleon Chagnon Martin Daly Irven DeVore Dave Evans Jonathan Freedman Jennifer Ganger Howard Gardner Tamar Gendler Adam Gopnik Ed Hagen David Housman Tony Ingram William Irons Christopher Jencks Henry Jenkins Jim Johnson Erica Jong Douglas Kenrick Samuel Jay Keyser Stephen Kosslyn Robert Kurzban George Lakf Eric Lander Loren Lomasky Martha Nussbaum Mary Parlee Larry Squire Wendy Steiner Randy Thornhill James Watson Torsten Wiesel and Robert Wright. Kelly Alice 382 Kennedy Edward M 289–90 Kennedy John Ґ 334 Kennedy Randall 331 Kennedy Robert R 287–88 289–90 300 Kenrick Douglas 316 According to Paul Baltes the benefits granted by evolutionary selection decrease with age Natural selection has not eliminated many harmful conditions and nonadaptive characteristics that appear among older adults such as Alzheimer disease If it were a disease that killed 20-year-olds instead 70-year-olds this may have been a disease that natural selection could have eliminated ages ago Thus unaided by evolutionary pressures against nonadaptive conditions modern humans suffer the aches pains and infirmities aging and as the benefits evolutionary selection decrease with age the need for modern technological mediums against non-adaptive conditions increases.[120] <<  {1}  >>   THE BLANK SLATE THE NOBLESAVAGE AND THE GHOSTIN THE MACHINE   23. skinner 1948/1976; Skinner 1971; Skinner 1974 24. Chomsky 1973 25. Berlin 1996; Chirot 1994; Conquest 2000; Glover 1999; Minogue 1985; Minogue 1999; Scott 1998 26. Scott 1998 27. Quoted in Scott 1998 pp 114–115 28. Perry 1997 29. Harris 1998a 30. From a dialogue with Betty Friedan in Saturday Review June 14,1975 p 18 quoted inSommers 1994 p 18 31. Quoted by Elizabeth Powers Commentary January 1,1997. Postmodernism 198 202 208 213 214 216 285 411–17 426–27       reaction against 416–17 None of this means that people literally strive to replicate their genes If that's how the mind worked men would line up outside sperm banks and  {54}  women would pay to have their eggs harvested and given away to infertile couples It means only that inherited systems for learning thinking and feeling have a design that would have led on average to enhanced survival and reproduction in the environment in which our ancestors evolved People enjoy eating and in a world without junk food that led them to nourish themselves even if the nutritional content of the food never entered their minds People love sex and love children and in a world without contraception that was enough for the genes to take care of themselves. Depending on what the neurons stand for how they are innately wired and how the connections change with training a connectionist network can learn to compute various things If everything is connected to everything else a network can soak up the correlations among features in a set objects For example after exposure to descriptions many birds it can predict that feathered singing things tend to fly or that feathered flying things tend to sing or that singing flying things tend to have feathers If a network has an input layer connected to an output layer it can learn associations between ideas such as that small st flying things are animals but large metallic flying things are vehicles If its output layer feeds back to earlier layers it can crank out ordered sequences such as the sounds making up. Vegetarianism 227–28 275 320 Venter Craig 75–76 Verbal Behavior (Skinner) 207 Vietnam. As we saw in Chapter 10 for revenge to work as a deterrent it has to be implacable Exacting revenge is a risky business because if an adversary was dangerous enough to have hurt you in the first place he is not likely to take punishment lying down Since the damage has already been done a coolly rational victim may not see it in his interests to retaliate And since the aggressor can anticipate this he could call the victim's bluff and abuse him with impunity If on the other hand potential victims and their kin would be so consumed with the lust for retribution as to raise a son to avenge a slain father drink the kinsman's blood as a covenant and so on an aggressor might think twice before Gender feminism 341–43 361–62 365–66 367 gender gap 340 351–61 As we can infer from Hobbes's allusion to the Peloponnesian War Hobbesian traps among groups are far from hypothetical Chagnon describes how Yanomamö villages obsess over the danger being massacred by other villages (with good reason) and occasionally engage in preemptive assaults giving other villages good reason to engage in their own preemptive assaults and prompting groups villages to form alliances that make their neighbors ever more Street gangs and Mafia families engage in similar machinations In the past century World War I the Six-Day Arab-Israeli War and the Yugoslavian wars in the 1990s arose in part from Hobbesian Among the casualties behaviorist minimalism was the rich psychology William James (1842–1910) James had been inspired by Darwin's argument that perception cognition and emotion like physical organs had evolved as biological adaptations James invoked the notion instinct to explain the preferences humans not just those animals and he posited numerous mechanisms in his theory mental life including short-term and long-term memory But with the advent behaviorism they all joined the index forbidden concepts The psychologist J R Kantor wrote in 1923: “Brief is the answer to the question as to what is the relationship between  {20}  social psychology and instincts Plainly there is no relationship.”11 Even sexual desire was redefined as a conditioned response The psychologist Zing Yang Kuo. Single genes with large consequences are the most dramatic examples the effects genes on the mind but they are not the most representative examples Most psychological traits are the product many genes with small effects that are modulated by the presence other genes rather than the product a single gene with a large effect that shows up come what may That is why studies identical twins (two people who share all their genes) consistently show powerful genetic effects on a trait even when the search for a single gene for that trait is unsuccessful. For THE BEST IN PAPERBACKS LOOK FOR THE In every corner the world on every subject under the sun Penguin represents quality and variety — the very best in publishing today For complete information about books available from Penguin — including Penguin Classics Penguin Compass and Puffins — and how to order them write to us at the appropriate address below Please note that for copyright reasons the selection books varies from country to country In the United States: Please write to Penguin Group (USA) P.O Box 12289 Dept B Newark New Jersey 07101–5289 or call 1-800-788-6262 In the United Kingdom: Please write to Dept EP Penguin Books Ltd Bath Road Harmondsworth West Dray ton Middlesex. Visiting  {439}  vocalic/nonvocalic contrasts in phonemes vowel contrasts weaning weapons weather control (attempts to) white (color term) world view   Additions Since 1989   anticipation attachment critical learning periods differential valuations dominance/submission fairness (equity) concept fear death habituation hope husband older than wife on average imagery institutions (organized co-activities) intention interpolation judging others The reason for the survival these recurrent determinist theories is that they consistently tend to provide a genetic justification the status quo and existing privileges for certain groups according to class race or sex These theories provided an important basis for the enactment sterilization laws and restrictive immigration laws by the United States between 1910 and 1930 and also for the eugenics policies which led to the establishment gas chambers in Nazi Germany What Wilson's book illustrates to us is the enormous difficulty in separating out not only the effects environment (e.g cultural transmission) but also the personal and social class prejudices the researcher Wilson joins the long parade biological determinists whose work has served to buttress the institutions their society by exonerating them from responsibility for social The modern theory evolution falls smack into the social contract tradition It maintains that complex adaptations including behavioral strategies evolved to benefit the individual (indeed the genes for those traits within an individual) not the community species or ecosystem.6 Social organization evolves when the long-term benefits to the individual outweigh the immediate costs Darwin was influenced by Adam Smith and many his successors analyze the evolution sociality using tools that come right out economics such as game theory and other optimization techniques. Today we see things Galileo's way It's hard for us to imagine why the three-dimensional arrangement rock and gas in space should have anything to do with right and wrong or with the meaning and purpose our lives The moral sensibilities Galileo s time eventually adjusted to the astronomical facts not just because they had to give a nod to reality but because the very idea that morality has something to do with a Great Chain Being was daffy to begin with We are now living I think through a similar transition The Blank Slate is today's Great Chain Being: a doctrine that is widely embraced as a rationale for meaning and morality and that is under assault from the sciences the day As in the century following Galileo our moral sensibilities will adjust to the biological facts not only because facts are facts but because the moral credentials the Blank Slate are just as spurious  {139}  Critics evolutionary psychology accuse it promoting genetic determinism panadaptionism (the idea that all behaviors and anatomical features are adaptations) unfalsifiable hypotheses distal or ultimate explanations behavior when proximate explanations are superior and malevolent political or. Studies also confirm what every parent knows but what no one bothers to reconcile with theories child development: that whether adolescents smoke get into scrapes with the law or commit serious crimes depends far more on what their peers do than on what their parents Harris comments on a popular theory that children become delinquents to achieve “mature status,” that is adult power and privilege: “If teenagers wanted to be like adults they wouldn't be shoplifting nailpolish from drugstores or hanging f overpasses to spray I love you lisa on the arch If they really aspired to ‘mature status’ they would be doing boring adult things like sorting the laundry and figuring out their income taxes.”54 The megalomania the genes does not mean that benevolence and co-operation cannot evolve any more than the law gravity proves that flight cannot evolve It means only that benevolence like flight is a special state affairs in need an explanation not something that just happens It can evolve only in particular circumstances and has to be supported by a suite cognitive and emotional faculties Thus benevolence (and other social motives) must be dragged into the spotlight rather than treated as part the furniture In the sociobiological revolution the 1970s evolutionary biologists replaced the fuzzy feeling that organisms evolve to serve the greater good with deductions what kinds motives are likely to evolve when organisms interact with fspring mates siblings friends strangers and adversaries. 45. d Reiss quoted in A M Paul “Kid stuff: Do parents really matter?” Psychology Today January/February 1998 pp 46–49 78 46. Sulloway 1996 47. Sulloway 1995 48. Harris 1998a appendix 1; Harris in press 49. Hrdy 1999 50. Dunphy 1963 51. Pinker 1994 chaps 2 9 52. Kos 1996 53. Harris 1998a chaps 9,12,13 54. Harris 1998a p 264 55. Harris 1998a chap 13; Rowe 1994; Rutter 1997. The faculties underlying empathy foresight and self-respect are information-processing systems that accept input and commandeer other parts the brain and body They are combinatorial systems like the mental grammar underlying language capable cranking out an unlimited number ideas and courses action Personal and social change can come about when people exchange information that affects those mechanisms — even if we are nothing but meat puppets glorified clockwork or lumbering robots created by selfish genes. A fine-tuned deterrence policy explains why we exempt certain harm-causers from punishment We don't punish those who were unaware that their acts would lead to harm because such a policy would do nothing to prevent similar acts by them or by others in the future (Chauffeurs cannot be deterred from driving a president into the line fire if they have no way knowing there will be a line fire.) We don't apply criminal punishment to the delirious the insane small children animals or inanimate objects because we judge that they — and entities similar to them — lack the cognitive apparatus that could be informed the policy and could inhibit behavior accordingly We exempt these entities from responsibility not because they follow predictable laws biology while everyone else follows mysterious not-laws free will We exempt them because unlike most adults they lack a functioning brain system that can respond to public contingencies punishment. 26. lykkenetal 1992 27. Interview in Boston Phoenix in the late 1970s quotation reproduced from memory Ironically Wald's son Elijah became a radical science writer like his father and his mother the biologist Ruth Hubbard 28. Degler 1991; Kevles 1985; Ridley 2000 29. Bullock 1991; Chirot 1994; Glover 1999; Gould 1981 30. Richards 1987 p 533 31. Glover 1999; Murphy 1999 32. Proctor 1999 33. Laubichler 1999. Gabriel Peter 403 Gage Phineas 42 100 Galbraith John Kenneth 288 Galileo Galilei 9–10 137–39 207 Galton Francis 16 You might still object that chess is an artificial world with discrete moves and a clear winner perfectly suited to the rule-crunching a computer People on the other hand live in a messy world fering unlimited moves and nebulous goals Surely this requires human creativity and intuition — which is why everyone knows that computers will never compose a symphony write a story or paint a picture But everyone may be wrong Recent artificial intelligence systems have written credible short stories,4 composed convincing Mozart-like symphonies,5 drawn appealing pictures people and landscapes,6 and conceived clever ideas for advertisements.7 No ONE SHOULD be surprised that claims about human nature are controversial Obviously any such claim should be scrutinized and any logical and empirical flaws pointed out just as with any scientific hypothesis But the criticism the new sciences human nature went well beyond ordinary scholarly debate It turned into harassment slurs misrepresentation doctored quotations and most recently blood libel I think there are two reasons for this illiberal behavior. Educated people course know that perception cognition language and emotion are rooted in the brain But it is still tempting to think the brain as it was shown in old educational cartoons as a control panel with gauges and levers operated by a user — the self the soul the ghost the person the “me.” But cognitive neuroscience is showing that the self too is just another network brain systems. Rachels J 1990 Created from animals: The moral implications Darwinism New York: Oxford University Press Raine A Lencz T Bihrle S LaCasse L & Colletti P 2000 Reduced prefrontal gray matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder Archives General Psychiatry 57 119–127  {482}  Rakic P 2000 Setting the stage for cognition: Genesis the primate cerebral cortex In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Rakic P 2001 Neurocrationism–Making new cortical maps Science 294 1011–1012 Ramachandran V S 1993 Behavioral and magnetoencephalographic correlates plasticity in the adult human brain Proceedings the National Academy Scien3–10420. All else having failed Lewontin Rose and Kamin finally pinned a damning quotation on Dawkins: “They [the genes] control us body and mind.”30 That does sound pretty deterministic But what the man wrote was “They created us body and mind,” which is very Lewontin has used the doctored quotation in five different Silverman I & Eals M 1992 Sex differences in spatial abilities: Evolutionary theory and data In J Barkow L Cosmides & J Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation culture New York: Oxford University Press Simon J L 1996 The ultimate resource 2 Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press Singer I B 1972 Enemies a love story New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux  {485}  Singer P 1981 The expanding circle: Ethics and sociobiology New York Farrar Singer P 1999 A Darwinian left: Politics evolution and cooperation New Havak Uversity Press Siple P & Fischer S D (Eds.) 1990 Theoretical issues in sign language n in fi Him ^ji f Chicago Press. Smith.a 1759/1976 The theory moral sentiments Indianapolis: Liberty Classics Smith A Jussim L & Eccles J 1999 Do self–fulfilling prophesies accumulate dissipate or remain stable over time? Journal Personality and Social Psychology 77 548–565 Smolensky P 1990 Tensor product variable binding and the representation symbolic structures in connectionist systems Artificial Intelligence 46 159–216 Smolensky P 1995 Reply: Constituent structure and explanation in an integrated connectionist/ symbolic cognitive architecture In C MacDonald & G MacDonald (Eds.) Connectionism: Debates on Psychological Explanations (Vol 2) Cambridge Mass.: Blackwell Snyderman M & Rothman S 1988 The IQ controversy: The media and public policy New Brunswick N.J.: Transaction. You believe that reality is something objective external existing in its own right You also believe that the nature reality is self-evident When you delude yourself into thinking that you see something you assume that everyone else sees the same thing as you But I tell you Winston that reality is not external Reality exists in the human mind and nowhere else Not in the individual mind which can make mistakes and in any case soon perishes; only in the mind the Party which is collective and immortal.4       violence and 312 336 nonrival goods 238 Non Sequitur (comic strip) 179 Not in Our Genes (Kamin) 112 126 Nozick Robert 149 151 nuclear weapons. As we shall see the new sciences human nature really do resonate with assumptions that historically were closer to the right than to the left But today the alignments are not as predictable The accusation that these sciences are irredeemably conservative comes from the Left Pole the mythical place from which all directions are right The political associations a belief in human nature now crosscut the liberal-conservative dimension and many political theorists invoke evolution and genetics to argue for policies on. According to the Ethnologue 389 languages (nearly 6%) have more than a million speakers These languages together account for 94% the world's population whereas 94% the world's languages account for the remaining 6% the global population To the right is a table the world's 10 most spoken languages with population estimates from the Ethnologue (2009 figures).[121] Tamara [about to laugh]: You married her? Forgive me but wasn't she simple-minded? She didn't even know how to put on a pair shoes I remember your mother telling me how she tried to put the left shoe on the right foot If she was given money to buy something she would lose it HERMAN: She saved my life TAMARA: Was there no other way to repay her? Well I'd better not ask Do you have any children by her? HERMAN: No TAMARA: It wouldn't shock me if you did I assumed you crawled into bed with her even when you were with me HERMAN: That's nonsense I never crawled into bed with her — Trivers R 1976 Foreword In R Dawkins The selfish gene New York: Oxford University Press Trivers R 1981 Sociobiology and politics In E White (Ed.) Sociobiology and human politics Lexington Mass.: D C Heath Trivers R 1985 Social evolution Reading Mass.: Benjamin/Cummings Trivers R 1998 As they would do to you: A review E Sober & D S Wilson's “Unto others.” Skeptic 6 81–83 Trivers R & Newton H P 1982 The crash Flight 90: Doomed by self–deception? Science Digest 66–68 Trivers R L & Willard D E 1973 Natural selection parental ability to vary the sex ratio fspring Science 179 90–91.       science and 103–4 138–39       self–deception and 264–66 Word classes also carry out differing functions in grammar Prototypically verbs are used to construct predicates while nouns are used as arguments predicates In a sentence such as "Sally runs" the predicate is "runs" because it is the word that predicates a specific state about its argument "Sally" Some verbs such as "curse" can take two arguments e.g "Sally cursed John" A predicate that can only take a single argument is called intransitive while a predicate that can take two arguments is called transitive.[77] Those with the Tragic Vision are unmoved by ringing declarations attributed to the first-person plural we our and us They are more likely to use the pronouns as the cartoon possum Pogo did: We have met the enemy and he is us We are all members the same flawed species Putting our moral vision into practice means imposing our will on others The human lust for power and esteem coupled with its vulnerability to self-deception and self-righteousness makes that an invitation to a calamity all the worse when that power is directed at a goal as quixotic as eradicating human self-interest As the conservative philosopher Michael Oakshott wrote “To try to do something which is inherently impossible is always a corrupting enterprise.” Cultural studies 198 213–14 culture:       autonomy 23–24 27       differences in 68–69       emotions and 38–39 Free will 127–28 175–80 397 French Revolution 159 170 289 295 frequency–dependent selection 260–61 As Alexander Pope wrote “From Nature's chain whatever link you strike / Tenth or ten thousandth breaks the chain alike.”1 None this escaped Galileo as he was pounding away at his link He knew that he could not simply argue on empirical grounds that the division between a corrupt Earth and the unchanging heavens was falsified by sunspots novas and moons drifting across Jupiter He also argued that the moral trappings the geocentric theory were as dubious as its empirical claims so if the theory turned out to be false no one would be the worse Here is Galileo's alter ego in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems wondering what is so great about being invariant and inalterable: Problems survival are clear targets for the evolution physical and psychological adaptations Major problems the ancestors present-day humans faced included food selection and acquisition; territory selection and physical shelter; and avoiding predators and other environmental threats.[58] 67. abbott 2001; Boyd 1998; Carroll 1995; Dutton 2001; Easterlin Riebling & Crews 1993; Evans 1998; Gottschall & Jobling in preparation; Hernadi 2001; Hogan 1997; Steiner 2001; Turner 1985; Turner 1995; Turner 1996 68. Goguen 1999; Gombrich 1982/1995; Kubovy 1986 69. Aiello & Sloboda 1994; Lerdahl & Jackendf 1983 70. Keyser 1999; Keyser & Halle 1998; Turner 1991; Turner 1996; Williams 1990 71. Scarry 1999 72. Abbott 2001 73. A Quart “David Bordwell blows the whistle on film studies,” Lingua Franca March 2000 pp 35–43. Certainly there are institutional barriers to the advancement women People are mammals and we should think through the ethical implications the fact that it is women who bear nurse and disproportionately raise children One ought not to assume that the default human being is a man and that children are an indulgence or an accident that strikes a deviant subset Sex differences therefore can be used to justify rather than endanger woman-friendly policies such as parental leave subsidized childcare flexible hours and stoppages the tenure clock or the elimination tenure altogether (a possibility recently broached by the biologist and Princeton University president Shirley Tilghman). You can feel his life trembling through the knife in your hand It almost overcomes you the gentleness the feeling at the center a coarse act murder You go to the floor with him to finish him It is like cutting hot butter no resistance at all They always whisper one thing at the end: “Please.” You get the odd impression he is not imploring you not to harm him but to do. Miller J Hillis 208 Miller Kristen 178 Milne A A 175 mind:       as complex system 39–40 55       computational theory 31–34 Freud Sigmund 40 43 191 264 381 410 Friedan Betty 171 351 353 Friedman Milton 287 393 Furchtgott–Roth. Even the most atheistic scientists do not course advocate a callous amorality The brain may be a physical system made ordinary matter but that matter is organized in such a way as to give rise to a sentient organism with a capacity to feel pleasure and pain And that in turn sets the stage for the emergence morality The reason is succinctly explained in the comic strip Calvin and Hobbes (see. A second talent is compositionality: the ability to entertain a new complex thought that is not just the sum the simple thoughts composing it but depends on their relationships The thought that cats chase mice for example cannot be captured by activating a unit each for “cats,” “mice,” and “chase,” because that pattern could just as easily stand for mice chasing cats A third logical talent is quantification (or the binding variables): the difference between fooling some the people all the time and fooling all the people some the time Without the computational equivalent x's,y's parentheses and statements like “For all x,” a model cannot tell the difference. Suppose rape is rooted in a feature of human nature such as that men want sex across a wider range of circumstances than women do It is also a feature of human nature just as deeply rooted in our evolution that women want control over when and with whom they have sex It is inherent to our value system that the interests of women should not be subordinated to those of men and that control over one's body is a fundamental right that trumps other people's desires So rape is not tolerated regardless of any possible connection to the nature of men's sexuality Note how this calculus requires a “deterministic” and “essentialist” claim about human nature: that women abhor being raped Without that claim we would have no way to choose between trying to deter rape and trying to socialize women to accept it which would be perfectly compatible with the supposedly progressive doctrine that we are malleable raw material. Throughout the book we have seen how the sciences human nature have clashed with the sociological tradition The social sciences were taken over by the doctrine that social facts live in their own universe separate from the universe individual minds In Chapter 4 we saw an alternative conception in which cultures and societies arise from individual people pooling their discoveries and negotiating the tacit agreements that underlie social reality We saw how a departure from the sociological paradigm was a major heresy Wilson's Sociobiology and that the primacy society was a foundation Marxism and played a role in its disdain for the interests individual people. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (Stoppard) 317. A memorable name for this doctrine was given three centuries later by a detractor the philosopher Gilbert Ryle (1900–1976): There is a doctrine about the nature and place of minds which is so prevalent among theorists and even among laymen that it deserves to be described as the official theory The official doctrine which hails chiefly from Descartes is something like this With the doubtful exception of idiots and infants in arms every human being has both a body and a mind Some would prefer to say that every human being is both a body and a mind His body and his mind are ordinarily harnessed together but after the death of the body his mind may continue to exist and function Human bodies are in space and are subject to mechanical laws which govern all other bodies in space But minds are not in space nor are their operations subject to mechanical laws   In the Wari dictionary Food's defined as “Not a Wari.” Their dinners are a lot fun For all but the un-Wari one   The DANISH PHILOLOGIST Otto Jespersen (1860–1943) is one history's most beloved linguists His vivid books are still read today especially Growth and Structure the English Language first published in 1905 Though Jespersen's scholarship is thoroughly modern the opening pages remind us we are not reading a contemporary book: There is one expression that continually comes to my mind whenever I think the English language and compare it with others: it seems to be positively and expressly masculine it is the language a grown-up man and has very little childish or feminine. In this context the fear genetically modified foods no longer seems so strange: it is simply the standard human intuition that every living thing has an essence Natural foods are thought to have the pure essence the plant or animal and to carry with them the rejuvenating powers the pastoral environment in which they grew Genetically modified foods or foods containing artificial additives are thought as being deliberately laced with a contaminant tainted by its origins in an acrid laboratory or factory Arguments that invoke genetics biochemistry evolution and risk analysis are likely to fall on deaf ears when pitted against this deep-rooted way thinking. And then a “little black-whiskered chap” sent them both sprawling With black eyes and red noses they shook hands said they had always respected each other and agreed to let bygones be bygones Later in the chapter Huck swims ashore and stumbles onto the cabin a family called the Grangerfords Huck is frozen in his tracks by menacing dogs until a voice from the window beckons him to enter the cabin slowly He opens the door and finds himself staring down the barrels three shotguns When the Grangerfords see that Huck is not a Shepherdson the family with whom they are feuding they welcome him to live with them Huck is captivated by their genteel life: their lovely furnishings their elegant dress and their refined manners especially the patriarch Col Grangerford “He was a gentleman all over and so was his family He was well born as the saying is and that's worth as much in a man as it is in a horse.” Human chauvinists can still write off these low-level feats Sure they say the input and output processing can be fobbed off onto computational modules but you still need a human user with the capacity for judgment reflection and creativity But according to the computational theory of mind these capacities are themselves forms of information processing and can be implemented in a computational system In 1997 an IBM computer called Deep  {34}  Blue defeated the world chess champion Garry Kasparov and unlike its predecessors it did not just evaluate trillions of moves by brute force but was fitted with strategies that intelligently responded to patterns in the game Newsweek called the match “The Brain's Last Stand.” Kasparov called the outcome “the end of mankind.” Course only Procrustes could argue that all cultural practices have a direct economic or genetic payf The second motive for conformity is normative the desire to follow the norms a community whatever they are But this too is not as stupidly lemminglike as it first appears Many cultural practices are arbitrary in their specific form but not in their reason for being There is no good reason for people to drive on the right side the road as opposed to the left side or vice versa but there is every reason for people to drive on the same side So an arbitrary choice which side to drive on and a widespread conformity with that choice make a great deal sense Other examples arbitrary but coordinated choices which economists called “cooperative equilibria,” include money designated days rest and the pairings sound and meaning that make up the words in a language. The logic of parent-offspring and sibling-sibling conflict casts a new light on the doctrine of “family values” that is prominent in the contemporary religious and cultural right According to this doctrine the family is a haven of nurturance and benevolence allowing parents to convey values to children that best serve their interests Modern cultural forces by allowing women to spend less time with young children and by expanding the world of older children beyond the family circle have supposedly thrown a grenade into this nest harming children and society alike Part of this theory is surely accurate; parents and other relatives have a stronger interest in the well-being of a child than any third party does But parent-offspring conflict implies that there is more to the picture. Good Morning America 262 Gopnik Adam 217 416 gorillas 367 Gorky Maxim 156 Gottfredson Linda 342 353 359 Gottschall Jonathan 417 12. quoted in Degler 1991 pp 158–159 13. Breland & Breland 1961 14. Skinner 1974 15. Skinner 1971 16. Fodor & Pylyshyn 1988; Gallistel 1990; Pinker &Mehler 1988 17. Gallistel 2000 18. Preuss 1995; Preuss 2001 19. Hirschfeld & Gelman 1994 20. Ekman & Davidson 1994; Haidt in press 21. Daly Salmon & Wilson 1997 22. McClelland Rumelhart & the PDP Research Group 1986; Rumelhart McClelland & the PDP Research. Also even if technocrats provide reasonable estimates a risk (which is itself an iffy enterprise) they cannot dictate what level risk people ought to accept People might object to a nuclear power plant that has a minuscule risk a meltdown not because they overestimate the risk but because they feel that the costs the catastrophe no matter how remote are too dreadful And course any these tradefs may be unacceptable if people perceive that the benefits would go to the wealthy and powerful while they themselves absorb.       rise 16–17       see also specific topics blind people 94–96 Block Ned 11 Boas Franz 22 25 66–67 207 A vision a future social order is based on a concept human nature If in fact man is an indefinitely malleable completely plastic being with no innate structures mind and no intrinsic needs a cultural or social character then he is a fit subject for the “shaping behavior” by the State authority the corporate manager the technocrat or the central committee Those with some confidence in the human species will hope this is not so and will try to determine the intrinsic characteristics that provide the framework for intellectual development the growth moral consciousness cultural achievement and participation in a free  {301}  The associationism Locke and Mill has been recognizable in  {19}  psychology ever since It became the core most models learning especially in the approach called behaviorism which dominated psychology from the 1920s to the 1960s The founder behaviorism John B Watson (1878–1958) wrote one the century's most famous pronouncements the Blank Slate: Give me a dozen healthy infants well-formed and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type specialist I might select — doctor lawyer artist merchant-chief and yes even beggar-man and thief regardless his talents penchants tendencies abilities vocations and. Some readers may not be reassured by this lty stance If all ethnic groups and both sexes were identical in all talents then discrimination would simply be self-defeating and people would abandon it as soon as the facts were known But if they are not identical it would be rational to take those differences into account After all according to Bayes’ theorem a decision maker who needs to make a prediction (such as whether a person will succeed in a pression) should factor in the prior probability such as the base rate success for people in that group If races or sexes are different on average racial priling or gender stereotyping would be actuarially sound and it would be naïve to expect information about race and sex not to be used for prejudicial ends So a policy to treat people as individuals seems like a thin reed on which to hang any hope reducing discrimination. What about the more basic question whether the motives rapists include sex? The gender-feminist argument that they do not points to the rapists who target older infertile women those who suffer from sexual dysfunction during the rape those who coerce nonreproductive sexual acts and those who use a condom The argument is unconvincing for two reasons First these examples make up a minority rapes so the argument could be turned around to show that most rapes do have a sexual motive And all these phenomena occur with consensual sex too so the argument leads to the absurdity that sex itself has nothing to do with sex And date rape is a particularly problematic case for the not-sex theory Most people agree that women have the right to say no at any point during sexual activity and that if the man persists he is a rapist — but should we also believe that his motive has instantaneously changed from wanting sex to oppressing women? Taylor Joan Kennedy 342 Tay–Sachs 144 technology 68–69 221 237–39 338 Tennyson Alfred.        imagery 215–16 236 406 417       neuroscience. African American inner-city neighborhoods are among the more conspicuously violent environments in Western democracies and they too have an entrenched culture honor In his insightful essay “The Code the Streets,” the sociologist Elijah Anderson describes the young men's obsession with respect their cultivation a reputation for toughness their willingness to engage in violent retaliation for any slight and their universal acknowledgment the rules this Were it not for giveaways in their dialect such as “If someone disses you you got to straighten them out,” Anderson's description the code would be indistinguishable from accounts the culture honor among white Southerners. Durkheim Emile 23–24 25 108 156 284 286 427 Dutton Denis 404 406–7. With the exception the instinctoid reactions in infants to sudden withdrawals support and to sudden loud noises the human being is entirely instinctless Man is man because he has no instincts because everything he is and has become he has learned acquired from his culture from the man-made part the environment from other human beings — Ashley Montagu (1973)35  {25}  Lalumiere M L Harris G T & Rice M E 2001 Psychopathy and developmental instability Evolution and Human Behavior 22 75–92  {476}  Lander E S Patrinos A Morgan J J & International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium 2001 Intitial sequencing and analysis the human genome Nature 409 813–958 Latane B & Nida S 1981 Ten years research on group size and helping Psychological Bulletin 89 308–324 Laubichler M D 1999 Frankenstein in the land oiDichter and Denker Science 286 1859–1860 Lazarus R.S 1991 Emotion and adaptation New York: Oxford University Press. ~ THE GHOST IN the Machine course is far dearer to the political right than to the political left In his book The New Know-Nothings: The Political Foes the Scientific Study Human Nature the psychologist Morton Hunt has shown that the foes include people on the left people on the right and a motley collection single-issue fanatics in So far I have discussed the far-left outrage because it has been deployed in the battlefield ideas in the universities and the mainstream press Those on the far right have also been outraged though until recently they have aimed at different targets and have fought in different arenas. Phonemes merging phonemes range from 10 to 70 in number phonemic change inevitability phonemic change rules phonemic system planning planning for future play play to perfect skills poetry/rhetoric poetic line uniform length range poetic lines characterized by repetition and variation poetic lines demarcated by pauses polysemy (one word has several related meanings) possessive intimate possessive loose practice to improve skills preference for own children and close kin (nepotism) prestige inequalities private inner life promise pronouns pronouns minimum two numbers I believe these writers have given us a better understanding the gender gap than the standard one for a number reasons Their analysis is not afraid  {354}  the possibility that the sexes might differ and therefore does not force us to choose between scientific findings on human nature and the fair treatment women It fers a more sophisticated understanding the causes the gender gap one that is consistent with our best social science It takes a more respectful view women and their choices And ultimately it promises more humane and effective remedies for gender inequities in the workplace. “the fight for a separation politics from science is an eminently sensible logical and ultimately humanistic task and it took someone as brave as Pinker to dedicate himself to it [This is a] necessary book a book that in a more truthful intellectual climate — one open to the idea that any knowledge about ourselves can only enhance our ability to act well and compassionately — would not have had to be written In this climate however we should be grateful that it was.” — Daniel Smith The Boston Globe  {iv}    The simple facts are that both predation and starvation are painful prospects for deer and that the lion's lot is no more enviable Perhaps biology would have been able to mature more rapidly in a culture not dominated by Judeo-Christian theology and the Romantic tradition It might have been well served by the First Holy Truth from [Buddha's] Sermon at Benares: “Birth is painful old age is painful sickness is painful death is painful ”11 As soon as we recognize that there is nothing morally commendable about the products evolution we can describe human psychology honestly without the fear that identifying a “natural” trait is the same as condoning it As Katharine Hepburn says to Humphrey Bogart in The African Queen “Nature Mr Allnut is what we are put in this world to rise above.” Social constructionism 6 17 22–29. Sex differences 142 144–45 171–72 178–79 205 251–54 337–71. When we perceive the products other people's behavior we evaluate them through our intuitive psychology our theory mind We do not take a stretch language or an artifact like a product or work art at face value but try to guess why the producers came out with them and what effect they hope to have on us (as we saw in Chapter 12) course people can be taken in by a clever liar but they are not trapped in a false world words and images and in need rescue by postmodernist artists. The American South has long had higher rates violence than the North including a tradition dueling among “men honor” such as Andrew Jackson Nisbett and Cohen note that much the South was originally settled by Scottish and Irish herdsman whereas the North was settled by English farmers Also for much its history the mountainous frontier the South was beyond the reach the law The resulting Southern culture honor is remarkably alive at the turn the twenty-first century in laws and social attitudes Southern states place fewer restrictions on gun ownership allow people to shoot an assailant or burglar without having to retreat first are tolerant spanking by parents and corporal punishment by schools are more hawkish on issues national defense and execute. Because the logic deterrence fights over personal or national honor are not as idiotic as they seem In a hostile milieu people and countries must advertise their willingness to retaliate against anyone who would prit at their expense and that means maintaining a reputation for avenging any slight or trespass no matter how small They must make it known that in the words the Jim Croce song “You don't tug on Superman's cape; you don't spit into the wind; you don't pull the mask f the old Lone Ranger; and you don't mess around with Jim.” Radical science movement 111–12 121–39 146–47 153 293 366 426–27 Thus my criticism Wilson does not invoke a non-biological “environmentalism”; it merely pits the concept biological potentiality with a brain capable a full range human behaviors and predisposed to none against the idea biological determinism with specific genes for specific behavioral traits.4 In contrast some academics argue that it is unnecessary to posit the existence highly domain specific modules and suggest that the neural anatomy the brain supports a model based on more domain general faculties and processes.[160][161] Moreover empirical support for the domain-specific theory stems almost entirely from performance on variations the Wason selection task which is extremely limited in scope as it only tests one subtype deductive reasoning.[162][163] Hawkes Kristen 342 Hayek Friedrich 151 287 291 292 Healey Bernadine 314 Hebb D O 92 Hegel G W E 284 Heisenberg Werner 410 Hepburn Katharine 163 101. national Defense Council Foundation Alexandria Va .org 102. Quoted by Glover 1999 p 227 103. Horowitz 2001; Keegan 1976 104. C Nickerson “Canadians remain gun-shy Americans,” Boston Globe Febru 105. Quoted in Wright 2000 p 61 106. Chagnon 1988; Chagnon 1992 107. Axelrod 1984 108. Glover 1999 p 159 109. Glover 1999 p 202 110. Axelrod 1984; Ridley 1997. 372       Chapter 20 The Arts 400   PART VI The Voice the Species 421     APPENDIX: Donald E Brown's List Human Universals 435    . Allen G E 2001 Is a new eugenics afoot? Science 294 59–61 Ames B Pret M & Gold L S 1990 Dietary pesticides (99.9% all natural) Proceedings the National Academy Scien–7781 Anderson J R 1976 Language memory and thought Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Anderson J R 1983 The architecture cognition Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Anderson J R 1990 The adaptive character thought Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Anderson J R 1993 Rules the mind Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Anderson J R 1995 Cognitive psychology and its implications (4th ed.) New York: W H Freeman. Traditions for their part are adapted not to human nature alone but to human nature in the context an infrastructure technology and economic exchange (one does not have to be a Marxist to accept this insight from Marx) Some traditional institutions like families and the rule law may be adapted to eternal features human psychology Others such as primogeniture were obviously adapted to the demands a feudal system that required keeping the family lands intact and became obsolete when the economic system changed in the wake industrialization More recently feminism was in part a response to improved reproductive technologies and the shift to a service economy Because social conventions are not adapted to human nature alone a respect for human nature does not require preserving. Self distinguished from other self as neither wholly passive nor wholly autonomous self as subject and object self is responsible semantics semantic category affecting things and people semantic category dimension semantic category giving semantic category location semantic category motion semantic category speed semantic category other physical properties semantic components semantic components generation semantic components sex sememes commonly used ones are short infrequently used ones are longer senses unified sex (gender) terminology is fundamentally binary sex statuses sexual attraction Shastri Lokendra 80 Shatz Carla 91–92 Shaw George Bernard 153 181 287–88 423 Shaywitz Sally 342 Shepard.   Chapter 16 Politics   I ten think it's comical How nature always does contrive That every boy and every gal That's born into the world alive Is either a little Liberal Or else a little Conservative!1   In his book The Myth the First Three Years the cognitive neuroscience expert Jon Bruer showed that there was no science behind these astonishing  {387}  No psychologist has ever documented a critical period for cognitive or language development that ends at three And though depriving an animal stimulation (by sewing an eye shut or keeping it in a barren cage) may hurt its brain growth there is no evidence that providing extra stimulation (beyond what the organism would encounter in its normal habitat) enhances its brain growth.       neel and 116–17       personality and 45–51 373–78       "selfish,”. The radical scientists’ case against Wilson and Dawkins can be summed up in two words: “determinism” and “reductionism.”24 Their writings are peppered with these words used not in any technical sense but as vague terms abuse For example here are two representative passages in a book by Lewontin Rose and the psychologist Leon Kamin with the defiantly Blank Slate title Not in Our Genes: Sociobiology is a reductionist biological determinist explanation human existence Its adherents claim that the details present and past social arrangements are the inevitable manifestations the specific action Evolutionary psychologists suggest that it is not simply a subdiscipline psychology but that evolutionary theory can provide a foundational metatheoretical framework that integrates the entire field psychology in the same way evolution has for biology.[2][3][4] Cortex 84 87–100       auditory 95–97       prefrontal 100       ventromedial 100       visual 87–97 99 Modern sociology and modern anthropology are one in saying that the substance of culture or civilization is social tradition and that this social tradition is indefinitely modifiable by further learning on the part of men for happier and better ways of living together Thus the scientific study of institutions awakens faith in the possibility of remaking both human nature and human social life — Charles Ellwood (1922)48 Barriers in many fields of knowledge are falling below the new optimism which is that anybody can learn anything We have turned away from the concept of human ability as something fixed in the physiological structure to that of a flexible and versatile mechanism subject to great improvement — Robert Faris (1961)49 Visual illusions 199–201 visual system 51–52 87–97 99 199–201 214–15 First competition Natural selection is powered by competition which means that the products natural selection — survival machines in Richard Dawkins's metaphor — should by default do whatever helps them survive and reproduce He explains: The danger is particularly acute for humans because unlike most mammals we tend to be patrilocal with related males living together instead dispersing from the group when they become sexually (Among chimpanzees and dolphins related males also live together and they too form aggressive coalitions.) What we call “ethnic groups” are very large extended families and though in a modern ethnic group the family ties are too distant for kin-based altruism to be significant this was not true the smaller coalitions in which we evolved Even today ethnic groups ten perceive themselves as large families and the role ethnic loyalties in group-against-group violence is. 13. masters 1989 p 240 14. Daly & Wilson 1988; Daly & Wilson 1999  {449}  15. Jones 1997 16. Daly & Wilson 1999 pp 58–66 17. Science Friday National Public Radio May 7,1999 18. Singer 1981 19. Maynard Smith & Szathmary 1997; Wright 2000 20. De Waal 1998; Fry 2000 21. Axelrod 1984; Brown 1991; Fry 2000; Ridley 1997; Wright 2000 22. Singer 1981.       evolution and 55–56       feminism and 339       neuroscience and 44       radical science defense 124–26 134       rape. Dickinson Emily 423–24 Dictator game 256 257 Didion Joan 342–43 difference feminism 342 Discovery Institute 161 Languages express meaning by relating a sign form to a meaning or its content Sign forms must be something that can be perceived for example in sounds images or gestures and then related to a specific meaning by social convention Because the basic relation meaning for most linguistic signs is based on social convention linguistic signs can be considered arbitrary in the sense that the convention is established socially and historically rather than by means a natural relation between a specific sign form and its meaning Three the six Grangerford sons had been killed in the feud and the youngest survivor Buck has befriended Huck When the two boys go for a walk and Buck shoots at a Shepherdson boy Huck asks why he wants to kill someone who has done nothing to hurt him Buck explains the concept a feud: “Well,” says Buck “a feud is this way: A man has a quarrel with another man and kills him; then that other man's brother kills him; then the other brothers on both sides goes for one another; then the cousins chip in — and by and by everybody's killed f and there ain't no more feud But it's kind slow and takes a long time.” “Has this one been going on long Buck?” ~ HOBBES'S ANALYSIS the causes violence borne out by modern data on crime and war shows that violence is not a primitive irrational urge nor is it a “pathology” except in the metaphorical sense a condition that everyone would like to eliminate Instead it is a near-inevitable outcome the dynamics self-interested rational social organisms  {330}  In any case what we do know about the sexes does not call for any action that would penalize or constrain one sex or the other Many psychological traits relevant to the public sphere such as general intelligence are the same on average for men and women and virtually all psychological traits may be found in varying degrees among the members each sex No sex difference yet discovered applies to every last man compared with every last woman so generalizations about a sex will always be untrue many individuals And notions like “proper role” and “natural place” are scientifically meaningless and give no grounds for restricting freedom. The point of this chapter is that these claims are not vindications of the doctrine of the Blank Slate but products of the Blank Slate Many people (including a few scientists) have selectively read the evidence sometimes in bizarre ways to fit with a prior belief that the mind cannot possibly have any innate structure or with simplistic notions of how innate structure if it did exist would be encoded in the genes and develop in. Reciprocity can also be indirect if information about previous interactions is shared Reputation allows evolution cooperation by indirect reciprocity Natural selection favors strategies that base the decision to help on the reputation the recipient: studies show that people who are more helpful are more likely to receive help The calculations indirect reciprocity are complicated and only a tiny fraction this universe has been uncovered but again a simple rule has emerged.[113] Indirect reciprocity can only promote cooperation if the probability q knowing someone’s reputation exceeds the cost-to-benefit ratio the altruistic act: • the primacy family ties in all human societies and the consequent appeal nepotism and • The limited scope communal sharing in human groups the more common ethos reciprocity and the resulting phenomena social loafing and the collapse contributions to public goods when reciprocity cannot be • The universality dominance and violence across human societies (including supposedly peaceable hunter-gatherers) and the existence genetic and neurological mechanisms that underlie       neuroscience and 41–45  {502}        see also dualism; Ghost in the Machine; soul Minogue Kenneth 170 Minsky Marvin 80 “Misbehavior Organisms The” (Breland and Breland) 20 Mismeasure Man The (Gould) 149 The violence-not-sex slogan is right about two things Both parts are absolutely true for the victim: a woman who is raped experiences it as a violent assault not as a sexual act And the part about violence is true for the perpetrator by : if there is no violence or coercion we do not call it rape But the fact that rape has something to do with violence does not mean it has nothing to do with sex any more than the fact that armed robbery has something to do with violence means it has nothing to do with greed Evil men may use violence to get sex just as they use violence to get other things.       human nature as seen in 256 285–86 302–3       intuitive 221 233–36 302–3 Throughout history a number different ways representing language in graphic media have been invented These are called writing systems 43. blum 1997; Geary 1998; Gur & Gur in press; Gur et al 1999; Halpern 2000; Jensen 1998; Kimura 1999; Neisser et al 1996 44. Dabbs & Dabbs 2000; Geary 1998; Halpern 2000; Kimura 1999; Sapolsky 1997 45. A Sullivan “Testosterone power,” Women's Quarterly Summer 2000 46. Kimura 1999 47. Blum 1997; Gangestad & Thornhill 1998 48. Blum 1997; Geary 1998; Halpern 2000; Kimura 1999 49. Symons 1979 chap 9 50. Reiner 2000 51. Quoted in Halpern. Behavioral genetic methods do have three built-in limitations First studies twins siblings and adoptees can help explain what makes people different but they cannot explain what people have in common that is universal human nature To say that the heritability intelligence is 5 for example does not imply that half a person's intelligence is inherited (whatever that would mean); it implies only that half the variation among people is inherited Behavioral genetic studies pathological conditions such as those discussed in Chapters 3 and 4 can shed light on universal human nature but they are not relevant to the topics this chapter. “i'm overwhelmed with parenting advice,” says Alice Kelly Newton “I read all about how I'm supposed to be providing my children with enriching play experiences I'm supposed to do lots physical activity with them so I can instill in them a physical fitness habit so they'll grow up to be healthy fit adults And I'm supposed to do all kinds intellectual play so they'll grow up smart Also there are all kinds play and I'm supposed to do each — clay for finger dexterity word games for reading success large-motor play small-motor play I feel like I could devote my life to figuring out what to play with my kids.”  {383}  Because all languages have a very large number words no purely logographic scripts are known to exist Written language represents the way spoken sounds and words follow one after another by arranging symbols according to a pattern that follows a certain direction The direction used in a writing system is entirely arbitrary and established by convention Some writing systems use the horizontal axis (left to right as the Latin script or right to left as the Arabic script) while others such as traditional Chinese writing use the vertical dimension (from top to bottom) A few writing systems use opposite directions for alternating lines and others such as the ancient Maya script can be written in either direction and rely on graphic cues to show the reader the direction reading.[71] Lee Y.–T Jussim L J & McCauley C R (Eds.) 1995 Stereotype accuracy: Toward appreciating group differences Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association Lehman D 1992 Signs the times: Deconstructionism and the fall Paul deMan New York: Simon & Schuster Lehrman K 1997 The lipstick proviso: Women sex and power in the real world New York: Double–day Leibniz G.W 1768/1996 New essays on human understanding New York: Cambridge University Press Lerdahl F & Jackendf R 1983 A generative theory tonal music Cambridge Mass.:. When endeavouring to solve a problem humans at an early age show determination while chimpanzees have no comparable facial expression Researchers suspect the human determined expression evolved because when a human is determinedly working on a problem other people will frequently help.[125] Herrnstein Richard viii 106 146–47 302 Hillel 193 Hillenbrand Lynne 358 Himmelfarb Gertrude 130 Hinduism 272 Hines Melissa 342 Hirshleifer. If there is one indisputable fact about the human condition it is that no community can survive if it is persuaded — or even if it suspects — that its members are leading meaningless lives in a meaningless He spells out the moral corollary: There are different kinds truths for different kinds people There are truths appropriate for children; truths that are appropriate for students; truths that are appropriate for educated adults; and truths that are appropriate for highly educated adults and the notion that there should be one set truths available to everyone is a modern democratic fallacy It doesn't Nikolaas Tinbergen's four categories questions can help to clarify the distinctions between several different but complementary types explanations.[12] Evolutionary psychology focuses primarily on the "why?" questions while traditional psychology focuses on the "how?" questions.[13]       violence and 315 323 ethnocentrism. Scandinavia 16 47 71 315 Scarr Sandra 381 Scarry Elaine 417 Schelling Thomas 322 schizophrenia 45–46 215 Schlesinger. Lewontin Rose and Kamin do make one concession to biology — not to the organization the mind and brain but to the size the body “Were human beings only six inches tall there could be no human culture at all as we understand it,” they note because a Lilliputian could not control fire break rocks with a pick-axe or carry a brain big enough to support language It is their only acknowledgment the possibility that human biology affects human social life. • contrary to popular belief parents in contemporary America do not treat their sons and daughters very A recent assessment 172 studies involving 28,000 children found that boys and girls are given similar amounts encouragement warmth nurturance restrictiveness discipline and clarity communication The only substantial difference was that about two-thirds the boys were discouraged from playing with dolls especially by their fathers out a fear that they would become gay (Boys who prefer girls’ toys ten do turn out gay but forbidding them the toys does not change the outcome.) Nor do differences between boys and girls depend on their observing masculine behavior in their fathers and feminine behavior in their mothers When Hunter has two mommies he acts just as much like a boy as if he had a mommy and. So much for genetic determinism What about “reductionism” (a concept we examined in Chapter 4) and the claim that Dawkins is “the most reductionist sociobiologists,” one who believes that every trait has its own gene? Lewontin Rose and Kamin try to educate their readers on how living things really work according to their alternative to reductionism which they call “dialectical biology": Think for example the baking a cake: the taste the product is the result a complex interaction components — such as butter sugar and flour — exposed for various periods to elevated temperatures; it is not dissociable into such-or-such a percent flour such-or-such butter etc although each and every component has its contribution to make to. 43. dutton 2001 p 213 44. Dutton 1998; Komar Melamid & Wypijewski 1997 45. Dissanayake 1998 46. Dutton 1998 47. Lingua Franca 2000 48. Turner 1997 pp 170 174–175 49. Etcf 1999; Kaplan 1992; Orians & Heerwgen 1992 50. Leslie 1994; Schellenberg & Trehub 1996; Storey 1996; Zentner & Kagan 1996 51. Martindale 1990 52. Steiner 2001 53. Quoted in Dutton 2000. W.d Hamilton's (1964) papers on inclusive fitness and Robert Trivers's (1972)[20] theories on reciprocity and parental investment helped to establish evolutionary thinking in psychology and the other social sciences In 1975 Edward O Wilson combined evolutionary theory with studies animal and social behavior building on the works Lorenz and Tinbergen in his book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis Levins Richard 126 Levi–Strauss Claude 285 Levy Jerre 342 Lewinsky Monica 211 For all his emphasis on culture Boas was not a relativist who believed that all cultures are equivalent nor was he an empiricist who believed in the Blank Slate He considered European civilization superior to tribal cultures insisting only that all peoples were capable achieving it He did not deny that there might be a universal human nature or that there might be differences among people within an ethnic group What mattered to him was the idea that all ethnic groups are endowed with the same basic mental Boas was right about this and today it is accepted by virtually all scholars and scientists. ~ NOT EVERYONE IS so accepting fate or the other forces beyond a parent's control like genes and peers “I hope to God this isn't true,” one mother said to the Chicago Tribune “The thought that all this love that I'm pouring into him counts for nothing is too terrible to contemplate.”71 As with other discoveries about human nature people hope to God it isn't true But the truth doesn't care about our hopes and sometimes it can force us to revisit those hopes in a liberating way.       limits 239       modules 39–41 101 123 166 219–22       theory see theory mind       universal mechanisms in 37–39 54. c Darwent “Art staying pretty,” New Statesman February 13,2000 55. Steiner 2001 56. Bell 1992 57. The Onion 36 September 21–27 2000 p 1 58. Wolfe 1975 pp 2–4 59. J Miller “Is bad writing necessary? George Orwell Theodor Adorno and the politics language,” Lingua Franca December/January 2000 60.  /aldaily 61. Steiner 1967 preface 62. New York Times September 19,2001. Yanomamö men who have killed tend to have more wives which they have acquired either by abducting them from raiding villages or by the usual alliances in which they are considered more attractive as mates The same is true Jivaro war leaders who might have four to six wives; as a matter fact a great war leader on the Upano River in the 1930s by the name Tuki or Jose Grande had eleven wives Distinguished warriors also have more fspring due mainly to their greater marital Environmental determinism is so common that a genre satire has grown around it In a New Yorker cartoon a woman on a witness stand says “True my husband beat me because his childhood; but I murdered him because mine.” In the comic strip Non Sequitur the directory a mental health clinic reads: “1st Floor: Mother's Fault 2nd Floor: Father's Fault 3rd Floor: Society's Fault.” And who can forget the Jets in West Side Story who imagined explaining to the local police sergeant “We're depraved on accounta we're deprived”?   Dear kindly Sergeant Krupke You gotta understand It's just our bringin’ up-ke That gets us out hand Our mothers all are junkies Our fathers all are drunks Golly Moses natcherly we're punks! Ghost in the Machine 9 11 28–29 31 133 224 243 293       determinism and 174 175–76       stepparenting 164–65 Parsons Talcott 285 286 Pascal Blaise 419 Passmore John 159 Pasteur Louis 154 Patai Daphne 342 Paul Elizabeth 253 I like to read the verse as suggesting that the mind in contemplating its place in the cosmos at some point reaches its own limitations and runs into puzzles that seem to belong in a separate divine realm Free will and subjective experience for example are alien to our concept causation and feel like a divine spark inside us Morality and meaning seem to inhere in a reality that exists independent our judgments But that separateness may be the illusion a brain that makes it impossible for us not to think they are separate from us Ultimately we have no way knowing because we are our brains and have no way stepping outside them to check But if we are thereby trapped it is a trap that we can hardly bemoan for it is wider than the sky deeper than the sea and perhaps as weighty. Laframboise Donna 342 laissez–faire economics 303 Landers. But they don't Remember the discoveries behind the Second Law Siblings reared together end up no more similar than siblings separated at birth Adopted siblings are no more similar than strangers And the similarities between siblings can be completely accounted for by their shared genes All those differences among parents and homes have no predictable long-term effects on the personalities their children Not to put too fine a point on it but much the advice from the parenting experts is flapdoodle. The Handicapper General enforces equality by neutralizing any inherited (hence undeserved) asset Intelligent people have to wear radios in their ears tuned to a government transmitter that sends out a sharp noise every twenty seconds (such as the sound a milk bottle struck with a ball-peen hammer) to prevent them from taking unfair advantage their brains Ballerinas are laden with bags birdshot and their faces are hidden by masks so that no one can feel bad at seeing someone prettier or more graceful than they Newscasters are selected for their speech impediments The hero the story is a multiply gifted teenager forced to wear headphones thick wavy glasses three hundred pounds scrap iron and black caps on half his teeth The story is about his ill-fated rebellion. What are the implications the fact that many stereotypes are statistically accurate? One is that contemporary scientific research on sex differences cannot be dismissed just because some the findings are consistent with traditional stereotypes men and women Some parts those stereotypes may be false but the mere fact that they are stereotypes does not prove that they are false in every respect. Mcelroy responded: “The answer is a clear and simple ‘yes.’ One needs scientific methodology to verify any empirical claim.” And she called attention to the consequences Brownmiller's attitude: “One the casualties the new dogma on rape has been research It is no longer ‘sexually correct’ to conduct studies on the causes rape because — as any right-thinking person knows — there is only one cause: patriarchy Decades ago during the heyday liberal feminism and sexual curiosity the approach to research was more sophisticated.”87 McElroy's suspicions are borne out by a survey published “studies” rape that found that fewer than one in ten tested hypotheses or used scientific Lutz Catherine 38 Lyell Charles 30 Lykken David 381 McCarthy Joseph 119 McClelland James 21 35 74 McClintock Martha 342 In any case “vulgar” wasn't the half it Following a favorable review in the New York Review Books by the distinguished biologist C H Waddington the “Sociobiology Study Group” (including two Wilson's colleagues the paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould and the geneticist Richard Lewontin) published a widely circulated philippic called “Against ‘Sociobiology.'” After lumping Wilson with proponents eugenics Social Darwinism and Jensen's hypothesis innate racial differences in intelligence the signatories wrote: 43. kosslyn 1980; Kosslyn 1994; Pinker 1984b; Pinker 1997 chap 4 44. Kosslyn 1980; Pinker 1997 chap 5 45. Chase & Simon 1973 46. Dennett 1991 pp 56–57 47. A Gopnik “Black studies,” New Yorker December 5,1994 pp 138–139   Chapter 13: Out Our Depths   1. Caramazza & Shelton 1998; Gallistel 2000; Gardner 1983; Hirschfeld & Gelman 1994; Keil 1989; Pinker 1997 chap 5; Tooby & Cosmides 1992 2. Spelke 1995. • geneticists have found that the diversity the DNA in the mitochondria different people (which men and women inherit from their mothers) is far greater than the diversity the DNA in Y chromosomes (which men inherit from their fathers) This suggests that for tens millennia men had greater variation in their reproductive success than women Some men had many descendants and others had none (leaving us with a small number distinct Y chromosomes) whereas a larger number women had a more evenly distributed number descendants (leaving us with a larger number distinct mitochondrial genomes) These are precisely the conditions that cause sexual selection in which males compete for opportunities to mate and females choose the best-quality The Blank Slate became so entrenched in intellectual life that the prospect doing without it can be deeply unsettling In topics from childrearing to sexuality from natural foods to violence ideas that seemed immoral even to question turn out to be not just questionable but probably wrong Even people with no ideological ax to grind can feel a sense vertigo when they learn such taboos being broken: “O brave new world that has such people in it!” Is science leading to a place where prejudice is all right where children may be neglected where Machiavellianism is accepted where inequality and violence are met with resignation where people are treated like machines?        intelligence 47 146–47 150 297 374–75 376–78        political attitudes 47 283 Hernadi. In 1985 in the old apartheid South Africa there was a demonstration in Durban The police attacked the demonstrators with customary violence One policeman chased a black woman obviously intending to beat her with his club As she ran her shoe slipped f The brutal policeman was also a well-brought-up young Afrikaner who knew that when a woman loses her shoe you pick it up for her Their eyes met as he handed her the shoe He then left her since clubbing her was no longer an Wertheim course confused “the percentage personality that is caused by upbringing,” which is indeed meaningless with the percentage variance in personality that is caused by variation in upbringing which behavioral geneticists study all the time And scientists can show and have shown that siblings are as similar when reared apart as when reared together and that adoptive siblings are not similar at all which means that the conventional wisdom about “family dynamics” is simply wrong. The meanings the words are no help Marxists in the Soviet Union  {287}  and its aftermath were called conservatives; Reagan and Thatcher were called revolutionaries Liberals are liberal about sexual behavior but not about business practices; conservatives want to conserve communities and traditions but they also favor the free market economy that subverts them People who call themselves “classical liberals” are likely to be called “conservatives” by adherents the version leftism known as political correctness. Division labor by sex dreams dream interpretation economic inequalities economic inequalities consciousness emotions empathy entification (treating patterns and relations as things) environment adjustments to envy envy symbolic means coping with ethnocentrism etiquette explanation face (word for) facial communication facial expression anger facial expression contempt facial expression disgust facial expression fear facial expression happiness facial expression sadness facial expression surprise facial expressions masking/modifying Education 222–23 235–36 301       arts and humanities in 401  {496}  Ehrlich Paul 237 Einstein Albert 44 410 Eiseley. One possible reason is the cosmopolitan forces that work to expand people's moral circle Another may be the long-term effects living with a leviathan Today's civility in Europe after all followed centuries beheadings and public hangings and exiles to penal colonies And Canada may be more peaceable than its neighbor in part because its government outraced its people to the land Unlike the United States where settlers fanned out over a vast two-dimensional landscape with innumerable nooks and crannies the habitable portion Canada is a one-dimensional ribbon along the American border without remote frontiers and enclaves in which cultures honor could fester According to the Canadian studies scholar Desmond Morton “Our west expanded in an orderly peaceful fashion with the police arriving before the settlers.”104 Tversky A & Kahneman D 1973 Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability Cognitive Psychology 4 207–232 Tversky A & Kahneman D 1974 Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases Science 185 1124–1131 Twain M 1884/1983 Adventures Huckleberry Finn In D Voto (Ed.) The portable Mark Twain New York: Penguin Valero H & Biocca E 1965/1996 Yanodma: The story Helena Valero a girl kidnapped by Amazonian Indians New York: Kodansha Valian V 1998 Why so slow? The advancement women Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press van den Berghe P L 1981 The ethnic phenomenon Westport Conn.: Praeger. Locke's “ideas” had been replaced by “stimuli” and “responses,” but his laws association survived as laws conditioning A response can be associated with a new stimulus as when Watson presented a baby with a white rat and then clanged a hammer against an iron bar allegedly making the baby associate fear with fur And a response could be associated with a reward as when a cat in a box eventually learned that pulling a string opened a door and allowed it to escape In these cases an experimenter set up a contingency between a stimulus and another stimulus or between a response and a reward In a natural environment said the behaviorists these contingencies are part the causal texture the world and they inexorably shape the behavior organisms including humans. 69. wrangham & Peterson 1996 70. Wrangham & Peterson 1996 71. Keeley 1996 graph adapted by Ed Hagen from fig 6.2 on p 90 72. Ghiglieri 1999; Keeley 1996; Wrangham & Peterson 1996 73. Ember 1978 See also Ghiglieri 1999; Keeley 1996; Knauft 1987; Wrangham & Peterson 1996 74. Divale 1972; see Eibl-Eibesfeldt 1989 p 323 for discussion 75. Bamforth 1994; Chagnon 1996; Daly & Wilson 1988; Divale 1972; Edgerton 1992; Ember 1978; Ghiglieri 1999; Gibbons 1997; Keeley 1996; Kingdon 1993; Knauft 1987; Krech 1994; Krech 1999; Wrangham & Peterson 1996. 6. “gene count,” Science 295 2002 p 29; R Mishar “Biotech CEO says map missed much genome,” Boston Globe April 9 2001; Wright et al 2001 7. Claverie 2001; Szathmary Jordan & Pal 2001; Venter et al 2001 8. Szathmary Jordan & Pal 2001 9. Claverie 2001 10. Venter et al 2001 11. Evan Eichler quoted by G Vogel “Objection #2: Why sequence the junk?” Science 291 2001 p 1184 12. Elman et al 1996; McClelland Rumelhart & the PDP Research Group 1986; McLeod Plunkett & Rolls 1998; Pinker 1997 pp 98–111; Rumelhart McClelland & the PDP Research. 91. gordon &Riger 1991 p 47 92. Rose & Rose 2000 p 139 93. M Wertheim “Born to rape?” Salon February 29,2000 94. G Miller “Why men rape,” Evening Standard March 6,2000 p 53 95. Symons 1979; Thornhill & Palmer 2000 96. Jones 1999 See also Check & Malamuth 1985; Ellis & Beattie 1983; Symons 1979; Thornhill & Palmer 2000 97. Gottschall & Gottschall,2001 98. Jones 1999 p 890 99. Bureau Justice Statistics . /bjs. Many people are reluctant to grant technology this seemingly miraculous role A technology booster sounds too much like the earnest voiceover in a campy futuristic exhibit at the world's fair Technology may have bought us a temporary reprieve one might think but it is not a source inexhaustible magic It cannot refute the laws mathematics which pit exponential population growth against finite or at best arithmetically increasing resources Optimism would seem to require a faith that the circle can be squared. The Utopians particularly those in the radical science movement replied that current findings on human intelligence and motivation are irrelevant They can tell us only about what we have achieved in today's society not what we might achieve in tomorrow's Since we know that social arrangements can change if we decide to change them any scientist who speaks constraints on human nature must wantoppression and injustice to continue. Peers 390–92 395–96 399 Percy Walker 209 perfectability 27 159–73 Perfect Storm The (Junger) 258. Bierce Ambrose 240 Big Chill The 264 biology:       intuitive 220       reductionism and 69–72       soul concept and 224–27 biophilia 405 Mark Twain's Adventures Huckleberry Finn is an especially perilous source for lessons because it begins with the following order the author: “Persons attempting to find a motive in this narrative will be prosecuted; persons attempting to find a moral in it will be banished; persons attempting to find a plot in it will be shot.” That has not deterred a century critics from noting its dual power Huckleberry Finnshows us both the foibles the antebellum South and the foibles human nature as seen through the eyes two noble savages who sample them as they float down the Mississippi River. Another sign this faith-based approach to violence is the averred certainty that particular environmental explanations are correct We know the causes violence it is repeatedly said and we also know how to eliminate it Only a failure commitment has prevented us from doing so Remember Lyndon Johnson saying that “all us know” that the conditions that breed violence are ignorance discrimination poverty and disease A 1997 article on violence in a popular science magazine quoted a clinical geneticist who echoed LBJ: We know what causes violence in our society: poverty discrimination the failure our educational system It's not the genes that cause violence in our society It's our social The authors the article the historians Betty and Daniel Kevles agreed: 34. monaghan & Glickman 1992 35. Bourgeois Goldman-Rakic & Rakic 2000; Chalupa 2000; Geary & Huffman 2002; Katz Weliky & Crowley 2000; Rakic 2000; Rakic 2001 See also Chapter 5 36. Thompson etal 2001 37. Thompson etal 2001 38. Witelson Kigar & Harvey 1999 39. LeVay 1993 40. Davidson Putnam & Larson 2000; Raine et al 2000 41. Bouchard 1994; Hamer & Copeland 1998; Lykken 1995; Plomin 1994; Plomin et al 2001; Ridley 2000 42. Hyman 1999; Plomin 1994. Cloning 224 225–26 274 Club Rome 237 cognitive dissonance 265 294 cognitive psychology 202–3 cognitive science. Cosmides Leda 134 233 342 365 Council on Bioethics 130 Cowen Tyler 403 creationism 1–2 128–30 132–33 Revenge 53 54 180–82 322–29 428–31 Rhodes Richard 308–9 Rice Marnie.       stability and change in 66 Culture Honor (Nisbett and Cohen) 327 Dahmer Jeffrey 263 Addams Chas 46 375 Adelson Edward 199 200 adoption studies 47–48 374 376–77 379 392 Adorno Theodor 415 Cowen T 1998 In praise commercial culture Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Cowie F 1999 What's within? Nativistn reconsidered New York: Oxford University Press Crair M C Gillespie D C & Stryker M P 1998 The role visual experience in the development columns in cat visual cortex Science 279 566–570 Cramer K S & Sur M 1995 Activity–dependent remodeling connections in the mammalian visual system Current Opinion in Neurobiology 5 106–111 Crawford C & Krebs D L (Eds.) 1998 Handbook evolutionary psychology: Ideas issues and applications Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Crevier D 1993 Ah The tumultuous history the search for artificial intelligence New York:. It is course understandable that people are squeamish about acknowledging the violence pre-state societies For centuries the stereotype the  {58}  savage savage was used as a pretext to wipe out indigenous peoples and steal their lands But surely it is unnecessary to paint a false picture a people as peaceable and ecologically conscientious in order to condemn the great crimes against them as if genocide were wrong only when the victims are. Buruma Ian 280 Bush George W 12 130 274 Buss David 316 Butler Judith 415 416 Byatt A.S 419 Calvin and Hobbes 187 Donald Symons has argued that we have genetic conflict to thank for the fact that we have feelings toward other people at Consciousness is a manifestation the neural computations necessary to figure out how to get the rare and unpredictable things we need We feel hunger savor food and have a palate for countless fascinating tastes because food was hard to get during most our evolutionary history We don't normally feel longing delight or fascination regarding oxygen even though it is crucial for survival because it was never hard to obtain We just breathe. Just as the value something may change with time which creates a niche for lenders who move valuable things around in time so it may change with space which creates a niche for middlemen who move valuable things around in space A banana is worth more to me in a store down the street than it is in a warehouse a hundred miles away so I am willing to pay more to the grocer than I would to the importer — even though by “eliminating the middleman” I could pay less per banana For similar reasons the importer is willing to charge the grocer less than he would charge me. 8. baldwin 1991 9. Carpenter Akhtar & Tomasello 1998 10. Meltzf 1995 11. Pinker 1994; Pinker 1996; Pinker 1999 12. Campbell & Fairey 1989; Frank 1985; Kelman 1958; Latane & Nida 1981 13. Deutsch & Gerard 1955 14. Harris 1985 15. Cronk 1999; Cronk Chagnon & Irons 2000  {444}  16. Pinker 1999 chap 10 17. Searle 1995 18. Sperber 1985; Sperber 1994. Gallistel C R 1990 The organization learning Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press  {470}  Gallistel C R (Ed.) 1992 Animal cognition Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Gallistel C R 2000 The replacement general–purpose theories with adaptive specializations In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Gangestad S & Thornhill R 1998 Menstrual cycle variation in women's preferences for the scent symmetrical men Proceedings the Royal Society London B 265 927–933 Gardner H 1983 Frames mind: The theory multiple intelligences New York: Basic Books Gardner H 1985 The mind's new science: A history the cognitive revolution New York:. Over the objections prison psychiatrists who saw that Abbott had psychopath written all over his face Mailer and other New York literati helped him win an early parole Abbott was soon feted at literary dinners likened to Solzhenitsyn and Jacobo Timerman and interviewed on Good Morning America and in People magazine Two weeks later he got into an argument with an aspiring young playwright who was working as a waiter in a restaurant and had asked Abbott not to use the employees’ restroom Abbott asked him to step outside stabbed him in the chest and left him to bleed to death. Mead M 1935/1963 Sex and temperament in three primitive societies New York: William Morrow Mealey L 1995 The sociobiology sociopathy: An integrated evolutionary model Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 523–541 Mealey L Daood C & Krage M 1996 Enhanced memory for faces cheaters Ethology and Sociobiology 17 119–128 Meltzf A N 1995 Understanding the intentions others: Re–enactment intended acts by 18–month–old children Developmental Psychology 31 838–850 Melzack R 1990 Phantom limbs and the concept a neuromatrix Trends in Neurosciences 13 88–92 Melzack R Israel R Lacroix R & Schultz G 1997 Phantom limbs in people with congenital limb deficiency or amputation in early childhood Brain 120 1603–1620. Check J V P & Malamuth N 1985 An empirical assessment some feminist hypotheses about rape International Journal Women's Studies 8 414–423 Chirot D 1994 Modern tyrants Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press Chomsky N 1970 Language and freedom Abraxas 1 9–24 Chomsky N 1973 Psychology and ideology In N Chomsky (Ed.) For reasons state New York: Vintage Chomsky N 1975 Reflections on language New York: Pantheon Chomsky N 1980 Rules and representations New York: Columbia University Press Chomsky N 1988a Language and politics Montreal: Black Rose Books Chomsky N 1988b Language and problems knowledge: The Managua lectures Cambridge Mass.:. Postrel Virginia 342 Poussaint Alvin 107 Pratto Felicia 342   KNOW THYSELF   The “prominent biologists” that Trivers had in mind were Gould and Lewontin and together with the British neuroscientist Steven Rose they became the intellectual vanguard the radical science movement For twenty-five years they have indefatigably fought a rearguard battle against behavioral genetics sociobiology (and later evolutionary psychology) and the neuro-science politically sensitive topics such as sex differences and mental  {112}  Other than Wilson the major target their attacks has been Richard Dawkins In his 1976 book The Selfish Gene Dawkins covered many the same ideas as Wilson but concentrated on the logic the new evolutionary theories rather than the zoological details He said almost nothing about humans. The Judeo-Christian theory is based on events narrated in the Bible We know that the human mind has nothing in common with the minds animals because the Bible says that humans were created separately We know that the design women is based on the design men because in the second telling the creation women Eve was fashioned from the rib Adam Human decisions cannot be the inevitable effects some cause we may surmise because God held Adam and Eve responsible for eating the fruit the tree knowledge implying that they could have chosen otherwise Women are dominated by men as punishment for Eve's disobedience and men and women inherit the sinfulness the first couple. South Africa 321 Southerners 328 428–31 The second development is that an acknowledgment human nature can no longer be associated with the political right Once the Utopian Vision is laid to rest the field political positions is wide open The Tragic Vision after all has not been vindicated in anything like its most lugubrious form For all its selfishness the human mind is equipped with a moral sense whose circle application has expanded steadily and might continue to expand as more the world becomes interdependent And for all its limitations human cognition is an open-ended combinatorial system which in principle can increase its mastery over human affairs just as it has increased its mastery the physical and living worlds. The mentality is foreign to those us who can get Leviathan to show up by dialing 911 but that option is not always available It was not available to people in pre-state societies or on the frontier in the Appalachians or the Wild West or in the remote highlands Scotland the Balkans or Indochina It is not available to people who are unwilling to bring in the police because the  {327}  nature their work such as Prohibition rum-runners inner-city drug dealers and Mafia wise guys And it is not available to nation-states in their dealings with one another Daly and Wilson comment on the mentality that applies in all these arenas: Lifelines: Biology Beyond Determinism (Rose) 115 Limits Family Influence The (Rowe) 381 Lincoln Abraham 145–46 Linguistic Determinism hypothesis 207–8 Bowles S & Gintis H 1998 Is equality passe? Homo reciprocans and the future of egalitarian politics Boston Review Bowles S & Gintis H 1999 Recasting egalitarianism: New rules for communities states and markets New York: Verso Boyd B 1998 Jane meet Charles: Literature evolution and human nature Philosophy and Literature 22 1–30 Boyd R & Richerson P 1985 Culture and the evolutionary process Chicago: University of Chicago Press Boyd R & Silk J R 1996 How humans evolved New York: Norton Boyer P 1994 Cognitive constraints on cultural representations: Natural ontologies and religious ideas In L A Hirschfeld & S A Gelman (Eds.) Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture New York: Cambridge University Press. In a few pressions differences in ability may play some role The fact that  {356}  more men than women have exceptional abilities in mathematical reasoning and in mentally manipulating 3-D objects is enough to explain a departure from a fifty-fifty sex ratio among engineers physicists organic chemists and pressors in some branches mathematics (though course it does not mean that the proportion women should be anywhere. War is in fact the true nurse executive aggrandizement In war a physical force is created and it is the executive will to direct it In war the public treasures are to be unlocked and it is the executive hand which is to dispense them In war the honors and emoluments fice are to be  {298}  multiplied; and it is the executive patronage under which they are to be enjoyed It is in war finally that laurels are to be gathered and it is the executive brow they are to encircle The strongest passions and the most dangerous weakness the human breast — ambition avarice vanity the honorable or venial love fame — are all in conspiracy against the desire.       interests 172 337–38 357–59 361 363 365 370–71       Taliban. • the biases the human moral sense including a preference for kin and friends a susceptibility to a taboo mentality and a tendency to confuse morality with conformity rank cleanliness and It is not just conventional scientific data that tell us the mind is not infinitely malleable I think it is no coincidence that beliefs that were common among intellectuals in the 1960s — that democracies are obsolete revolution is desirable the police and armed forces dispensable and society designable from the top down — are now rarer The Tragic Vision and the Utopian Vision inspired historical events whose interpretations are much clearer than they were just a few decades ago Those events can serve as additional data to test the visions’ claims about human psychology  {295}  This general idea may be called the computational theory mind It is not the same as the “computer metaphor” the mind the suggestion that the mind literally works like a human-made database computer program or thermostat It says only that we can explain minds and human-made information processors using some the same principles It is just like other cases in which the natural world and human engineering overlap A physiologist might invoke the same laws optics to explain how the eye works and how a camera works without implying that the eye is like a camera in every detail. In any case Harris drew even more venom from the political right The columnist John Leo called her theory “stupid,” ridiculed her lack a Ph.D and a university affiliation and compared her to deniers the Holocaust He ended his column “It's not time to celebrate a foolish book that justifies self-absorption and makes non-parenting a respectable mainstream activity.”61 More generally social scientists saw the malleability humans and the autonomy culture as doctrines that might bring about the age-old dream perfecting mankind We are not stuck with what we don't like about our current predicament they argued Nothing prevents us from changing it except a lack will and the benighted belief that we are permanently consigned to it by biology Many social scientists have expressed the hope a new and improved human nature: I felt (and said so early) that the environmental explanation was preferable whenever justified by the data because it was more optimistic holding out the hope improvement — Otto Klineberg (1928)47       intelligence and 47 106–7 149 150 373–78       language and 48 49       mental illness. Richard Dawkins showed that a good way to understand the logic natural selection is to imagine that genes are agents with selfish motives No one should begrudge him the metaphor but it contains a trap for the unwary The genes have metaphorical motives — making copies themselves — and the organisms they design have real motives But they are not the same motives Sometimes the most selfish thing a gene can do is wire unselfish motives into a human brain — heartfelt unstinting deep-in-the-marrow unselfishness The love children (who carry one's genes into posterity) a faithful spouse (whose genetic fate is identical to one's own) and friends and allies (who trust you if you're trustworthy) can be bottomless and unimpeachable as far as we humans are concerned (proximate level) even if it is metaphorically self-serving as far as the genes are concerned (ultimate level). The doctrine the superorganism has had an impact on modern life that extends well beyond the writings social scientists It underlies the tendency to reify “society” as a moral agent that can be blamed for sins as if it were a person It drives identity politics in which civil rights and political perquisites are allocated to groups rather than to individuals And as we shall see in later chapters it defined some the great divides between major political systems in the twentieth century ~ The new realization that government-sponsored mass murder can come from an anti- belief system as easily as from an one upends the postwar understanding that biological approaches to behavior are uniquely  {157}  sinister An accurate appraisal the cause state genocides must look for beliefs common to Nazism and Marxism that launched them on their parallel trajectories and for the beliefs specific to Marxism that led to the unique atrocities committed in its name A new wave historians and philosophers is doing exactly In the Tragic Vision humans are inherently limited in knowledge wisdom and virtue and all social arrangements must acknowledge those limits “Mortal things suit mortals best,” wrote Pindar; “from the crooked timber humanity no truly straight thing can be made,” wrote Kant The Tragic Vision is associated with Hobbes Burke Smith Alexander Hamilton James Madison the jurist Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr the economists Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman the philosophers Isaiah Berlin and Karl Popper and the legal scholar Richard Posner. Wells H.G 153 Wertheim Margaret 366 393 West John 129 West Side Story 179 White Leslie 25 26 Whitney Museum. Kaplan H Hill K & Hurtado A M 1990 Risk foraging and food sharing among the Ache In E Cashdan (Ed.) Risk and uncertainty in tribal and peasant economies Boulder Colo.: Westview Press Kaplan J 1973 Criminal justice: Introductory cases and materials Mineola N.Y.: The Foundation Press Kaplan S 1992 Environmental preference in a knowledge–seeking knowledge–using organism In J H Barkow L Cosmides & J Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture New York: Oxford University Press Karmiloff–Smith A 1992 Beyond modularity: A developmental perspective on cognitive science Cambridge Mass.:. Sometimes all sides really do see that they would be better f beating their swords into plowshares Scholars such as John Keegan and Donald Horowitz have noted a general decline in the taste for violence as a means settling disputes within most Western democracies in the last half- Civil wars corporal and capital punishment deadly ethnic riots and foreign wars requiring face-to-face killing have declined or vanished And as I have mentioned though some decades in recent centuries have been more violent than others the overall trend in crime has been downward. 74. abbott 2001; Aiken 1998; Cooke & Turner 1999; Dissanayake 1992; Etcf 1999; Kaplan 1992; Orians & Heerwgen 1992; Thornhill 1998 75. Teuber 1997 76. Behrens 1998 77. Quoted in Storey 1996 p 182 78. A S Byatt “Narrate or die,” New York Times Magazine April 18,1999 pp 105–107 79. John Updike “The tried and the treowe,” Forbes ASAP October 2,2000 pp 201,215 80. Storey 1996 p 114 PART VI: THE VOICE THE SPECIES 1. Degler. Tetlock P E 1999 Coping with tradefs: Psychological constraints and political implications In A Lupia M McCubbins & S Popkin (Eds.) Political reasoning and choice Berkeley: University California Press Tetlock P E Kristel O V Elson B Green M C & Lerner J 2000 The psychology the unthinkable: Taboo tradefs forbidden base rates and heretical counterfactuals Journal Personality and Social Psychology 78 853–870 Teuber M 1997 Gertrude Stein William James and Pablo Picasso's Cubism In W G Bringmann H E Luck R Miller & C E Early (Eds.) A pictorial history psychology Chicago: Quintessence Publishing Thaler R H 1994 The winner's curse Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press  {487}  The idea that stereotypes are inherently irrational owes more to a condescension toward ordinary people than it does to good psychological research Many researchers having shown that stereotypes existed in the minds their subjects assumed that the stereotypes had to be irrational because they were uncomfortable with the possibility that some trait might be statistically true some group They never actually checked That began to change in the 1980s and now a fair amount is known about the accuracy 63. by the sculptor Janine Antoni; G Beauchamp “Dissing the middle class: The view from Burns Park,” American Scholar Summer 1995 pp 335–349 64. K Limaye “Adieu to the Avant-Garde,” Reason July 1997 65. K Limaye “Adieu to the Avant-Garde,” Reason July 1997 66. C Darwent “Art staying pretty,” New Statesman Febru; C Lambert “The stirring sleeping beauty,” Harvard Magazine September–October 1999 pp 46—53; K Limaye “Adieu to the Avant-Garde,” Reason July 1997; A Delbanco,"The decline and fall literature,” New York Review Books November 4 1999; Perlf 1999; Turner 1985; Turner 1995. Enemies A Love Story (Singer) 431–34 Engels Friedrich 126 127 155 255 engineering intuitive 220 English language 14–15 37–38 71 Gazzaniga M S Ivry R B & Mangun G R 1998 Cognitive neuroscience: The biology the mind New York: Norton Geary D C 1994 Children's mathematical development Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association Geary D C 1995 Reflections on evolution and culture in children's cognition American Psychologist 50 24–37 Geary D C 1998 Male female: The evolution human sex differences Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association Geary D C In press Principles evolutionary educational psychology Learning and Individual Differences Geary D C & Huffman K J 2002 Brain and cognitive evolution: Forms modularity and functions mind Psychological Bulletin. Gould S J 1995 Ordering nature by budding and full–breasted sexuality In Dinosaur in a haystack New York: Harmony Books Gould S.J 1998a The Diet Worms and the defenestration Prague In Leonardo's mountain clams and the Diet Worms: Essays in natural history New York: Harmony Books Gould S J 1998b The great asymmetry Science 279 812–813 Grant J 1993 Fundamental feminism: Contesting the core concepts feminist theory New York: Routledge Graves D E 1992 “Naked truths for the asking”: Twentieth–century military historians and the battlefield narrative In D A Charters M Milner & J B Wilson (Eds.) Military history and the military pression Westport Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group. It's not that expectations from past experience are irrelevant to perception But their influence is to make our perceptual systems more accurate not more arbitrary In the two words below we perceive the same shape as an “H” in the first word and as an “A” in the second:5     We see the shapes that way because experience tells us — correctly — that the odds are high that there really is an “H” in the middle the first word and an “A” in the middle the second even if that is not true in an atypical case The mechanisms perception go to a lot trouble to ensure that what we see corresponds to what is usually. Skinner B F 1948/1976 Walden Two New York: Macmillan Skinner B F 1971 Beyond freedom and dignity New York: Knopf Skinner B F 1974 About behaviorism New York: Knopf Skuse D H James R S Bishop D V M Coppin B Dalton P Aamodt–Leeper G Bacarar– Hamilton M Cresswell C McGurk R & Jacobs P A 1997 Evidence from Turner's Syndrome an imprinted X–linked locus affecting cognitive function Nature 287 705–708 Sloman S A 1996 The empirical case for two systems reasoning Psychological Bulletin 119 3–22 Slovic P Fisch B & Lichtenstein S 1982 Facts versus fears: Understanding perceived risk In D Kahneman P Slovic & A Tversky (Eds.) Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases New York: Cambridge University Press. The Brownmiller theory is appealing even to people who are not gender  {362}  feminists because the doctrine the Noble Savage Since the 1960s most educated people have come to believe that sex should be thought as natural not shameful or dirty Sex is good because sex is natural and natural things are good But rape is bad; therefore rape is not about sex The motive to rape must come from social institutions not from anything in human nature. Altruism can also evolve when organisms trade favors One helps another by grooming feeding protecting or backing him and is helped in turn when the needs reverse This is called reciprocal altruism and it can evolve when the parties recognize each other interact repeatedly can confer a large benefit on others at small cost to themselves keep a memory for favors fered or denied and are impelled to reciprocate accordingly Reciprocal altruism can evolve because cooperators do better than hermits or misanthropes They enjoy the gains trading their surpluses pulling ticks out one another's hair saving each other from drowning or starvation and baby-sitting each other's children Reciprocators can also do better over the long run than the cheaters who take favors without returning them because the reciprocators will come to recognize the cheaters and shun or punish them. The taboo on human nature has not just put blinkers on researchers but turned any discussion it into a heresy that must be stamped out Many writers are so desperate to discredit any suggestion an innate human constitution that they have thrown logic and civility out the window Elementary distinctions — “some” versus “all,” “probable” versus “always,” “is” versus “ought” — are eagerly flouted to paint human nature as an extremist doctrine and thereby steer readers away from it The analysis ideas is commonly replaced by political smears and personal attacks This poisoning the intellectual atmosphere has left us unequipped to analyze pressing issues about human nature just as new scientific discoveries are making. 13. carey 1986; Carey & Spelke 1994; Gardner 1983; Gardner 1999; Geary 1994; Geary 1995; Geary in press 14. Carey 1986; McCloskey 1983 15. Gardner 1999 16. McGuinness 1997 17. Dehaeneetal 1999 18. Bloom 1994 19. Pinker 1990 20. Carey & Spelke 1994 21. Geary 1995; Geary in press; Harris 1998a 22. Green 2001 chap 2 23. S G Stolberg “Reconsidering embryo research,” New York. The fear comes in two versions religious and secular A sophisticated version the religious concern was formulated by Pope John Paul II in a 1996 address to the Pontifical Academy Sciences “Truth Cannot Contradict Truth.”1 The Pope acknowledged that Darwin's theory evolution is “more than just a hypothesis,” because converging discoveries in many independent fields “neither sought nor fabricated,” argue in its favor But he drew the line at “the spiritual soul,” a transition in the evolution humans that amounted to an “ontological leap” unobservable by science The spirit could not have emerged “from the forces living matter,” because that cannot “ground the dignity the person": But this truism has been rejected by many sectors modern intellectual life According to the relativistic wisdom prevailing in much academia today reality is socially constructed by the use language stereotypes and media images The idea that people have access to facts about the world is naïve say the proponents social constructionism science studies cultural studies critical theory postmodernism and deconstructionism In their view observations are always infected by theories and theories are saturated with ideology and political doctrines so anyone who claims to have the facts or know the truth is just trying to exert power over everyone else. Though BEHAVIORAL GENETICISTS have known about the heritability mental traits (First Law) for decades it took a while for the absence effects the shared environment (Second Law) and the magnitude the effects the unique environment (Third Law) to sink in Robert Plomin and Denise Daniels first sounded the alarm in a 1987 article called “Why Are Children in the Same Family So Different from One Another?” The enigma was noted by other behavioral geneticists such as Thomas Bouchard Sandra Scarr and David Lykken and spotlighted again by David Rowe in his 1994 book The Limits Family Influence It was also the springboard for the historian Frank Sulloway's widely discussed 1996 book on birth order and revolutionary temperament Born to Rebel Still few people outside behavioral genetics really appreciated the importance the Second and. But because lenders and middlemen do not cause tangible objects to come into being their contributions are difficult to grasp and they are ten thought as skimmers and parasites A recurring event in human history is the outbreak ghettoization confiscation expulsion and mob violence against middlemen ten ethnic minorities who learned to specialize in the middleman The Jews in Europe are the most familiar example but the expatriate Chinese the Lebanese the Armenians and the Gujeratis and Chettyars India have suffered similar histories persecution. I am not course interested in claiming priority for the cake But what I do hope is that this little coincidence may at least give Rose and Lewontin pause Could it be that their targets are not quite the naïvely atomistic reductionists they would desperately like them to be?29 Indeed the accusation reductionism is topsy-turvy because Lewontin and Rose in their own research are card-carrying reductionist biologists who  {114}  explain phenomena at the level genes and molecules Dawkins in contrast was trained as an ethologist and writes about the behavior animals in their natural habitat Wilson for his part is a pioneer research in ecology and a passionate defender the endangered field that molecular biologists dismissively refer to as “birdsy-woodsy” biology. Guns August The (Tuchman) 324 334 Gur Batya 246 Gur Raquel 342 Gypsies 154 habit system 40 Hacking Ian 202 Hadley Robert 80 Shared arbitrary practices also help people cope with the fact that while many things in life are arranged along a continuum decisions must ten be Children do not become adults instantaneously nor do dating couples become monogamous partners Rites passage and their modern equivalent pieces paper like ID cards and licenses allow third parties to decide how to treat ambiguous cases — as a child or as an adult as committed or as available — without endless haggling over differences opinion. The politics economic inequality ultimately hinge on a tradef between economic freedom and economic equality Though scientists cannot dictate how these desiderata should be weighted they can help assess the morally relevant costs and thereby enable us to make a more informed decision Once again the psychology status and dominance has a role to play in this assessment In absolute terms today's poor are materially better f than the aristocracy just a century ago They live longer are better fed and enjoy formerly unimaginable luxuries such as central heating refrigerators telephones and round-the-clock entertainment from television and radio Conservatives say this makes it hard to argue that the station lower-income people is an ethical outrage that ought to be redressed at. Jorge LUIS BORGES's story “The Lottery in Babylon” is perhaps the best depiction the idea that culture is a set roles and symbols that mysteriously descend on passive individuals His lottery began as the familiar game in which a winning ticket was rewarded by a jackpot But to enhance the suspense the operators added a few numbers that presented the ticket holder with a fine rather than a reward They then imposed prison sentences on those who did not pay the fines and the system expanded into a variety nonmonetary punishments and rewards The lottery became free compulsory omnipotent and increasingly mysterious People began to speculate on how it worked and whether it even continued. 38. federalist Papers No 72 Rossiter 1961 p 437 39. Federalist Papers No 51 Rossiter 1961 p 322 40. Federalist Papers No 51 Rossiter 1961 pp 331–332 41. From Helvedius No 4 quoted in McGinnis 1997 p 130  {454}  42. Boehm 1999; de Waal 1998; Dunbar 1998 43. Singer 1999 p 5 44. L Arnhart M J Behe & W A Dembski “Conservatives Darwin and design: An exchange,” First Things 107 November 2000 pp 23–31 45. For arguments similar to Singer's see Brociner 2001. Rape is theorized to be a reproductive strategy that facilitates the propagation the rapist's progency Such a strategy may be adopted by men who otherwise are unlikely to be appealing to women and therefore cannot form legitimate relationships or by high status men on socially vulnerable women who are unlikely to retaliate to increase their reproductive success even further.[135] The sociobiological theories rape are highly controversial as traditional theories typically do not consider rape to be a behavioral adaptation and objections to this theory are made on ethical religious political as well as scientific grounds • the brains men differ visibly from the brains women in several Men have larger brains with more neurons (even correcting for body size) though women have a higher percentage gray matter (Since men and women are equally intelligent overall the significance these differences is unknown.) The interstitial nuclei in the anterior hypothalamus and a nucleus the stria terminalis also in the hypothalamus are larger in men; they have been implicated in sexual behavior and aggression Portions the cerebral commissures which link the left and right hemispheres appear to be larger in women and their brains may function in a less lopsided manner than men's Learning and socialization can affect the microstructure and functioning the human brain course but probably not the size its visible anatomical structures. We need better education nutrition and intervention in dysfunctional homes and in the lives abused children perhaps to the point removing them from the control their incompetent parents But such responses would be expensive and socially The creed that violence is learned behavior ten points to particular elements American culture as the cause A member a toy-monitoring group recently told a reporter “Violence is a learned behavior; Every toy is educational The question is what do you want your children to learn?”13 Media violence is another usual suspect As two public health experts recently wrote: In announcing that the nature-nurture debate is over the psychologist Eric Turkheimer was not just using the traditional mule-trainer's technique getting his subjects’ attention namely whacking them over the head with a two-by-four He was summarizing a body empirical results that are unusually robust by the standards psychology They have been replicated in many studies several countries and over four decades As the samples grew (ten to many thousands) the tools were improved and the objections were addressed the results like the Star-Spangled Banner were. Males dominate public/political realm males more aggressive males more prone to lethal violence males more prone to theft manipulate social relations marking at phonemic syntactic and lexical levels materialism meal times meaning most units are non-universal measuring medicine melody memory metaphor metonym mood- or consciousness-altering techniques and/or substances morphemes mother normally has consort during child-rearing years mourning murder proscribed music music children's music related in part. History indicts our species not just with the number killings but with the manner Hundreds millions Christians decorate their homes and adorn their bodies with a facsimile a device that inflicted an unimaginably agonizing death on people who were a nuisance to Roman politicians It is just one example the endless variations torture that the human mind has devised over the millennia many them common enough to have become words in our lexicon: to crucify to draw and quarter to flay to press to stone; the garrote the rack the stake the thumbscrew Dostoevsky's Ivan Karamazov learning the atrocities committed by the Turks in Bulgaria said “No animal could ever be so cruel as a man so artfully so artistically cruel.” The annual reports Amnesty International show that artistic cruelty is by no means a thing. When culture is seen as an entity with beliefs and desires the beliefs and desires actual people are unimportant After Timothy McVeigh blew up a federal fice building in Oklahoma City in 1995 killing 168 people the journalist Alfie Kohn ridiculed Americans who “yammer about individual responsibility” and attributed the bombing to American individualism: “We have a cultural addiction to competition in this country We're taught in classrooms and playing fields that other people are obstacles to our own success.”17 A related explanation for the bombing put the blame on American symbols such as the arrow-clutching eagle on the national seal and state mottoes including “Live Free or Die” (New Hampshire) and “With the sword we seek peace but under liberty” (Massachusetts).18 Similarly Wilson was accused believing that people are locked into castes determined by their race class sex and individual genome But in fact he had written that “there is little evidence any hereditary solidification status”14 and that “human populations are not very different from one another genetically.”15 Moreover: Human societies have effloresced to levels extreme complexity because their members have the intelligence and flexibility to play roles virtually any degree specification and to switch them as the occasion demands Modern man is an actor many parts who may well be stretched to his limit by the constantly shifting demands the 3. bamforth 1994; Chagnon 1996; Daly & Wilson 1988; Ember 1978; Ghiglieri 1999; Gibbons 1997; Keeley 1996; Kingdon 1993; Knauft 1987; Krech 1994; Krech 1999; Wrangham & Peterson 1996 4. Keeley 1996; Walker 2001 5. Gibbons 1997; Holden 2000 6. Fernandez-Jalvo et al 1996 7. FBI Uniform Crime Reports 1999: .gov/ucr 8. Seville 1990 9. Ortega y Gasset 1932/1985 epilogue 10. New York. Jumpers (Stoppard) 321–22 Junger Sebastian 258 junk DNA 78 Just Society 286 Kagan Jerome 394–95 Kahneman Daniel 302 Discrimination 141 145–49 201–2 204–7 214 217 311–12       age 148 The shared features languages which belong to the same typological class type may have arisen completely independently Their co-occurrence might be due to universal laws governing the structure natural languages "language universals" or they might be the result languages evolving convergent solutions to the recurring communicative problems that humans use language. None this implies that people are dunces or that “experts” should ram unwanted technologies down their throats Even with a complete understanding the risks reasonable people might choose to forgo certain technological advances If something is viscerally revolting a democracy should allow people to reject it whether or not it is “rational” by some criterion that ignores our psychology Many people would reject vegetables grown in sanitized human waste and would avoid an elevator with a glass floor not because they believe these things are dangerous but because the thought gives them the willies If they have the same reaction to eating genetically modified foods or living next to a nuclear power plant they should have the option rejecting them too as long as they do not try to force their preferences on others or saddle them with the costs  {233}  Muller Hermann 153 Murdoch Iris 343 418–19 Murdock George 24 Murray Charles. Gilbert D T & Hixon J G 1991 The trouble thinking: Activation and application stereo–typic beliefs Journal Personality and Social Psychology 60 509–517 Gilligan C 1982 In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Gintis H 2000 Strong reciprocity and human sociality Journal Theoretical Biology 206 169–179 Glendon M A 2001 A world made new: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration Human Rights New York: Random House Glover J 1977 Causing death and saving lives London: Penguin Glover J 1999 Humanity: A moral history the twentieth century London: Jonathan Cape  {471}  Kamin Leon 112 113 114 122–23 126 378 Kaminer. 22. hunt 1999 pp 50–51 23. Plomin & Daniels 1987; Plomin et al 2001 24. Bouchard 1994; Harris 1998a; Plomin & Daniels 1987; Rowe 1994; Turkheimer & Waldron 2000 An example a nonreplicated finding is the recent claim by Krueger Hicks & McGue 2001 that altruism is affected by the shared environment which is contradicted by a study by Rushton et al 1986 which used similar methods and a larger sample 25. Stoolmiller 2000 26. Bouchard et al 1990; Plomin & Daniels 1987; Reiss et al 2000; Rowe 1994 27. Plomin 1991; Plomin & Daniels 1987 p 6; Plominetal 2001  {458}  Would that it were so! This theory is a fine example the moralistic fallacy: it would be so nice if the idea were true that we should all believe that it is true The problem is that it is not true History has shown that plenty healthy rational people can bring themselves to injure others and destroy property because tragically an individual's interests sometimes are served by hurting others (especially if criminal penalties for hurting others are eliminated an irony that Clark seems to have missed) Conflicts interest are inherent to the human condition and as Martin Daly and Margo Wilson point out “Killing one's adversary is the ultimate conflict resolution technique.”31 The same may be true conflicts over kin mates and friends I mentioned that if a couple were guaranteed to be faithful to favor each other over their kin and to die at the same time their genetic interests would be identical wrapped up in their common children One can even imagine a species in which every couple was marooned on an island for life and their fspring dispersed at maturity never to return Since the genetic interests the two mates are identical one might at first think that evolution would endow them with a blissful perfection sexual romantic and companionate love. Coalitional psychology is an approach to explain political behaviors between different coalitions and the conditionality these behaviors in evolutionary psychological perspective This approach assumes that since human beings appeared on the earth they have evolved to live in groups instead living as individuals to achieve benefits such as more mating opportunities and increased status.[138] Human beings thus naturally think and act in a way that manages and negotiates group dynamics Sperber D 1994 The modularity thought and the epidemiology representations In L Hirschfeld & S Gelman (Eds.) Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture New York: Cambridge University Press Spiller R J 1988 S L A Marshall and the ratio fire RUSI Journal 133 Sponsel L 1996 The natural history peace: The positive view human nature and its potential In T Gregor (Ed.) A natural history peace Nashville Tenn.: Vanderbilt University Press Sponsel L 1998 Yanomami: An area conflict and aggression in the Amazon Aggressive Behavior 24 97–122  {486}  The religious right is discomfited not just by evolution but by neuro-science By exorcising the ghost in the machine brain science is undermining two moral doctrines that depend on it One is that every person has a soul which finds value exercises free will and is responsible for its choices If behavior is controlled instead by circuits in the brain that follow the laws chemistry choice and value would be myths and the possibility moral responsibility would evaporate As the creationist advocate John West put it “If human beings (and their beliefs) really are the mindless products their material existence then everything that gives meaning to human life — religion morality beauty — is revealed to be without objective basis.”30 43. c Holden “Darwin's brush with racism,” Science 292 2001 p 1295 Resolution HLS 01-2652 Regular Session 2001 House Concurrent Resolution No 74 by Representative Broome 44. R Wright “The accidental creationist,” New Yorker Decem Similarly the creationist Discovery Institute used Lewontin's attacks on evolutionary psychology to help criticize the 2001 PBS television documentary series “Evolution,” 45. Rose 1978 46. T Wolfe “Sorry but your soul just died,” Forbes ASAP December 2 1996; reprinted in slightly different form in Wolfe 2000 47. Gould 1976b. • many the sex differences are found widely in other primates indeed throughout the mammalian The males tend to compete more aggressively and to be more polygamous; the females tend to invest more in  {347}  parenting In many mammals a greater territorial range is accompanied by an enhanced ability to navigate using the geometry the spatial layout (as opposed to remembering individual landmarks) More ten it is the male who has the greater range and that is true human hunter-gatherers Men's advantage in using mental maps and performing 3-D mental rotation may not. Sapir Edward 207–8 Sargent John Singer 160 Sarich Vincent 144 Sartre Jean–Paul 180 Satel Sally 342 370 Saturday Night Live 343 Saving Private. Horowitz Donald 333 How the Mind Works (Pinker) 80 393  {499}  Hrdy Sarah Blaffer 250 342 Hubel David 97 108 Huckleberry Finn The Adventures of (Twain) 428–31 As the science writer Ronald Bailey observes “Ironically today many modern conservatives fervently agree with Karl Marx that religion is ‘the opium the people'; they add a heartfelt ‘Thank God!’ “37 Many conservative intellectuals join fundamentalist Christians in deploring neuroscience and evolutionary psychology which they see as explaining away the soul eternal values and free choice Kass writes: 28. curtiss de Bode & Shields 2000; Stromswold 2000 29. Catalano & Shatz 1998; Crair Gillespie & Stryker 1998; Katz & Shatz 1996; Miller Keller &Stryker 1989 30. Sharma Angelucci & Sur 2000; Sur 1988; Sur Angelucci & Sharma 1999 31. For related arguments see Geary & Huffman 2002; Katz & Crowley 2002; Katz & Shatz 1996; Katz Weliky & Crowley 2000; Marcus 2001b 32. R Restak “Rewiring” (Review The talking cure by S C Vaughan) New York Times Book Review J pp 14–15 33. D Milmore,” ‘Wiring’ the brain for life,” Boston Globe November 2 1997 pp N5–N8. 6. aaron by Harold Cohen G Johnson “The artist's angst is all in your head,” New York Times November 16,1997 p 16 7. Goldenberg Mazursky & Solomon 1999 8. Leibniz 1768/1996 bk II chap i p 111 9. Leibniz 1768/1996 preface p 68 10. Chomsky 1975; Chomsky 1988b; Fodor 1981 11. Elman et al 1996; Rumelhart & McClelland 1986 12. Dennett 1986 13. Elman etal 1996 p 82 14. Elman et al 1996 pp 99–100 15. Chomsky 1975; Chomsky 1993; Chomsky 2000; Pinker 1994. An understanding the mind as a complex system shaped by evolution runs against these philosophies The alternative has emerged from the work cognitive scientists such as Susan Carey Howard Gardner and David Education is neither writing on a blank slate nor allowing the child's nobility to come into flower Rather education is a technology that tries to make up for what the human mind is innately bad at Children don't have to go to school to learn to walk talk recognize objects or remember the personalities their friends even though these tasks are much harder than reading adding or remembering dates in history They do have to go to school to learn written language arithmetic and science because those bodies knowledge and skill were invented too recently for any species-wide knack for them to have evolved  {223}  In the Tragic Vision our moral sentiments no matter how beneficent overlie a deeper bedrock selfishness That selfishness is not the cruelty or aggression the psychopath but a concern for our well-being that is so much a part our makeup that we seldom reflect on it and would waste our time lamenting it or trying to erase it In his book The Theory Moral Sentiments Adam Smith remarked: And here is the remarkable fact: though both Nazi and Marxist ideologies led to industrial-scale killing their biological and psychological theories were opposites Marxists had no use for the concept race were averse to the notion genetic inheritance and were hostile to the very idea a human nature rooted in Marx and Engels did not explicitly embrace the doctrine the Blank Slate in their writings but they were adamant that human nature has no enduring properties It consists only in the interactions groups people with their material environments in a historical period and constantly changes as people change their environment and are simultaneously changed by The mind therefore has no innate structure but emerges from the dialectical processes history and social interaction As Marx. Evolution is central to the understanding life including human life Like all living things we are outcomes natural selection; we got here because we inherited traits that allowed our ancestors to survive find mates and reproduce This momentous fact explains our deepest strivings: why having a thankless child is sharper than a serpent's tooth why it is a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession a good fortune must be in want a wife why we do not go gentle into that good night but rage rage against the dying. What about measures that focus on the sexual components rape? Thornhill and Palmer suggested that teenage boys be forced to take a rape-prevention course as a condition for obtaining a driver's license and that women should be reminded that dressing in a sexually attractive way may increase their risk being raped These untested prescriptions are an excellent illustration why scientists should stay out the policy business but they don't deserve the outrage that followed Mary Koss described as an authority on rape said “The thinking is absolutely unacceptable in a democratic society.” (Note the psychology taboo — not only is their suggestion wrong but merely thinking it is “absolutely unacceptable.”) Koss continues “Because rape is a gendered crime such recommendations harm equality They infringe more on women's liberties than men's.”100 ~ ANY HOPE THAT these tactics are a thing the past was dashed by events in the year 2000 Anthropologists have long been hostile to anyone who discusses human aggression in a biological context In 1976 the American Anthropological Association nearly passed a motion censuring Sociobiology and banning two symposia on the topic and in 1983 they did pass one decreeing that Derek Freeman's Margaret Mead and Samoa was “poorly written unscientific irresponsible and misleading.”36 But that was mild compared with what was. Turkheimer E 2000 Three laws behavior genetics and what they mean Current Directions in Psychological Science 5 160–164 Turkheimer E & Waldron M 2000 Nonshared environment: A theoretical methodological and quantitative review Psychological Bulletin 126 78–108 Turner F 1985 Natural classicism: Essays on literature and science New York: Paragon Turner F 1995 The culture hope New York: Free Press Turner F 1997 Modernism: Cure or disease? Critical Review 11 169–180 Turner M 1991 Reading minds: The study English in the age cognitive science Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press Turner M 1996 The literary mind New York: Oxford University Press  {488}  Price M E Cosmides L & Tooby J 2002 Punitive sentiment as an anti–free rider psychological device Evolution and Human Behavior 23 203–231 Proctor R 1999 The Nazi war on cancer Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press Provine R R 1993 Laughter punctuates speech: Linguistic social and gender contexts laughter Ethology 95 291–298 Putnam H 1973 Reductionism and the nature psychology Cognition 2 131–146 Quartz S R & Sejnowski T J 1997 The neural basis cognitive development: A constructivist manifesto Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 537–596 Quine W V Natural kinds In W V O Quine (Ed.) Ontological relativity and other essays New York: Columbia University Press. These ways knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle small groups illiterate stateless people who live f the land survive by their wits and depend on what they can carry Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago too recently for evolution to have done much if anything to our brains Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding the world wrought by science and technology For many domains knowledge the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery the brain and genome show no hints specialization and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward They include modern physics cosmology genetics evolution neuroscience embryology economics and mathematics. 34. ortega yGasset 1935/2001 35. Montagu 1973a p 9 The portion before the ellipsis is from an earlier edition quoted in Degler 1991 p 209 36. Benedict 1934/1959 p 278 37. Mead 1935/1963 p 280 38. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 209 39. Mead 1928 40. Geertz 1973 p 50 41. Geertz 1973 p 44 42. Shweder 1990 43. Quoted in Tooby & Cosmides 1992 p 22 44. Quoted in Degler. 10. etcf 1999 11. Glover 1999 12. L Kass “The wisdom repugnance,” New Republic June 2,1997 13. Rozin 1997; Rozin Markwith & Stoess 1997 14. Tetlock 1999; Tetlock et al 2000 15. Tetlock 1999 16. Tetlock et al 2000 17. Hume 1739/2000 18. I Buruma Review Ian Kershaw's Hitler 1936–45: Nemesis New York Times Book Review December 10,2000 p 13 PART V: HOT BUTTONS   Sociobiology (Wilson) 108–11 115 124 284 285 sociology 23 27 284–85 286 Socrates 23 To be fair modernism comprises many styles and artists and not all them rejected beauty and other human sensibilities At its best modernist design perfected a visual elegance and an aesthetic form-following-function that were welcome alternatives to Victorian bric-a-brac and ostentatious displays wealth The art movements opened up new stylistic possibilities including motifs from Africa and Oceania The fiction and poetry fered invigorating intellectual workouts and countered a sentimental romanticism that saw art as a spontaneous overflow the artist's personality and emotion The problem with modernism was that its philosophy did not acknowledge the ways in which it was appealing to human pleasure As its denial beauty became an orthodoxy and as its aesthetic successes were appropriated into  {414}  commercial culture (such as minimalism in graphic design) modernism left nowhere for artists. 34. william Jenkins quoted in A Ellin “Can ‘neurobics’ do for the brain what aerobics do for the lungs?” New York Times October 3 1999 35. Quotations from A Ellin “Can ‘neurobics’ do for the brain what aerobics do for the lungs?” Afew York Times October 3,1999 36. G Kolata “Muddling fact and fiction in policy,” New York Times August 8 1999 37. Bruer 1997; Bruer 1999 38. R Saltus “Study shows brain adaptable,” Boston Globe April 20,2000 39. Van Essen & Deyoe 1995 p 388 40. Crick &.       genetics and 51 74       neural plasticity and 87       neuroscience and 42 44 129       radical science defense 126–28       responsibility. It was not how I imagined that scholarly discourse would be conducted in the Athens America but perhaps I should not have been surprised Throughout history battles opinion have been waged by noisy moralizing demonizing hyperbole and worse Science was supposed to be a beachhead in which ideas rather than people are attacked and in which verifiable facts are separated from political opinions But when science began to edge toward the topic human nature onlookers reacted differently from how they would to discoveries about say the origin comets or the classification lizards and scientists reverted to the moralistic mindset that comes so naturally to our species. We are all pretty much alike but we are not of course clones Except in the case of identical twins each person is genetically unique That is because random mutations infiltrate the genome and take time to be eliminated and they are shuffled together in new combinations when individuals sexually reproduce Natural selection tends to preserve some degree of genetic heterogeneity at the microscopic level in the form of small random variations among proteins That variation twiddles the combinations of an organism's molecular locks and keeps its descendants one step ahead of the microscopic germs that are constantly evolving to crack. Bruer Jon 386–87 Bryan William Jennings 130 Buckley William R 130 262 Buddha 163 Bueno de Mesquita Bruce 319 Bukharin Nikolai 156 Burke Edmund. Even when a behavior is heritable an individual's behavior is still a product development and thus it has a causal environmental component The modern understanding how phenotypes are inherited through the replication both genetic and environmental  {viii}  conditions suggests that cultural traditions — behaviors copied by children from their parents — are likely to be crucial. Acknowledging the relative success constitutional democracy does not require one to be a flag-waving patriot But it does suggest that something may have been right about the theory human nature that guided its architects ~ The left needs a new paradigm — Peter Singer A Darwinian Left (1999)43  {299}  Conservatives need Charles Darwin — Larry Arnhart “Conservatives Design and Darwin” (2000)44 I have not hidden my view that this entire line thinking is a conceptual mess If we want to understand how politicians or advertisers manipulate us the last thing we should do is blur distinctions among things in the world our perception those things when they are in front our eyes the mental images those things that we construct from memory and physical images such as photographs and drawings. Graduate students in social work at Columbia called Ms Goldberg's attitude consistent with their outlook on violence “Society is into blaming individuals,” said Kristen Miller 27 one the students “Violence is intergenerationally transmitted.”8 Wordsworth William 159 170 295 373 World. Everyone agrees that rape is a crime violence Probably the biggest amplifier rape is lawlessness The rape and abduction women is ten a goal raiding in non-state societies and rape is common in wars between states and riots between ethnic groups In peacetime the rates rape tend to track rates other violent crime In the United States for example the rate forcible rape went up in the 1960s and down in the 1990s together with the rates other violent Gender feminists blame violence against women on civilization and social institutions but this is exactly backwards  {369}  Violence against women flourishes in societies that are outside the reach civilization and erupts whenever civilization breaks down. Tamara: Oh really Well we never really did have a All we ever did was argue You never had any respect for me for my ideas — HERMAN: That's not true You know that — ABRAHAM [enters the room addresses Herman]: You may stay with us until you find an apartment Hospitality is an act charity and besides you are relatives As the Holy Book says “And thou shalt not hide thyself from thine own flesh.” TAMARA [interrupting]: Uncle he has another The concept consciousness can refer to voluntary action awareness or wakefulness However even voluntary behavior involves unconscious mechanisms Many cognitive processes take place in the cognitive unconscious unavailable to conscious awareness Some behaviors are conscious when learned but then become unconscious seemingly automatic Learning especially implicitly learning a skill can take place outside consciousness For example plenty people know how to turn right when they ride a bike but very few can accurately explain how they actually do so Evolutionary psychology approaches self-deception as an adaptation that can improve one's results in social exchanges.[64] ~ In embracing these doctrines the genderists are handcuffing feminism to railroad tracks on which a train is bearing down As we shall see neuroscience genetics psychology and ethnography are documenting sex differences that almost certainly originate in human biology And evolutionary psychology is documenting a web motives other than group-against-group dominance (such as love sex family and beauty) that entangle us in many conflicts and confluences interest with members the same sex and the opposite sex  {342}  Gender feminists want either to derail the train or to have other women join them in martyrdom but the other women are not cooperating Despite their visibility gender feminists do not speak for all feminists let alone for. Masters Roger 164 284 286 materialism 123 126 187 Mating Mind The (Miller) 407 Matrix The 215 Mayr Ernst 146 231 Mazursky. If an obstacle stands in the way something an organism needs it should neutralize the obstacle by disabling or eliminating it This includes obstacles that happen to be other human beings — say ones that are monopolizing desirable land or sources food Even among modern nation-states raw self-interest is a major motive for war The political scientist Bruce Bueno de Mesquita analyzed the instigators 251 real-world conflicts the past two centuries and concluded that in most cases the aggressor correctly calculated that a successful invasion would be in its national All us will ultimately be judged and as the years pass we will surely judge ourselves on the effort we have contributed to building a new world society and the extent to which our ideals and goals have shaped that effort The future does not belong to those who are content with today  {290}  apathetic toward common problems and their fellow man alike timid and fearful in the face new ideas and bold projects Rather it will belong to those who can blend vision reason and courage in a personal commitment to the ideals and great enterprises American Society. The FEAR imperfectibility and the resultant embrace the Blank Slate are rooted in a pair fallacies We have already met the naturalistic fallacy the belief that whatever happens in nature is good One might think that the belief was irreversibly tainted by Social Darwinism but it was revived by the romanticism the 1960s and 1970s The environmentalist movement in particular ten appeals to the goodness nature to promote conservation natural environments despite their ubiquitous gore For example predators such as wolves bears and sharks have been given an image makeover as euthanists the old and the lame and thus worthy preservation or reintroduction It would seem to follow that anything we have inherited from this Eden is healthy and proper so a claim that aggression or rape is “natural,” in the sense having been favored by evolution is tantamount to saying that it.       conflicts in 249–51       individualized 387–90       sex differences in 252–54. The art critic Arthur Danto had a different explanation: Western calendars are marketed all over the world just like the rest Western culture and To many intellectuals the globalization Western styles is pro that tastes in art are arbitrary People show similar aesthetic preferences they claim only because Western ideals have been exported to the world by imperialism global business and electronic media There may be some truth to this and for many people it is the morally correct position because it implies that there is nothing superior about Western culture or inferior about the indigenous ones it is replacing. So what was the public reaction? The first popular presentation the theory was in a few pages my book How the Mind Works in which I presented the research behind the three laws behavioral genetics and Harris's 1995 paper explaining them Many reviews singled out those pages for discussion such as the following analysis by Margaret Wertheim: This “Hobbesian trap,” as it is now called is a ubiquitous cause violent The political scientist Thomas Schelling fered the analogy an armed homeowner who surprises an armed burglar Each might be tempted to shoot first to avoid being shot even if neither wanted to kill the other A Hobbesian trap pitting one man against another is a recurring theme in fiction such as the desperado in Hollywood westerns spy-versus-spy plots in cold-war thrillers and the lyrics to Bob Marley's “I Shot the Sheriff.” Those who so greatly exalt incorruptibility inalterability et cetera are reduced to talking this way I believe by their great desire to go on living and by the terror they have death They do not reflect that if men were immortal they themselves would never have come into the world Such men really deserve to encounter a Medusa's head which would transmute them into statues jasper or diamond and thus make them more perfect than. If deceit is fundamental to animal communication then there must be strong selection to spot deception and this ought in turn to select for  {264}  a degree self-deception rendering some facts and motives unconscious so as not to betray — by the subtle signs self-knowledge — the deception being practiced Thus the conventional view that natural selection favors nervous systems which produce ever more accurate images the world must be a very naïve view mental But the tide is beginning to turn and recent discoveries are showing how parts the brain can organize themselves without any information from the senses In experiments that the journal Science called “heretical,” Katz's team removed one or both eyes from a developing ferret depriving the visual cortex  {98}  all its input Nonetheless the visual cortex developed with the standard arrangement connections from. Sometimes apparently rational self-interested strategies turn out (as in the prisoners’ dilemma ) to be self-defeating This may look like a defeat for rationality but it is not Rationality is saved by its own open-endedness If a strategy following accepted rules rationality is sometimes self-defeating this is not the end We revise the rules to take account this so producing a higher-order rational strategy This in turn may fail but again we go up a level At whatever level we fail there is always the process standing back and going up a further The Natural History Rape has already suffered the worst possible fate for a popular science book Like The Descent Man and The Bell Curve it has become an ideological touchstone People who wish to demonstrate their sympathy for rape victims and women in general have already learned that they must dismiss this book as sexist reactionary pseudo-science News stories that treat the book as a symptom chauvinist cultural decay have greatly outnumbered reviews that assess it as science Viewed sociologically turning books into ideological touchstones can be useful People can efficiently sort themselves out into like-minded cliques without bothering to read or think However there can be more to human discourse than ideological self-       arts and 404–9 412 417        categories 201–7       developmental 101 383–90 Sexual orientation 44 46 93–94 154 164 201–2 Shakespeare William 197 224 418 Shalit. Wilson J Q & Herrnstein R J 1985 Crime and human nature New York: Simon & Schuster Wilson M & Daly M 1992 The man who mistook his wife for a chattel In J H Barkow L Cosmides & J Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation culture New York: Oxford University Press Wilson M & Daly M 1997 Life expectancy economic inequality homicide and reproductive timing in Chicago neighborhoods British Medical Journal 314 1271–1274 Wilson R A & Keil F C 1999 The MIT Encyclopedia the Cognitive Sciences Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Witelson S F Kigar D L & Harvey T 1999 The exceptional brain Albert Einstein Lancet 353 2149–2153. Personality 46–51 135 373       socialization vs 395       see also traits Petitto Laura 61 95 phantom. The English language was shaped by broad historical events that did not take place inside a single head They include the Scandinavian and Norman invasions in medieval times which infected it with non-Anglo-Saxon words; the Great Vowel Shift the fifteenth century which scrambled the pronunciation the long vowels and left its spelling system an irregular mess; the expansion the British Empire which budded f a variety Englishes (American Australian Singaporean); and the development global electronic media which may rehomogenize the language as we all read the same web pages and watch the same television shows. A S Byatt asked by the editors the New York Times Magazine for the best narrative the millennium picked the story Scheherazade: The possibility that men and women are not the same in all respects also presents policymakers with choices It would be reprehensible for a bank to hire a man over a woman as a manager for the reason that he is less likely to quit after having a child Would it also be reprehensible for a couple to hire a woman over a man as a nanny for their daughter because she is less likely to sexually abuse the child? Most people believe that the punishment for a given crime should be the same regardless who commits it But knowing the typical sexual emotions the two sexes should we apply the same punishment to a man who seduces a sixteen-year-old girl and to a woman who seduces a sixteen-year-old boy? Indeed until recently the innateness brain structure was an embarrassment  {45}  for neuroscience The brain could not possibly be wired by the genes down to the last synapse because there isn't nearly enough information in the genome to do so And we know that people learn throughout their lives and products that learning have to be stored in the brain somehow Unless you believe in a ghost in the machine everything a person learns has to affect some part the brain; more accurately learning is a change in some part the brain But it was difficult to find the features the brain that reflected those changes amid all that innate structure Becoming stronger in math or motor coordination or visual discrimination does not bulk up the brain the way becoming stronger at weightlifting bulks up the muscles. Piss Christ (Serrano) 414 Plato 192 284 285 Plomin Robert 381 Pocahontas 12  {504}  politics 283–305       see also convervatism; liberalism; radical science movement Pollack William 309 If the theory that language could have evolved as a single adaptation is accepted the question becomes which its many functions has been the basis adaptation Several evolutionary hypotheses have been posited: that it evolved for the purpose social grooming that it evolved as a way to show mating potential or that it evolved to form social contracts Evolutionary psychologists recognize that these theories are all speculative and that much more evidence is required to understand how language might have been selectively adapted.[82] So signs engineering in the human mind go all the way up and that is why psychology has always been evolutionary Cognitive and emotional faculties have always been recognized as nonrandom complex and useful and that means they must be products either divine design or natural selection But until recently evolution was seldom explicitly invoked within psychology because with many topics folk intuitions about what is adaptive are good enough to make headway You don't need an evolutionary biologist to tell you that depth perception keeps an animal from falling f cliffs and bumping into trees that thirst keeps it from drying out or that it's better to remember what works and what doesn't than to be an amnesiac. Most demonstrations plasticity involve remappings within primary sensory cortex A brain area for an amputated or immobilized finger may be taken over by an adjacent finger or a brain area for a stimulated finger expands its borders at the expense a neighbor The brain's ability to reweight its inputs is indeed remarkable but the kind information processing done by the taken-over cortex has not fundamentally changed: the cortex is still processing information about the surface the skin and the angles the joints And the representation a digit or part the visual field cannot grow indefinitely no matter how much it is stimulated; the intrinsic wiring the brain would prevent Scientists and public intellectuals are not the only people who have pondered how the mind works We are all psychologists and some people without  {423}  the benefit credentials are great psychologists Among them are poets and novelists whose business as we saw in the preceding chapter is to create “just representations general nature.” Paradoxically in today's intellectual climate novelists may have a clearer mandate than scientists to speak the truth about human nature Sophisticated people sneer at feel-good comedies and saccharine romances in which all loose ends are tied and everyone lives happily ever after Life is nothing like that we note and we look to the arts for edification about the painful dilemmas the human condition. “a delightfully provocative read A constantly dynamic if tacit exchange between the author and his readers.” — Patrick Watson The Globe and Mail   “A feast a book Pinker's analytical and impish mind ranges from Charles Darwin to Abigail Van Buren from scientific studies to Annie Hall It will be a rare reader who agrees with everything in this book But it is an intelligent book that says what it means and thinks about what it is saying Though much the book is about human differences the bigger idea is inherited similarity — the ‘psychological unity our species.’ It is not a blank slate but a slate with a face — a face that might be called human nature When Pinker starts describing it the reader will surely recognize it.” — Bruce Ramsey The Seattle Times Evolutionary biology as an academic discipline emerged with the modern synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s.[19] In the 1930s the study animal behavior (ethology) emerged with the work the Dutch biologist Nikolaas Tinbergen and the Austrian biologists Konrad Lorenz and Karl von Frisch Genetic variation 49–50 142–45 373–74 genius 44 genome human 48 74 75–78. Presentation Self in Everyday Life The (Gfman) 264 price controls 234 Principia Ethica (Moore) 150 Prisoner's Dilemma 334–35 probability sense 220 231–33 Proctor Robert 154–55 1. haidt & Hersh 2001; Tetlock 1999; Tetlock et al 2000 2. Haidt & Hersh 2001; Tetlock 1999; Tetlock et al 2000   Chapter 16: Politics   1. From Iolanthe 2. Personal communication D Lykken Ap Other estimates the heritability conservative attitudes are typically in the range 4 to 5: Bouchard et al 1990; Eaves Eysenck & Martin 1989; Holden 1987; Martin et al 1986; Plomin et al 1997 p 206; Scarr&Weinberg 1981 3. Tesser 1993 4. Wilson 1994 pp 338–339 5. Masters 1982; Masters 1989. Chomsky: Look around you In a family for example if the parents are hungry do they steal food from the children? They would if they were competitive In most social groupings that are even semi-sane people support each other and are sympathetic and helpful and care about other people and so on Those are normal human emotions It takes plenty training to drive those feelings out people's heads and they show up all over the  {247}  Darwin C 1872/1998 The expression the emotions in man and animals: Definitive edition New York: Oxford University Press Davidson R J Putnam K M & Larson C L 2000 Dysfunction in the neural circuitry emotion regulation: A possible prelude to violence Science 289 591–594 Davis B D 1983 Neo–Lysenkoism IQ and the press Public Interest 73 41–59 Dawkins R 1976/1989 The selfish gene (new ed.) New York: Oxford University Press Dawkins R 1983 Universal Darwinism In D S Bendall (Ed.) Evolution from molecules to man New York: Cambridge University Press Dawkins R 1985 Sociobiology: The debate continues (Review Lewontin Rose & Kamin's “Not in our genes”) New Scientist 24 59–60. The REDUCTION violence on scales large and small is one our greatest moral concerns We ought to use every intellectual tool available to understand what it is about the human mind and human social arrangements that leads people to hurt and kill so much But as with the other moral concerns examined in this part the book the effort to figure out what is going on has been hijacked by an effort to legislate the correct answer In the case violence the correct answer is that violence has nothing to do with human nature but is a pathology inflicted by malign elements outside us Violence is a behavior taught by the culture or an infectious disease endemic to certain environments. O'brien's lecture should give pause to the advocates postmodernism It is ironic that a philosophy that prides itself on deconstructing the accoutrements power should embrace a relativism that makes challenges to power impossible because it denies that there are objective benchmarks against which the deceptions the powerful can be evaluated For the same reason the passages should give pause to radical scientists who insist that other scientists’ aspirations to theories with objective reality (including theories about human nature) are really weapons to preserve the interests the dominant class gender and race.5 Without a notion objective truth  {427}  intellectual life degenerates into a struggle who can best exercise the raw force to “control the past.” Cannibalism is so repugnant to us that for years even anthropologists failed to admit that it was common in prehistory It is easy to think: could other human beings really be capable such a depraved act? But course animal rights activists have a similarly low opinion meat eaters who not only cause millions preventable deaths but do so with utter callousness: castrating and branding cattle without an anesthetic impaling fish by the mouth and letting them suffocate in the hold a boat boiling lobsters alive My point is not to make a moral case for vegetarianism but to shed light on the mindset human violence and cruelty History and ethnography suggest that people can treat strangers the way we now treat lobsters and our incomprehension such deeds may be compared with animal rights activists’ incomprehension ours It is no coincidence that Peter Singer the author The Expanding Circle is also the author Animal Liberation. National Center for Science Education 129 National Endowment for the Arts 401 National Institute Mental Health 312 National Institutes Health 314 National Public Radio 166 National Science Foundation 359 The most damaging effect the right-wing opposition to evolution is the corruption American science education by activists in the creationist movement Until a Supreme Court decision in 1968 states were allowed to ban the teaching evolution outright Since then creationists have tried to hobble it in ways that they hope will pass constitutional muster These include removing evolution from science priciency standards demanding disclaimers that it is “only a theory,” watering down the curriculum and opposing textbooks with good coverage evolution or imposing ones with coverage creationism In recent years the National Center for Science Education has learned new instances these tactics at a rate about one a week coming. Marx's twentieth-century followers did embrace the Blank Slate or a: least the related metaphor malleable material Lenin endorsed Nikolai Bukharin's ideal “the manufacturing Communist man out the human material the capitalist age.”43 Lenin's admirer Maxim Gorky wrote “The working classes are to Lenin what minerals are to the metallurgist”44 and “Human raw material is immeasurably more difficult to work with than wood” (the latter while admiring a canal built by slave labor).45 We come across the metaphor the blank slate in the writings a man who may have been responsible for sixty-five million deaths: The preceding chapter showed that this fear is misplaced Nothing prevents the godless and amoral process natural selection from evolving a big-brained social species equipped with an elaborate moral sense.1 Indeed the problem with Homo sapiens may not be that we have too little morality The problem may be that we have.       sex 337–39 341 351 354 355 357 Disney Walt 11 Disraeli Benjamin 287 Dissanayake Ellen 404–5 406 I owe that almost monstrous variety to an institution — the Lottery — which is unknown in other nations or at work in them imperfectly or secretly.1 It's not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects It's that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces other faculties Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven shallow and contaminated by primitive intuitions And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life The point this chapter is that together with all the moral empirical and political factors that go into these debates we should add the cognitive factors: the way our  {222}  minds naturally frame issues Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece many puzzles including education bioethics food safety economics and human understanding itself. What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect Some our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number everyone they meet because they know their minds were not designed for the job But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world Our minds keep us in touch with aspects reality — such as objects animals and people — that our ancestors dealt with for millions years But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds our untutored intuitions may find themselves. Calvin W H 1996b How brains think New York: Basic Books Calvin W H & Bickerton D 2000 Lingua ex machina: Reconciling Darwin and Chomsky with the human brain Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Calvin W H & Ojemann G A 2001 Inside the brain: Mapping the cortex exploring the neuron Campbell J D & Fairey P J 1989 Informational and normative routes to conformity: The effect faction size as a function norm extremity and attention to the stimulus Journal Personality and Social Psychology 51 315–324 Cappon L J (Ed.) 1959 The Adams–Jefferson letters New York: Simon & Schuster. ~ SO HAS HARRIS solved the mystery the Third Law the unique environment that comes neither from the genes nor from the family? Not exactly I am convinced that children are socialized — that they acquire the values and skills the culture — in their peer groups not their families But I am not convinced at least not yet that peer groups explain how children develop their personalities: why they turn out shy or bold anxious or confident open-minded or old-school Socialization and the development personality are not the same thing and peers may explain the first without necessarily explaining the second. Festinger L 1957 A theory cognitive dissonance Stanford Calif.: Stanford University Press Finch C E & Kirkwood T B L 2000 Chance development and aging New York: Oxford University Press Fischf S 1999 Psychology's quixotic quest for the media–violence connection Journal Media Psychology 4 Fisher S E Vargha–Khadem F Watkins K E Monaco A P & Pembrey M E 1998 Localisation a gene implicated in a severe speech and language disorder Nature Genetics 18 168–170 Fiske A P 1992 The four elementary forms sociality: Framework for a unified theory social relations Psychological Review 99 689–723 Flynn J R 1999 Searching for justice: The discovery IQ gains over time American Psychologist 54 5–20. But Boas had created a monster His students came to dominate American social science and each generation outdid the previous one in its sweeping pronouncements Boas's students insisted not just thatdifferences among ethnic groups must be explained in terms culture but that every aspect human existence must be explained in terms culture For example Boas had favored social explanations unless they were disproven but his student Albert Kroeber favored them regardless the evidence “Heredity,” he wrote “cannot be allowed to have acted any part in history.”27 Instead the chain events shaping a people “involves the absolute conditioning historical events by other historical events.”28 During the past century the doctrine the Blank Slate has set the agenda for much the social sciences and humanities As we shall see psychology has sought to explain all thought feeling and behavior with a few simple mechanisms learning The social sciences have sought to explain all customs and social arrangements as a product the socialization children by the surrounding culture: a system words images stereotypes role models and contingencies reward and punishment A long and growing list concepts that would seem natural to the human way thinking (emotions kinship the sexes illness nature the world) are now said to have been “invented” or “socially constructed.”2 Idealism allowed Boas to lay a new intellectual foundation for egalitarianism The differences among human races and ethnic groups he proposed come not from their physical constitution but from theirculture a system ideas and values spread by language and other forms social behavior Peoples differ because their cultures differ Indeed that is how we should refer to them: the Eskimo culture or the Jewish culture not the Eskimo race or the Jewish race The idea that minds are shaped by culture served as a bulwark against racism and was the theory one ought to prefer on moral grounds Boas wrote “I claim that unless the contrary can be proved we must assume that all complex activities are socially determined not hereditary.”24 A happy person tends to check f upbeat answers to all the questions: Yes my parents are good to me; yes I'm doing fine A person who cares about presenting a socially acceptable face to the world checks f socially acceptable responses: Yes my parents are good to me; no I haven't been in any fights or smoked anything illegal A person who is angry or depressed checks f angry or depressed responses: My parents are jerks and I flunked the algebra test and to hell with your questionnaire 5. creation: Opinion Dynamics Aug; miracles: Princeton Survey Research Associates Ap; angels: Opinion Dynamics December 5 1997; devil: Princeton Survey Research Associates Ap; afterlife: Gallup Organization April 1 1998; evolution: Opinion Dynamics Aug Available through the Roper Center at the University Connecticut Public Opinion Online: .edu   Chapter 1: The ficial Theory   1. Locke 1690/1947 bk II chap 1 2. Hacking 1999 3. Rousseau 1755/1994 pp 61–62 4. Hobbes 1651/1957 pp 185–186. Tramo M J Ltus W C Thomas C E Green R L Mott L A & Gazzaniga M S 1995 Surface area human cerebral cortex and its gross morphological subdivisions: In vivo measurements in monozygotic twins suggest differential hemispheric effects genetic factors Journal Cognitive Neuroscience 7 267–91 Tribe L 1971 Trial by mathematics: Precision and ritual in the legal process Harvard Law Rev–1393 Trivers R 1971 The evolution reciprocal altruism Quarterly Review Biology 46 35–57 Trivers R 1972 Parental investment and sexual selection In B Campbell (Ed.) Sexual selection and the descent man Chicago: Aldine Trivers R 1974 Parent–fspring conflict American Zoologist 14 249–264. Buss and Schmitt's (1993) Sexual Strategies Theory[93] proposed that due to differential parental investment humans have evolved sexually dimorphic adaptations related to "sexual accessibility fertility assessment commitment seeking and avoidance immediate and enduring resource procurement paternity certainty assessment mate value and parental investment." Their Strategic Interference Theory[94] suggested that conflict between the sexes occurs when the preferred reproductive strategies one sex interfere with those the other sex resulting in the activation emotional responses such as anger or jealousy So nothing in the research on family environments contradicts the behavioral geneticists’ Second Law which says that growing up in a particular family has little or no systematic effect on one's intellect and personality And this leaves us with a maddening puzzle No it's not all in the genes; around half the variation in personality intelligence and behavior comes from something in the environment But whatever that something is it cannot be shared by two children growing up in the same home with the same parents And that rules out all the obvious somethings What is the elusive Mister Jones factor? ~ Social engineering 158 169–73 socialism 257       see also Marxism socialization personality vs 395 social psychology see psychology social social reality 64–65 327 social sciences 6 Haidt J 2001 The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment Psychological Review 108 813–834 Haidt J In press The moral emotions In R J Davidson (Ed.) Handbook affective sciences New York: Oxford University Press Haidt J & Hersh M A 2001 Sexual morality: The cultures and emotions conservatives and liberals Journal Applied Social Psychology 31 191–221 Haidt J Roller H & Dias M G 1993 Affect culture and morality or Is it wrong to eat your dog? Journal Personality and Social Psychology 65 613–628 Haier R J Siegel B Tang C Abel L & Buchsbaum M S 1992 Intelligence and changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate following learning Intelligence 16 \\5–\2d. 23. brown 1991; Brown 1985; Sherif 1966; Tajfel 1981 24. See Chapters 3 and 19 and also Bouchard 1994; Neisser et al 1996; Plomin et al 2001 25. See Chapter 14 and also Aronson 1980; Festinger 1957; Gazzaniga 1998; Greenwald 1988; Nesse & Lloyd 1992; Wright 1994 26. See Chapter 15 and also Haidt in press; Haidt Roller & Dias 1993; Petrinovich O'Neill & Jorgensen 1993; Rozin Markwith & Stoess 1997; Shweder et al 1997; Singer 1981; Tetlock 1999; Tetlock et al 2000 27. Sowell 1987. Neural development 83–100 227 386–87 396–97 neural networks 21 42 78–83 92 I will let Dawkins comment: When put like that this dialectical biology seems to make a lot sense Perhaps even / can be a dialectical biologist Come to think it isn't there something familiar about that cake? Yes here it is in a 1981 publication by the most reductionist sociobiologists: “ If we follow a particular recipe word for word in a cookery book what finally emerges from the oven is a cake We cannot now break the cake into its component crumbs and say: this crumb corresponds to the first word in the recipe; this crumb corresponds to the second word in the recipe etc With minor exceptions such as the cherry on top there is no one-to-one mapping from words recipe to ‘bits’ cake The whole recipe maps onto the whole cake.” Like Friedan many people believe that the gender gap in wages and a “glass ceiling” that keeps women from rising to the uppermost levels power are the two main injustices facing women in the West today In his 1999 State the Union address Bill Clinton said “We can be proud this progress but 75 cents on the dollar is still only three-quarters the way there and Americans  {352}  can't be satisfied until we're all the way there.” The gender gap and the glass ceiling have inspired lawsuits against companies that have too few women in the top positions pressure on the government to regulate all salaries so men and women are paid according to the “comparable worth” their jobs and aggressive measures to change girls’ attitudes to the pressions such as the annual Take Our Daughters to. The power nonrival goods may have been a presence throughout human evolutionary history The anthropologists John Tooby and Irven De-Vore have argued that millions years ago our ancestors occupied the “cognitive niche” in the world's ecosystem By evolving mental computations that can model the causal texture the environment hominids could play out scenarios in their mind's eye and figure out new ways exploiting the rocks plants and animals around them Human practical intelligence may have co-evolved with language (which allows know-how to be shared at low cost) and with social cognition (which allows people to cooperate without being cheated) yielding a species that literally lives by the power ideas Romer points out that the combinatorial process creating new ideas can circumvent the logic Malthus: 11. anderson 1990; Pinker 1997 chaps 2 5; Pinker 1999 chap 10; Pinker & Prince 1996 12. Armstrong Gleitman & Gleitman 1983; Erikson & Kruschke 1998; Marcus 2001a; Pinker 1997 chaps 2 5; Pinker 1999 chap 10; Sloman 1996 13. Ahnetal 2001 14. Lee Jussim & McCauley 1995 15. McCauley 1995; Swim 1994 16. Jussim McCauley & Lee 1995; McCauley 1995 17. Jussim &Eccles 1995 18. Brown 1985; Jussim McCauley & Lee 1995; McCauley 1995 19. Gilbert & Hixon 1991; Pratto &. ~ But perhaps most disturbing is Jespersen's obliviousness to the possibility that he might be saying anything exceptionable He took it for granted that his biases would be shared by his readers whom he knew to be fellow men and speakers “our” Northern tongues “Can any one be in doubt?” he asked rhetorically; “you do not expect much vigor” from such a people he asserted The inferiority women and other races needed neither justification nor apology. All languages change as speakers adopt or invent new ways speaking and pass them on to other members their speech community Language change happens at all levels from the phonological level to the levels vocabulary morphology syntax and discourse Even though language change is ten initially evaluated negatively by speakers the language who ten consider changes to be "decay" or a sign slipping norms language usage it is natural and inevitable.[110] Nor is it a surprise that the act love itself should be fraught with conflict Sex is the most concentrated source physical pleasure granted by our nervous system so why is it such an emotional bramble bush? In all societies sex is at least somewhat “dirty.” It is conducted in private pondered obsessively regulated by custom and taboo the subject gossip and teasing and a trigger for jealous For a brief period in the 1960s and 1970s people dreamed an erotopia in which men and women could engage in sex without hang-ups and inhibitions The protagonist Erica Jong's Fear Flying fantasized about “the zipless fuck”: anonymous casual and free guilt and jealousy “If you can't be with the one you love love the one you're with,” sang Stephen Stills “If you love somebody set them free,”. Identity politics 206–7 Ifaluk 38–39 imagery see psychology imagery images 213–18 imitation 60–62 63–65 Junger S 1997 The perfect storm: A true story men against the sea NewYork: Norton Jussim L J & Eccles J 1995 Are teacher expectations biased by students’ gender social class or ethnicity? In Y.–T Lee L J Jussim & C R McCauley (Eds.) Stereotype accuracy: Toward appreciating group differences Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association Jussim L J McCauley C R & Lee Y.–T 1995 Why study stereotype accuracy and inaccuracy? In Y.–T Lee L J Jussim & C R McCauley (Eds.) Stereotype accuracy: Toward appreciating group differences Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association Kaas J H 2000 The reorganization sensory and motor maps after injury in adult mammals In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.:. These companies tap into people's belief in a ghost in the machine by implying that any form learning that affects the brain (as opposed presumably to the kinds learning that don't affect the brain) is unexpectedly real or deep or powerful But this is mistaken All learning affects the brain It is undeniably exciting when scientists make a discovery about how learning affects the brain but that does not make the learning itself any more pervasive or pround ~ When a stronger group overpowers a weaker one in a surprise raid it should come as no surprise to a Hobbesian cynic But when one side defeats another in a battle that both have joined the logic is not so clear Given that both the victor and the vanquished have much to lose in a battle one would expect each side to assess the strength the other and the weaker to cede the contested resource without useless bloodshed that would only lead to the same outcome Most behavioral ecologists believe that rituals appeasement and surrender among animals evolved for this reason (and not for the good the species as Lorenz had supposed) Sometimes the two sides are so well matched and the stakes a battle are so high that they engage in a battle because it is the only way to find out. In the 1970s two major branches developed from ethology Firstly the study animal social behavior (including humans) generated sociobiology defined by its pre-eminent proponent Edward O Wilson in 1975 as "the systematic study the biological basis all social behavior"[21] and in 1978 as "the extension population biology and evolutionary theory to social organization."[22] Secondly there was behavioral ecology which placed less emphasis on social behavior; it focused on the ecological and evolutionary basis animal and human behavior Every generation has perceived the limits to growth that finite resources and undesirable side effects would pose if no new recipes or ideas were discovered And every generation has underestimated the potential for finding new recipes and ideas We consistently fail to grasp how many ideas remain to be discovered The difficulty is the same one we have with compounding Possibilities do not add. Scarry E 1999 Dreaming by the book New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux Schaller M & Crandall C (Eds.) In press The psychological foundations culture Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Schellenberg E G & Trehub S E 1996 Natural musical intervals: Evidence from infant listeners Psychological Science 7 272–277 Schelling T 1960 The strategy conflict Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Schiitze Y 1987 The good mother: The history the normative model “mother–love.” In P A Adler P Adler & N Mandell (Eds.) Sociological studies child development (Vol 2) Greenwich Conn.: JAI Press Schwartz F N 1992 Breaking with tradition: Women and work the new facts life New York: Warner Books. Gardner H 1999 Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century New York: Basic Books Gaulin S & McBurney D 2000 Evolutionary psychology Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice Hall Gaulin S J C & McBurney D H 2001 Psychology: An evolutionary approach Upper Saddle River N.J.: Prentice Hall Gazzaniga M.S 1992 Nature's mind: The biological roots thinking emotion sexuality language and intelligence New York: Basic Books Gazzaniga M S 1998 The mind's past Berkeley: University California Press Gazzaniga M S 2000a Cognitive neuroscience: A reader Maiden Mass.: Blackwell Gazzaniga M S (Ed.) 2000b The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.:. Kimura Doreen 342 Kindlon Dan 309 Kleinfeld Judith 342 353 359 Klineberg Otto 27 Koch Christ 88 Koch Robert 154 Koertge Noretta 342 Kohlberg Lawrence 291 Sleep may have evolved to conserve energy when activity would be less fruitful or more dangerous such as at night especially in winter.[64] The implication is that anyone who believes that the causes genocide might be illuminated by an understanding the evolved makeup human beings is in fact taking a stand in favor genocide! ~ WHAT ABOUT THE third member the trinity the Ghost in the Machine? The radical scientists are thoroughgoing materialists and could hardly believe in an immaterial soul But they are equally uncomfortable with any clearly stated alternative because it would cramp their political belief that we can collectively implement any social arrangement we choose To update Ryle's description Descartes's dilemma: as men scientific acumen they cannot but endorse the claims biology yet as political men they cannot accept the discouraging rider to those claims namely that human nature differs only in degree complexity from clockwork. Rose Steven 111 112 113–14 115 122–23 124 126 127 133 255 377–78 The Blank Slate naturally coexists with the Ghost in the Machine too since a slate that is blank is a hospitable place for a ghost to haunt If a ghost is to be at the controls the factory can ship the device with a minimum of parts The ghost can read the body's display panels and pull its levers with no need for a high-tech executive program guidance system or CPU The more not-clockwork there is controlling behavior the less clockwork we need to posit For similar reasons the Ghost in the Machine happily accompanies the Noble Savage If the machine behaves ignobly we can blame the ghost which freely chose to carry out the iniquitous acts; we need not probe for a defect in the machine's design ~ Contrasting marked and nonmarked sememes (meaningful elements in language) cooking cooperation cooperative labor copulation normally conducted in privacy corporate (perpetual) statuses coyness display crying cultural variability culture culture/nature distinction customary greetings daily routines dance death rituals decision making decision making collective directions giving discrepancies between speech thought and action dispersed groups distinguishing right and wrong diurnality divination division labor division labor. Kevles Betty 308 Kevles Daniel 308 Keynes John Maynard 153 Khmer Rouge 152 156 Khrushchev Nikita 334 kibbutzim 246 257 346 Kimball. The doctrine that a collectivity (a culture a society a class a gender) is a living thing with its own interests and belief system lies behind Marxist political philosophies and the social science tradition begun by Durkheim Orwell is showing its dark side: the dismissal the individual — the only entity that literally feels pleasure and pain — as a mere component that exists to further the interests the whole The sedition Winston and his lover Julia began in the pursuit simple human pleasures — sugar and cfee white writing paper private conversation affectionate lovemaking O'Brien makes it clear that such individualism will not be tolerated: “There will be no loyalty except loyalty to the Party There will be no love except the love Big Brother.”7 The possibility sustaining high culture in our time is becoming increasingly problematical Serious book stores are losing their franchise; small publishing houses are closing shop; little magazines are going out business; nonprit theaters are surviving primarily by commercializing their repertory; symphony orchestras are diluting their programs; public television is increasing its dependence on reruns British sitcoms; classical radio stations are dwindling; museums are resorting to blockbuster shows; dance is dying.1 In recent years the higher-brow magazines and presses have been filled with similar laments Here is a sample titles: Generative grammar 37–38 166 236 336 genes:       antisocial acts and 50–51       autism and 46 62       brain. Though the women's movement has begun to achieve equality for women on many economic and political measures the victory remains incomplete To take two the simplest and most obvious indicators: women still earn no more than 72 cents for every dollar that men earn and we are nowhere near equality in numbers at the very top decision making in business government. We are not denying that there are genetic components to human behavior But we suspect that human biological universals are to be discovered more in the generalities eating excreting and sleeping than in such specific and highly variable habits as warfare sexual exploitation women and the use money as a medium exchange.3 Art IS IN our nature — in the blood and in the bone as people used to say; in the brain and in the genes as we might say today In all societies people dance sing decorate surfaces and tell and act out stories Children begin to take part in these activities in their twos and threes and the arts may even be reflected in the organization the adult brain: neurological damage may leave a person able to hear and see but unable to appreciate music or visual Paintings jewelry sculpture and musical instruments go back at least 35,000 years in Europe and probably far longer in other parts the world where the archaeological record is scanty The Australian aborigines have been painting on rocks for 50,000 years and red ochre has been used as body makeup for at least. Kos A 1996 Living in two worlds: The immigrant children's experience New York: Twenty–First Century Books Kosslyn S M 1980 Image and mind Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Kosslyn S M 1994 Image and brain: The resolution the imagery debate Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Krebs D & Denton K 1997 Social illusions and self–deception: The evolution biases in person perception In J A Simpson & D T Kenrick (Eds.) Evolutionary social psychology Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Krebs D L 1998 The evolution moral behaviors In C Crawford & D L Krebs (Eds.) Handbook evolutionary psychology: Ideas issues and applications Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum. • the Third Law: A substantial portion the variation in complex human behavioral traits is not accounted for by the effects genes or families. The move from a structuralist account in which capital is understood to structure social relations in relatively homologous ways to a view hegemony in which power relations are subject to repetition convergence and rearticulation brought the question temporality into the thinking structure and marked a shift from a form Althusserian theory that takes structural totalities as theoretical objects to one in which the insights into the contingent possibility structure inaugurate a renewed conception hegemony as bound up with the contingent sites and strategies the rearticulation power Dutton whose journal Philosophy and Literature sponsors the contest assures us that this is not a satire The rules the contest forbid it: “Deliberate parody cannot be allowed in a field where unintended self-parody is so widespread.” Music 402 403 405 409 410 417 Mutual Assured Destruction 325 mutualism 242 Myth the First Three Years The (Bruer) 386–87 Napoleon I emperor France 295 According to the theory developed in medieval times the sphere the moon divided the universe into an unchanging perfection in the heavens above and a corrupt degeneration in the Earth below (hence Samuel Johnson's disclaimer that he could not “change sublunary nature”) Surrounding the moon were spheres for the inner planets the sun the outer planets and the fixed stars each cranked by a higher angel And surrounding them all were the heavens home to God Contained within the sphere the moon and thus a little lower than the angels were human souls and then in descending order human bodies animals (in the order beasts birds fish insects) then plants minerals the inanimate elements nine layers devils and finally at the center the Earth Lucifer in hell The universe was thus arranged in a hierarchy a Great. A good description the standard view images within cultural studies and related disciplines may be found in the Concise Glossary Cultural Theory It defines image as a “mental or visual representation an object or event as depicted in the mind a painting a photograph or film.” Having thus run together images in the world (such as paintings) with images in the mind the entry lays out the centrality images in postmodernism cultural studies and academic feminism First it notes reasonably enough that images can misrepresent reality and thereby serve the interests an ideology A racist caricature presumably is a prime example But then it takes the concept further: Japanese–americans 312 Japanese language 37–38 71 Jefferson Thomas 145 Jensen Arthur 107 Jespersen Otto 14–15 22 Jesus Christ 193       in denials human nature 74 75–78 100 101–2       evolution and 91       human complexity. Man is not an abstract being squatting outside the world Man is the world men the State and Society The essence man is not an abstraction inherent in each particular individual The real nature man is the totality social Individuals are dealt with only in so far as they are the personifications economic categories embodiments particular class-relations and class [Death] seems to be a harsh victory the species over the particular individual and to contradict their unity But the particular individual is only a particular species-being and. 5. the term “Standard Social Science Model” was introduced by John Tooby and Leda Cosmides (1992) The philosophers Ron Mallon and Stephen Stich (2000) use “social constructionism” because it is close in meaning but shorter “Social construction” was coined by one the founders sociology Emile Durkheim and is analyzed by Hacking 1999  {442}  6. See Curti 1980; Degler 1991; Fox 1989; Freeman 1999; Richards 1987; Shipman 1994; Tooby & Cosmides 1992 7. Degler 1991 p viii 8. White 1996 9. Quoted in Fox 1989 p 68 10. Watson 1924/1998 11. Quoted in Degler. Elizabeth Ward a Stoneham dietician has been puzzling over why parents are so “willing to be short-order cooks preparing two or three meals at a time” in order to please the kids [One reason] is a belief that forcing a kid to choose between eating what's presented or skipping a meal will lead to eating disorders — a thought that probably never occurred to parents in earlier The humorist Dave Barry comments on the experts’ advice to parents adolescents: In addition to watching for warning signs you must “keep the lines communication open” between yourself and your child Make a point taking an interest in the things your child is interested in so that you can develop a rapport as we see in this dialogue: Less widely known is that the regime had a well-articulated philosophy It is explained to Winston Smith in the harrowing sequence in which he is strapped to a table and alternately tortured and lectured by the government agent O'Brien The philosophy the regime is thoroughly postmodernist O'Brien explains (without course using the word) When Winston objects that the Party cannot realize its slogan “Who controls the past controls the future; who controls the present controls the past,” O'Brien replies: Since images are interpreted in the context a deeper understanding people and their relationships the “crisis representation,” with its paranoia about the manipulation our mind by media images is overblown People are not helplessly programmed with images; they can evaluate and interpret what they see using everything else they know such as the credibility and motives the source. Kroeber Albert 23 28 29 31 108 156 284 Kropotkin Peter 255 Kubrick Stanley 337 kulaks 152 158 !Kung. ~ WHEN YOU STOP to think about it the idea a pliant human nature does not deserve its reputation for optimism and uplift If it did B F Skinner would have been lauded as a great humanitarian when he argued that society should apply the technology conditioning to humans shaping people to use contraception conserve energy make peace and avoid crowded Skinner was a staunch blank-slater and a passionate Utopian His uncommonly pure vision allows us to examine the implications the “optimistic” denial human nature Given his premise that undesirable behavior is not in the genes but a product the environment it follows that we should control that environment — for all we would be doing is replacing haphazard schedules reinforcement by planned ones. If the cartoon were completely accurate though life would be a cacophony spoinks Self-deception is among the deepest roots human strife and folly It implies that the faculties that ought to allow us to settle our differences — seeking the truth and discussing it rationally — are miscalibrated so that all parties assess themselves to be wiser abler and nobler than they really are Each party to a dispute can sincerely believe that the logic and evidence are on his side and  {266}  that his opponent is deluded or dishonest or Self-deception is one the reasons that the moral sense can paradoxically ten do more harm than good a human misfortune we will explore in the next chapter ~ What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single general-purpose computer in the head The world is a heterogeneous place and we are equipped with different kinds intuitions and logics each appropriate to one department reality These ways knowing have been called systems modules stances faculties mental organs multiple intelligences and reasoning engines.1 They emerge early in life are present in every normal person and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets networks in the brain They may be installed by different  {220}  combinations genes or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input Most likely they develop by some combination these forces. Herman Broder lives in Brooklyn in 1949 with his second wife Yadwiga a peasant girl who worked for his parents as a servant when they lived in Poland A decade earlier his first wife Tamara had taken their two children to visit her parents and while they were separated the Nazis invaded Poland Tamara and the children were shot; Herman survived because Yadwiga hid him in her family's haylt At the end the war he learned his family's fate and married Yadwiga and they found their way to. ~ Genes not only push us toward exceptional conditions mental functioning but scatter us within the normal range producing much the variation in ability and temperament that we notice in the people around us The famous Chas Addams cartoon from The New Yorker is only a slight exaggeration:   © The New Yorker Collection 1981 Charles Addams from All rights reserved  {47}    • a spatial sense which we use to navigate the world and keep track where things are It is based on a dead reckoner which updates coordinates the body's location as it moves and turns and a network mental maps Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes the head the body or salient objects and places in the world.5 • A number sense which we use to think about quantities and amounts It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers objects (one two and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.6 The horror rape gives it a special gravity in our understanding the psychology men and women There is an overriding moral imperative in the study rape: to reduce its occurrence Any scientist who illuminates the causes rape deserves our admiration like a medical researcher who illuminates the cause a disease because understanding an affliction is the first step toward eliminating it And since no one acquires the truth by divine revelation we must also respect those who explore theories that may turn out to be incorrect Moral criticism would seem to be in order only for those who would enforce dogmas ignore evidence or shut down research because they would be protecting their reputations at the expense victims rapes that might not have occurred if we understood the phenomenon better. In order to represent the sounds the world's languages in writing linguists have developed the International Phonetic Alphabet designed to represent all the discrete sounds that are known to contribute to meaning in human languages.[72] 6. chagnon 1988; Daly Salmon & Wilson 1997; Fox 1984; Mount 1992; Shoumatf 1985 7. Chagnon 1992; Daly Salmon & Wilson 1997; Daly & Wilson 1988; Gaulin & McBurney 2001 pp 321–329 8. Burnstein Crandall & Kitayama 1994; Petrinovich O'Neill & Jorgensen 1993 9. Petrinovich O'Neill & Jorgensen 1993; Singer 1981 10. Masters 1989 pp 207–208 11. Quoted in J Muravchick “Socialism's last stand,” Commentary March 2002 pp 47–53 quotation. Now for the important exceptions Stereotypes can be downright inaccurate when a person has few or no firsthand encounters with the stereotyped  {205}  group or belongs to a group that is overtly hostile to the one being judged During World War II when the Russians were allies the United States and the Germans were enemies Americans judged Russians to have more positive traits than Germans Soon afterward when the alliances reversed Americans judged Germans to have more positive traits than Given all the above the question does seem a bit puzzling People have much more cortex than rats do or even than other primates do; in particular they have very much more brain structure not dedicated to input/output — and presumably this extra cortex is strategically placed in the brain to subserve just those functions that differentiate people from rats or even apes But there must be another aspect to the difference between rats and people as well This is that the human environment includes other people and the cultural devices that they have developed to organize their thinking  {22}  The concept the noble savage was inspired by European colonists’ discovery indigenous peoples in the Americas Africa and (later) Oceania It captures the belief that humans in their natural state are selfless peaceable and untroubled and that blights such as greed anxiety and violence are the products civilization In 1755 Rousseau wrote: So many authors have hastily concluded that man is naturally cruel and requires a regular system police to be reclaimed; whereas nothing can be more gentle than him in his primitive state when placed by nature at  {7}  an equal distance from the stupidity brutes and the pernicious good sense civilized man The danger that we might distort our own science as a reaction to the Nazis’ distortions is not hypothetical The historian science Robert Proctor has shown that American public health ficials were slow to acknowledge that  {155}  smoking causes cancer because it was the Nazis who had originally established the And some German scientists argue that biomedical research has been crippled in their country because vague lingering associations to Feminism IS TEN derided because the arguments its lunatic fringe — for example that all intercourse is rape that all women should be lesbians or that only 10 percent the population should be allowed to be male.9 Feminists reply that proponents women's rights do not speak with one voice and that feminist thought comprises many positions which have to be evaluated That is completely legitimate but it cuts both ways To criticize a particular feminist proposal is not to attack feminism in general. Sowell points out that Marxism is a hybrid the two It invokes the Tragic Vision to interpret the past when earlier modes production left no choice but the forms social organization known as feudalism and capitalism But it invokes a Utopian Vision for the future in which we can shape our nature in dialectical interaction with the material and social environment In that new world people will be motivated by self-actualization rather than self-interest allowing us to realize the ideal “From each according to his abilities to each according to his needs.” Marx wrote that a communist society. Stoicism 193 Stolba Christine 353 Stoppard Tom 317 321–22 Storey Robert 417 420 strict constructionism 291 Strossen Nadine 342 Sullivan Andrew 348 Not all traits organisms are evolutionary adaptations As noted in the table below traits may also be exaptations byproducts adaptations (sometimes called "spandrels") or random variation between individuals.[30] As a man who has been actively engaged for more than a decade as an educator and a counselor to help men to stop their violence against women I find Cathy Young's Oct 15 column disturbing and discouraging She confuses issues by failing to acknowledge that men are socialized in a patriarchal culture that still supports their violence against women if they choose So steeped in the prevailing ideology was this counselor that he didn't notice that Young was arguing against the dogma he took as self-evidently true not “failing to acknowledge” it And his wording — “men are socialized in a patriarchal culture” — reproduces a numbingly familiar slogan  {361}  Our understanding life has only been enriched by the discovery that living flesh is composed molecular clockwork rather than quivering protoplasm or that birds soar by exploiting the laws physics rather than defying them In the same way our understanding ourselves and our cultures can only be enriched by the discovery that our minds are composed intricate neural circuits for thinking feeling and learning rather than blank slates amorphous blobs or inscrutable ghosts <<  {73}  >>   Chapter 5 Thaler Richard 302 Thatcher Margaret 286 287 293 theory mind 61–63 220 223–24 228       art. In 2001 the complete sequence the human genome was published and with it came a powerful new ability to identify genes and their products including those that are active in the brain In the coming decade geneticists will identify genes that differentiate us from chimpanzees infer which them were subject to natural selection during the millions years our ancestors evolved into humans identify which combinations are associated with normal abnormal and exceptional mental abilities and begin to trace the chain causation in fetal development by which genes shape the brain systems that let us learn feel. None this is to say that the brain works like a digital computer that artificial intelligence will ever duplicate the human mind or that computers are conscious in the sense having first-person subjective experience But it does suggest that reasoning intelligence imagination and creativity are forms information processing a well-understood physical process Cognitive science with the help the computational theory mind has exorcised at least one ghost from the machine. In Words and Rules I aimed a microscope on a single phenomenon language that has served as a test case for the ability generic associative networks to account for the essence language: assembling words or pieces words into new combinations People don't just memorize snatches language but create new ones A simple example is the English past tense Given a neologism like to spam or to snarf people don't have to run to the dictionary to look up their past-tense forms; they instinctively know that they are spammed and snarfed The talent for assembling new combinations appears as early as age two when children overapply the past-tense suffix to irregular verbs as in We holded the baby rabbits and Horton heared a 66. on the heritability antisocial traits see Bock & Goode 1996; Deater-Deckard & Plomin 1999; Krueger Hicks & McGue 2001; Lykken 1995; Mealey 1995; Rushton et al 1986 Regarding altruism one study failed to find that it is heritable (Krueger Hicks & McGue 2001); another study with twice as many subjects found it to be substantially heritable (Rushton et al 1986) 67. Miller 2000b 68. Tooby & Cosmides 1990 69. Axelrod 1984; Dawkins 1976/1989; Nowak May & Sigmund 1995; Ridley 1997 70. Dugatkin 1992; Harpending & Sobus 1987; Mealey 1995; Rice 1997 71. Rice 1997 72. Lalumiere Harris &. Rowe D 1994 The limits family influence: Genes experience and behavior New York: Guilford Press Rowe D C 2001 The nurture assumption persists American Psychologist 56 168–169 Rozin P 1996 Towards a psychology food and eating: From motivation to module to model to marker morality meaning and metaphor Current Directions in Psychological Science 5 18–24 Rozin P 1997 Moralization In A Brandt & P Rozin (Eds.) Morality and health New York: Routledge Rozin P & Fallon A 1987 A perspective on disgust Psychological Review 94 23–41 Rozin P Markwith M & Stoess C 1997 Moralization and becoming a vegetarian: The transformation preferences into values and the recruitment disgust Psychological Science 8 67–73. This grew into the modern catechism: rape is not about sex our culture socializes men to rape it glorifies violence against women The analysis comes right out the gender-feminist theory human nature: people are blank slates (who must be trained or socialized to want things); the only significant human motive is power (so sexual desire is irrelevant); and all motives and interests must be located in groups (such as the male sex and the female sex) rather than in individual people. [Reductionists] argue that the properties a human society are no more than the sums the individual behaviors and tendencies the individual humans which that society is composed Societies are “aggressive” because the individuals who compose them are “aggressive,” for instance'.26 The quotations from Wilson we saw earlier in the chapter show that he never expressed anything close to these ridiculous beliefs and neither course did Dawkins For example after discussing the tendency in mammals for males to seek a greater number sexual partners than females do Dawkins devoted a paragraph to human societies in which. Because norms for language use are shared by members a specific group communicative style also becomes a way displaying and constructing group identity Linguistic differences may become salient markers divisions between social groups for example speaking a language with a particular accent may imply membership an ethnic minority or social class one's area origin or status as a second language speaker These kinds differences are not part the linguistic system but are an important part how people use language as a social tool for constructing groups.[106] Relativism 23 172 198–201 202 208 213–14 272–73 411 426–27 Evolutionary psychologists contend that perception demonstrates the principle modularity with specialized mechanisms handling particular perception tasks.[65] For example people with damage to a particular part the brain suffer from the specific defect not being able to recognize faces (prosopagnosia).[65] Evolutionary psychology suggests that this indicates a so-called face-reading module.[65] You should strive for this kind closeness in your relationship with your child And remember: If worse comes to worst there is no parenting tool more powerful than a good hug If you sense that your child is getting into trouble you must give that child a great big fat hug in a public place with other young people around while saying in a loud piercing voice “You are MY LITTLE BABY and I love you NO MATTER WHAT!” That will embarrass your child so much that he or she may immediately run f and join a strict religious order whose entire diet consists gravel If one hug doesn't work threaten to give. Veryone has a theory human nature Everyone has to anticipate the behavior others and that means we all need theories about what makes people tick A tacit theory human nature — that behavior is caused by thoughts and feelings — is embedded in the very way we think about people We fill out this theory by introspecting on our own minds and assuming that our fellows are like ourselves and by watching people's behavior and filing away generalizations We absorb still other ideas from our intellectual climate: from the expertise authorities and the conventional wisdom. Jivaro 117–18 John Paul II Pope 130 186 224 Johnson Lyndon 286 292 298 308 313 Johnson Philip 130 Classification behavioral propensities classification body parts classification colors classification fauna classification flora classification inner states classification kin classification sex classification space classification tools classification weather conditions coalitions collective identities conflict  {436}  conflict consultation to deal with conflict means dealing with conflict mediation conjectural reasoning containers continua (ordering as cognitive pattern) Lewontin Richard 109 111 112 113–14 122–23. Democracy 296–98 Denfeld Rene 343 Dennett Dan 10 177 216 Derrida Jacques 208 Derriere. The FIRST EDITION Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene contained a foreword by the biologist who originated some its key ideas Robert Trivers He closed with a flourish: Darwinian social theory gives us a glimpse an underlying symmetry and logic in social relationships which when more fully comprehended by ourselves should revitalize our political understanding and provide the intellectual support for a science and medicine psychology In the process it should also give us a deeper understanding the many roots our suffering.1 Rage Against the Machine 246–47 300 Raising Cain (Kindlon) 309 Ramachandran V S 405. Brock D W 1993 Life and death: Philosophical essays in biomedical ethics New York: Cambridge University Press Brooker P 1999 A concise glossary cultural theory New York: Oxford University Press Brown D E \99\ Human universals New York: McGraw–Hill Brown D E 2000 Human universals and their implications In N Roughley (Ed.) Being humans: Anthropological universality and particularity in transdisciplinary perspectives New York: Walter de Gruyter Brown R 1985 Social psychology: The second edition New York: Free Press Browne K 1998 Divided labors: An evolutionary view women at work London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson Brownmiller S 1975 Against our will: Men women and rape New York: Fawcett Columbine  {464}  51. from “The figure the youth as virile poet”; Stevens 1965 52. Jackendf 1987; Pinker 1997; Pinker 1999 53. Bailey 2000 54. Sen 1984 55. Simon 1996 56. Bailey 2000; Romer 1991; Romer 8t Nelson 1996; P Romer “Ideas and things,” Economist September 11,1993 57. Romer & Nelson 1996 58. Quoted in M Kumar “Quantum reality,” Prometheus 2 pp 20–21 1999 59. Quoted in M Kumar “Quantum reality,” Prometheus 2 pp 20–21 1999. Thus languages must have a vocabulary signs related to specific meaning The English sign "dog" denotes for example a member the species Canis familiaris In a language the array arbitrary signs connected to specific meanings is called the lexicon and a single sign connected to a meaning is called a lexeme Not all meanings in a language are represented by single words ten semantic concepts are embedded in the morphology or syntax the language in the form grammatical categories.[61] The possibility that cortical areas are specialized for different tasks has been obscured by the fact that different parts the cortex look similar under a microscope But because the brain is an information-processing system that means little The microscopic pits on a CD look the same regardless what is recorded on it and the strings characters in different books look the same to someone who cannot read them In an information-carrying medium the content lies in combinatorial patterns among the elements — in the case the brain the details the microcircuitry — and not in their physical appearance. These changes were cemented by the bitter lessons lynchings world wars forced sterilizations and the Holocaust which showcased the grave implications denigrating an ethnic group But they emerged earlier in the twentieth century the spinf an unplanned experiment: the massive immigration social mobility and diffusion knowledge the modern era Most Victorian gentlemen could not have imagined that the coming century would see a nation-state forged by Jewish pioneers and soldiers a wave African American public intellectuals or a stware industry in Bangalore Nor could they have anticipated that women would lead nations in wars run huge corporations or win Nobel Prizes in science We now know that people both sexes and all races are capable attaining any station. An honest discussion human nature has never been more timely Throughout the twentieth century many intellectuals tried to rest principles decency on fragile factual claims such as that human beings are biologically indistinguishable harbor no ignoble motives and are utterly free in their ability to make choices These claims are now being called into question by discoveries in the sciences mind brain genes and evolution If nothing else the completion the Human Genome Project with its promise an unprecedented understanding the genetic roots the intellect and the emotions should serve as a wake-up call The new scientific challenge to the denial human nature leaves us with a challenge If we are not to abandon values such as peace and equality or our commitments to science and truth then we must pry these values away from claims about our psychological makeup that are vulnerable to being proven false. True the metaphor choice was no longer a scraped tablet or white paper Durkheim had spoken “indeterminate material,” some kind blob that was molded or pounded into shape by culture Perhaps the best modern metaphor is Silly Putty the rubbery stuff that children use both to copy printed matter (like a blank slate) and to mold into desired shapes (like indeterminate material) The malleability metaphor resurfaced in statements by two Boas's most famous students: Most people are shaped to the form their culture because the malleability their original endowment The great mass individuals take quite readily the form that is presented to them — Ruth Benedict (1934)36 The enigmatic final verse with its startling image God and the brain being hefted like cabbages has puzzled readers since the poem was published Some read it as creationism (God made the brain) others as atheism (the brain thought up God) The simile with phonology — sound is a seamless continuum a syllable is a demarcated unit it — suggests a kind pantheism: God is everywhere and nowhere and every brain incarnates a finite measure divinity The loophole “if they do” suggests mysticism — the brain and God may somehow be the same thing — and course agnosticism The ambiguity is surely intentional and I doubt that anyone could defend a single interpretation as the correct one. The answer is that the robot has to be equipped with an ability to see into the mind the person being imitated so that it can infer the person's goals and pick out the aspects behavior that the person intended to achieve the goal Cognitive scientists call this ability intuitive psychology folk psychology or a theory mind (The “theory” here refers to the tacit beliefs held by a person animal or robot not to the explicit beliefs scientists.) No existing robot comes close to having this ability. It has I believe been given to only one literary text to express all the principal constants conflict in the condition man These constants are  {267}  fivefold: the confrontation men and women; age and youth; society and the individual; the living and the dead; men and god(s) The conflicts which come these five orders confrontation are not negotiable Men and women old and young the individual and the community or state the quick and the dead mortals and immortals define themselves in the confiictual process defining each Because Greek myths encode certain primary biological and social confrontations and self-perceptions in the history man they endure as an animate legacy in collective memory and Natural selection 28 50 51–52 54 55 83 101 142 231 249       Dawkins on 318–19 An eminent woman engineer in the audience immediately denounced her analysis as “pseudoscience.” But Linda Gottfredson an expert in the literature on vocational preferences pointed out that Hausman had the data on her side: “On average women are more interested in dealing with people and men with things.” Vocational tests also show that boys are more interested in “realistic,” “theoretical,” and “investigative” pursuits and girls more interested in “artistic” and “social” pursuits. Pinker S 1990 A theory graph comprehension In R Friedle (Hi.) Artificial intelligence and the future testing Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Pinker S 1991 Rules language Science 253 530–535 Pinker S 1994 The language instinct New York: HarperCollins Pinker S 1996 Language learnability and language development revisited In Language learnability and language development Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Pinker S 1997 How the mind works New York: Norton Pinker S 1998 Still relevant after all these years (Review Darwin's “The expression the emotions in man and animals 3rd ed.”) Science 281 522–523  {481}  The rule we now hold is simply that an accused is not criminally responsible if his unlawful act was the product mental disease or mental defect Unless one believes that ordinary acts are chosen by a ghost in the machine all acts are products cognitive and emotional systems in the brain Criminal acts are relatively rare — if everyone in a defendant's shoes acted as he did the law against what he did would be repealed — so heinous acts will ten be products a brain system that is in someway different from the norm and the behavior can be construed as “a product mental disease or mental defect.” The Durham decision and similar insanity rules by distinguishing behavior that is a product a brain condition from behavior that is something else threatens to turn every advance in our understanding the mind into an erosion responsibility. But among many pressional women the existence sex differences is still a source discomfort As one colleague said to me “Look I know that males and females are not identical I see it in my kids I see it in myself I know about the research I can't explain it but when I read claims about sex differences steam comes out my ears” The most likely cause her disquiet is captured in a recent editorial by Betty Friedan the counder the National Organization for Women and the author the 1963 book The Feminine Mystique: Meanwhile the notion a self — a self who exercises self-discipline postpones gratification curbs the sexual appetite stops short aggression and criminal behavior — a self who can become more intelligent and lift itself to the very peaks life by its own bootstraps through study practice perseverance and refusal to give up in the face great odds — this old-fashioned notion (what's a bootstrap for God's sake?) success through enterprise and true grit is already slipping away slipping away slipping away 41 “Where does that leave self-control?” he asks “Where indeed if people believe this ghostly self does not even exist and brain imaging proves it once and for all?”42 31. ahn et al 2001; Frazer 1890/1996; Rozin 1996; Rozin Markwith & Stoess 1997; P Stevens 2001 (but see also M Stevens 2001) 32. Rozin & Fallon 1987 33. Ahn etal 2001 34. Rozin 1996; Rozin & Fallon 1987; Rozin Markwith & Stoess 1997 35. Rozin 1996 36. Mayr 1982 37. Ames Pret & Gold 1990; Lewis 1990; G Gray & D Ropeik “What me worry?” Boston Globe November 11,2001 p E8 38. Marks & Nesse 1994; Seligman 1971 39. Slovic Fisch & Lichtenstein 1982. The computational theory mind does more than explain the existence  {33}  knowing thinking and trying without invoking a ghost in the machine (though that would be enough a feat) It also explains how those processes can be intelligent — how rationality can emerge from a mindless physical process If a sequence transformations information stored in a hunk matter (such as brain tissue or silicon) mirrors a sequence deductions that obey the laws logic probability or cause and effect in the world they will generate correct predictions about the world And making correct predictions in pursuit a goal is a pretty good “intelligence.”3   THE BLANK SLATE The Modern Denial Human Nature     Steven Pinker   PENGUIN BOOKS   We are repelled by the prospect cloning human beings not because the strangeness or novelty the undertaking but because we intuit and feel immediately and without argument the violation things that we rightfully hold dear Repugnance here as elsewhere revolts against the excesses human willfulness warning us not to transgress what is unspeakably pround Indeed in this age in which everything is held to be permissible so long as it is freely done in which our given human nature no longer commands respect in which our bodies are regarded as mere instruments our autonomous rational wills repugnance may be the only voice left that speaks up to defend the central core our humanity Shallow are the souls that have forgotten. The wiring problems are different again for other parts the brain such as the medulla which generates the swallowing reflex and other fixed action patterns; the amygdala which handles fear and other emotions; and the ventromedial frontal cortex which is involved in social reasoning The fire-together-wire-together technique may be an ideal method for sensory maps and other structures that simply have to reproduce redundancies in the world or in other parts the brain such as primary sensory cortex for seeing touching and hearing But other regions evolved with different functions such as smelling or swallowing or avoiding danger or winning friends and they have to be wired by more complicated techniques This is simply a corollary the general point with which I began the chapter: the environment cannot tell the various parts an organism what their. The content evolutionary psychology has derived from on the one hand the biological sciences (especially evolutionary theory as it relates to ancient human environments the study paleoanthropology and animal behavior) and on the other the human sciences especially psychology The BLANK SLATE   Steven Pinker is Johnstone Pressor Psychology at Harvard University His research on visual cognition and the psychology language has earned prizes from the National Academy Sciences and the American Psychological Association Pinker has also received many awards for his teaching at MIT and for his books How the Mind Works (which was also a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize) and The Language Instinct He is an elected fellow several scientific societies associate editor Cognition and a member the usage panel the American Heritage Dictionary He has written for The New York Times Time The New Yorker The New Republic Slate and Technology Review   ~ Praise for The Blank Slate   Rape viii 160–61 162–63 164 176 340 346 359–71 22. see Chapters 3 and 17 especially the references in notes 39 52 53 72 73 and 74 in Chapter 3 and notes 42 43 and 45 in Chapter 17. How does a psychological event — an invention an affectation a decision to treat a certain kind person in a certain way — turn into a sociocultural fact — a tradition a custom an ethos a way life? We should understand culture according to the cognitive anthropologist Dan Sperber as the epidemiology mental representations: the spread ideas and practices from person to Many scientists now use the mathematical tools epidemiology (how diseases spread) or population biology (how genes and organisms spread) to model the evolution They have shown how a tendency people to adopt the innovations other people can lead to effects that we understand using metaphors like epidemics wildfire snowballs and tipping points Individual psychology turns into collective culture. Female fear [results] not only from women's personal backgrounds but from what women as a group have imbibed from history religion culture social institutions and everyday social interactions Learned early in life female fear is continually reinforced by such  {366}  social institutions as the school the church the law and the press Much is also learned from parents siblings teachers and The autonomy-community-divinity trichotomy was first developed by the anthropologist Richard Shweder who noted that non-Western traditions have rich systems beliefs and values with all the hallmarks moralizing but without the Western concept individual rights.5 The elaborate Hindu beliefs surrounding purification are a prime example Haidt and the psychologist Paul Rozin have built on Shweder's work but they have interpreted the moral spheres not as arbitrary cultural variants but as universal mental faculties with different evolutionary origins and functions.6 They show that the moral spheres differ in their cognitive content their homologues in other animals their physiological correlates and their neural underpinnings. Enlightenment 5–7 10–11 18 22 251 337–38 341 environmentalism 154 162 Equal Protection clause 298 War Against Boys The (Sommers) 172 Ward Elizabeth 383 warfare 125 160 306–7 321 322 324 326 333–36  {509}  Pronouns minimum three persons  {438}  proper names property psychological defense mechanisms rape rape proscribed reciprocal exchanges ( labor goods or services) reciprocity negative (revenge retaliation) reciprocity positive recognition individuals by face redress wrongs rhythm right-handedness as population norm rites passage rituals role and personality seen in dynamic interrelationship (i.e departures from role can be explained in terms individual personality) sanctions sanctions for crimes against the collectivity sanctions include removal from the social unit Far from being conducive to discrimination a conception human nature is the reason we oppose it Here is where the distinction between innate variation and innate universals is crucial Regardless IQ or physical strength or any other trait that can vary all humans can be assumed to have certain traits in common No one likes being enslaved No one likes being humiliated No one likes being treated unfairly that is according to traits that the person cannot control The revulsion we feel toward discrimination and slavery comes from a conviction that however much people vary on some traits they do not vary on these This conviction contrasts by the way with the supposedly progressive doctrine that people have no inherent concerns which implies that they could be conditioned to enjoy servitude or degradation. Humanities 6 31 60 68 69–72 75 134 285 356 400–420 Kroeber did not just deny that social behavior could be explained by innate properties minds He denied that it could be explained by any properties minds A culture he wrote is superorganic — it floats in its own universe free the flesh and blood actual men and women: “Civilization is not mental action but a body or stream products mental exercise Mentality relates to the individual The social or cultural on the other hand is in its essence non-individual Civilization as such begins only where the individual ends.”29 These two ideas — the denial human nature and the autonomy culture from individual minds — were also articulated by the founder sociology Emile Durkheim (1858–1917) who had foreshadowed Kroeber's doctrine the superorganic mind: Real Boys (Pollack) 309 realism naïve 199 recursion 36–37 79–81 236 336 Redmond. 39. tierney 2000 40. University Michigan Report on the Ongoing Investigation the Neel-Chagnon Allegations ( .edu/~urel ); John J Miller “The Fierce People: The wages anthropological incorrectness,” National Review November 20,2000. In social psychology experiments people consistently overrate their own skill honesty generosity and autonomy They overestimate their contribution to a joint effort chalk up their successes to skill and their failures to luck and always feel that the other side has gotten the better deal in a People keep up these self-serving illusions even when they are wired to what they think is an accurate lie-detector This shows that they are not lying to the experimenter but lying to themselves For decades every psychology student has learned about “cognitive dissonance reduction,” in which people change whatever opinion it takes to maintain a positive self- The cartoonist Scott Adams illustrates it well:     Babcock L & Loewenstein G 1997 Explaining bargaining impasse: The role self–serving biases Journal Economic Perspectives 11 109–126 Baddeley A D 1986 Working memory New York: Oxford University Press Bailey R 2000 The law increasing returns Public Interest 59 113–121 Bailyn B 1967/1992 The ideological origins the American revolution Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Baker M 2001 The atoms language New York: Basic Books Baldwin D A 1991 Infants’ contribution to the achievement joint reference Child Development 62 875–890 Bamforth D B 1994 Indigenous people indigenous violence: Precontact warfare on the North American Great Plains Man 29 95–115. Behavioral genetics does have its critics who have tried to find alternative  {376}  interpretations for the First Law Perhaps children separated at birth are deliberately placed in similar adoptive families Perhaps they have contact with each other during their separation Perhaps parents expect identical twins to be more alike and so treat them more alike Twins share a womb not just their genes and identical twins sometimes share a chorion (the membrane surrounding the fetus) and a placenta as well Perhaps it is their shared prenatal experience not their shared genes that makes them. Twentieth-Century SOCIAL SCIENCE embraced not just the Blank Slate and the Noble Savage but the third member the trinity the Ghost in the Machine The declaration that we can change what we don't like about ourselves became a watchword social science But that only raises the question “Who or what is the ‘we'?” If the “we” doing the remaking are just other hunks matter in the biological world then any malleability behavior we discover would be cold comfort because we the molders would be biologically constrained and therefore might not mold people or allow ourselves to be molded in the most socially salutary way A ghost in the machine is the ultimate liberator human will — including the will to change society — from mechanical causation The anthropologist Loren Eiseley made this clear when. Gur R C Turetsky B I Matsui M Yan M Bilker W Hughett P & Gur R E 1999 Sex differences in brain gray and white matter in healthy young adults: Correlations with cognitive l Neuroscie–4072 Gutknecht L Spitz E & Carlier M 1999 Long–term effect placental type on anthropometrical and psychological traits among monozygotic twins: A follow–up study Twin Research 2 212–217 Hacking The social construction what? Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press  {472}  Hadley R F 1994a Systematicity in connectionist language learning Mind and Language 9 247–272 Hadley R F 1994b Systematicity revisited: Reply to Christiansen and Chater and Niklasson and Van Gelder Mind and Language 9 431–444. ~ THE SECOND BRIDGE between mind and matter is neuroscience especially cognitive neuroscience the study how cognition and emotion are implemented in the cis Crick wrote a book about the brain called The Astonishing Hypothesis alluding to the idea that all our thoughts and feelings joys and aches dreams and wishes consist in the physiological activity the Jaded neuroscientists who take the idea for granted snickered at the title but Crick was right: the hypothesis is astonishing to most people the first time they stop to ponder it Who cannot sympathize with the imprisoned Dmitri Karamazov as he tries to make sense what he has just learned from a visiting academic? If the nongenetic component personality is the outcome neurodevelopmental roulette it would present us with two surprises One is that just as the “genetic” term in the behavioral geneticist's equation is not necessarily genetic the “environmental” term is not necessarily environmental If the unexplained variance is a product chance events in brain assembly yet another chunk our personalities would be “biologically determined” (though not genetic) and beyond the scope the best-laid plans parents and society. There is another way that a home environment could differ among children in the same family for reasons having nothing to do with their genes: birth order A firstborn usually has several years undivided parental attention with no annoying siblings around Laterborns have to compete with their siblings for parental attention and other family resources and have to figure out how to hold their own against stronger and more entrenched competitors.       empiricism 5 22 23 27–28 34 36 124       autism and 62       see also Blank Slate employment gender gap in 351–61 In this way I find myself in agreement with the radical scientists who insist that we will never understand violence by looking only at the genes or brains violent people Violence is a social and political problem not just a biological and psychological one Nonetheless the phenomena we call “social” and “political” are not external happenings that mysteriously affect human affairs like sunspots; they are shared understandings among individuals at a given time and place So one cannot understand violence without a thorough understanding the. 61. bourke 1999 pp 63–64; Graves 1992; Spiller 1988 62. Bourke 1999; Glover 1999; Horowitz 2001 63. Daly & Wilson 1988; Glover 1999; Schelling 1960 64. Chagnon 1992; Daly & Wilson 1988; Wrangham & Peterson 1996 65. Van den Berghe 1981 66. Epstein 1994; Epstein & Axtell 1996; Richardson 1960; Saperstein 1995 67. Chagnon 1988; Chagnon 1992 68. Glover 1999 69. Vasquez 1992 70. Rosen 1992 71. Wrangham 1999. This nightmarish story — a real anthropological heart darkness beyond the imagining even a Josef Conrad (though not perhaps a Josef Mengele) — will be seen (rightly in our view) by the public as well as most anthropologists as putting the whole discipline on trial As another reader the galleys put it This book should shake anthropology to its very foundations It should cause the field to understand how the corrupt and depraved protagonists could have spread their poison for so long while they were accorded great respect throughout the Western World and generations undergraduates received their lies as the introductory substance anthropology This should never be allowed to happen again. Drake S 1970 Galileo studies: Personality tradition and revolution Ann Arbor: University Michigan Press Dugatkin L 1992 The evolution the con artist Ethology and Sociobiology 13 3–J 8 Dunbar R 1998 Grooming gossip and the evolution language Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Dunn J & Plomin R 1990 Separate lives: Why siblings are so different New York: Basic Books Dunphy D 1963 The social structure early adolescent peer groups Sociometry 26 230–246 Durham W H 1982 Interactions genetic and cultural evolution: Models and examples Human Ecology 10 299–334 Durkheim E 1895/1962 The rules the sociological method Glencoe 111.:. And the fuzziest categories all are other people's intentions Is he a loyal member the coalition (one that I would want to have in my foxhole) or a quisling who will bail out when times get tough? Does his heart lie with his father's clan or with his father-in-law's? Is she a suspiciously merry widow or just getting on with her life? Is he dissing me or just in a hurry? Initiation rites tribal badges prescribed periods mourning and ritualized forms address may not answer these questions definitively but they can remove clouds suspicion that would otherwise hang over people's heads. In the economic or social contract tradition society is an arrangement negotiated by rational self-interested individuals Society emerges when people agree to sacrifice some their autonomy in exchange for security from the depredations others wielding their autonomy It is the tradition Thrasymachus in Plato's Republic and Machiavelli Hobbes Locke Rousseau Smith and Bentham In the twentieth century it became the basis for the rational actor or “economic man” models in economics and political science and for cost-benefit analyses public choices. <<  {vii}  >>   The NURTURE ASSUMPTION was by any standard a major contribution to modern intellectual life Though the main idea is at first counterintuitive the book has the ring truth with real children running through it not compliant little theoretical constructs that no one ever meets in real life Harris backed up her hypothesis with voluminous data from many fields interpreted with a keen analytical eye and with a rarity in the social sciences: proposals for new empirical tests that might falsify it The book also contains original policy suggestions on tough problems for which we sorely need new ideas such as failing schools teenage smoking and juvenile delinquency Even if major parts turn out to be wrong the book forces one to think about childhood and therefore what makes us what we are in a fresh and insightful way  {393}  Group selection in any case does not deserve its feel-good reputation Whether or not it endowed us with generosity toward the members our group it would certainly have endowed us with a hatred the members other groups because it favors whatever traits lead one group to prevail over its rivals (Recall that group selection was the version Darwinism that got twisted into Nazism.) This does not mean that group selection is incorrect only that subscribing to a scientific theory for its apparent political palatability can backfire As Williams put it “To claim that [natural selection at the level competing groups] is morally superior to natural selection at the level competing individuals would imply in its human application that systematic genocide is morally superior to random murder.”63 ~ The peculiar mixture fairness status and purity constituting the moral sense should make us suspicious appeals to raw sentiment in resolving difficult moral issues In an influential essay called “The Wisdom Repugnance,” Leon Kass (now the chair George W Bush's Council on Bioethics) argued that we should abandon moral reasoning when it comes to cloning and go with our gut feelings: Language is a system that consists the development acquisition maintenance and use complex systems communication particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example such a system These puzzles have an infuriatingly holistic quality to them Consciousness and free will seem to suffuse the neurobiological phenomena at every level and cannot be pinpointed to any combination or interaction among parts The best analyses from our combinatorial intellects provide no hooks on which we can hang these strange entities and thinkers seem condemned either to denying their existence or to wallowing in mysticism For better or worse our world might always contain a wisp mystery and our descendants might endlessly ponder the age-old conundrums religion and philosophy which ultimately hinge on concepts matter and Ambrose Bierce's The Devil's Dictionary contains the following entry: Smoking 275 373 391 393 Smolensky Paul 80 Smothers Brothers 250 Smuts Barbara 342 Sober Elliot 259 Herrnstein's argument does not imply that any differences in average intelligence between races are innate (a distinct hypothesis that had been broached by the psychologist Arthur Jensen two years earlier),4and he explicitly denied that he was making such a claim School desegregation was less than a generation old civil rights legislation less than a decade so the differences that had been documented in average IQ scores blacks and whites could easily be explained by differences in opportunity Indeed to say that Herrnstein's syllogism implied that black people would end up at the bottom a genetically stratified society was to add the gratuitous assumption that blacks were on average genetically less intelligent which Herrnstein took pains. Gazzaniga Michael 43 Geary David 222–23 Geertz Clifford 25 208 Gell–Mann Murray 239 Gelman Susan 230 gender see sex differences New York Times 86 179 339 349 414 Nietzsche Friedrich 131 139 207 nihilism 269       religion concerns about 186–90 The decimation native Americans by European disease and genocide over five hundred years is indeed one the great crimes history But it is bizarre to blame the crime on a handful contemporary scientists struggling to document their lifestyle before it vanishes forever under the pressures assimilation And it is a dangerous tactic Surely indigenous peoples have a right to survive in their lands whether or not they — like all human societies — are prone to violence and warfare Self-appointed “advocates” who link the survival native peoples to the doctrine the Noble Savage paint themselves into a terrible corner When the facts show otherwise they either have inadvertently weakened the case for native rights or must engage in any means necessary to suppress. Connectionists have used the past tense as a proving ground to see if they could duplicate this textbook example human creativity without using a rule and without dividing the labor between a system for memory and a system for grammatical combination A series computer models have tried to generate past-tense forms using simple pattern associator networks The networks typically connect the sounds in verbs with the sounds in the past-tense form: -am with -ammed -ing with -ung and so on The models can then generate new forms by analogy just like the generalization from tigers to lions: trained oncrammed a model can guess spammed; trained on folded it tends to say holded. We are swimming in culture drowning in it So why all the lamentations about its plight decline fall collapse twilight. 53. blair & Cipolotti 2000; Hare 1993; Kirwin 1997; Lykken 1995; Mealey 1995 54. Anderson et al 1999; Blair & Cipolotti 2000; Lalumiere Harris & Rice 2001; Lykken 2000; Mealey 1995; Rice 1997 55. Barkow Cosmides & Tooby 1992; Betzig 1997; Buss 1999; Cartwright 2000; Crawford & Krebs 1998; Evans & Zarate 1999; Gaulin & McBurney 2000; Pinker 1997; Pope 2000; Wright 1994 56. Dawkins 1983; Dawkins 1986; Gould 1980; Maynard Smith 1975/1993; Ridley 1986; Williams 1966 57. Dawkins 1983; Dawkins 1986; Maynard Smith 1975/1993; Ridley 1986; Williams 1966 58. The improved metaphor “megalomaniacal gene” was suggested by the philosopher Colin McGinn. The economist Robert Frank has appealed to the evolutionary psychology status to point out other shortcomings the rational-actor theory and by extension laissez-faire Rational actors should eschew not only forced retirement savings but other policies that ostensibly protect them such as mandatory health benefits workplace safety regulations unemployment insurance and union dues All these cost money that would otherwise go into their paychecks and workers could decide for themselves whether to take a pay cut to work for a company with the most paternalistic policies or go for the biggest salary and take higher risks on the job Companies in their competition for the best employees should find the balance demanded by the employees. The Darwinian left has ranged from vague expressions values to wonk-ish policy initiatives We have already met two theoreticians at the vaguer end Chomsky has been the most vocal defender an innate cognitive endowment since he nailed his thesis an inborn language faculty to the behaviorists’ door in the late 1950s He has also been a fierce left-wing critic American society and has recently inspired a whole new generation campus radicals (as we saw in his interview with Rage Against the Machine) Chomsky insists that the connections between his science and his politics are slender. In his thoughtful review Jones explores how the legal issues surrounding rape can be clarified by a more sophisticated understanding that does not rule the sexual component out bounds One example is “chemical castration,” voluntary injections the drug Depo-Provera which inhibits the release androgens and reduces the fender's sex drive It is sometimes given to fenders who are morbidly obsessed with sex and compulsively commit crimes such as rape indecent exposure and child abuse Chemical castration can cut recidivism rates dramatically — in one study from 46 percent to 3 percent Use the drug certainly raises serious constitutional issues about privacy and punishment which biology alone cannot decide But the issues become cloudier not clearer when commentators declare a priori that “castration will not work because rape is not a crime about sex but rather a crime about power and violence.” Memory 32 40 42 203 209–10 214–16 Mencken H L 26 276 Mendel Gregor. Third there is no question whether women are “qualified” to be scientists CEOs leaders nations or elite pressionals any other kind That was decisively answered years ago: some are and some aren't just as some men are qualified and some aren't The only question is whether the proportions qualified men and women must be identical As in many other topics related to human nature people's unwillingness to think in statistical terms has led to pointless false dichotomies Here is how to think about gender distributions in the pressions without having to choose between the extremes “women are unqualified” and “fifty-fifty absolutely,” or between “there is no discrimination” and “there is nothing but discrimination.” There is a widespread belief that connectionist models (and modelers) are committed to an extreme form empiricism; and that any form innate knowledge is to be avoided like the plague We obviously do not subscribe to this point view There are good reasons to believe that some kinds prior constraints [on learning models] are necessary In fact all connectionist models necessarily make some assumptions which must be regarded as constituting innate The disagreements between the two poles though significant are over the details: how many innate learning networks there are and how specifically engineered they are for particular jobs (We will explore some these disagreements in Chapter 5.) At the same time none these forces can be understood without taking into account the thought processes flesh-and-blood people They include the Britons who reanalyzed French words when they absorbed them into English the children who failed to remember irregular past-tense forms like writhe-wrothe and crow-crew and converted them into regular verbs the aristocrats who affected fussy pronunciations to differentiate themselves from the rabble the mumblers who swallowed consonants to leave us made and had (originally maked and haved) and the clever speakers who first converted I had the house built to I had built the house and inadvertently gave English its perfect tense Language is re-created every generation as it passes through the minds the humans. The taboo on thinking about core values is not totally irrational We judge people not just on what they do but on what they are — not just on whether someone has given more than he has taken but on whether he is the kind person who would sell you down the river or knife you in the back if it were ever in his interests to do so To determine whether someone is emotionally committed to a relationship guaranteeing the veracity his promises one should ascertain how he thinks: whether he holds your interests sacred or constantly weighs them against the prits to be made by selling you out The notion character joins the moral picture and with it the notion moral identity: the concept one's own character that is maintained internally and projected to others. Updike John 431 urban renewal 170–71 usury 235 utopianism 169–70 Utopian Vision 287–305 Valian Virginia 206 Vanatinai 339 The belief that bodies are invested with souls is not just a product religious doctrine but embedded in people's psychology and likely to emerge whenever they have not digested the findings biology The public reaction to cloning is a case in point Some people fear that cloning would present us with the option becoming immortal others that it could produce an army obedient zombies or a source organs for the original person to harvest when needed In the recent Arnold Schwarzenegger movie The Sixth Day clones are called “blanks,” and their DNA gives them only a physical form not a mind; they acquire a mind when a neural recording the original person is downloaded into them When Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1997 the cover Der Spiegel showed a parade Claudia Schiffers Hitlers and Einsteins as if being a supermodel fascist dictator or scientific genius could be copied along with. Alexander Richard 195 253. Behavior is not a manifestation hereditary factors nor can it be expressed in terms heredity [It is] a passive and forced movement mechanically and solely determined by the structural pattern the organism and the nature environmental forces All our sexual appetites are the result social stimulation The organism possesses no ready-made reaction to the other sex any more than it possesses innate Rue L 1994 By the grace guile: The role deception in natural history and human affairs New York Oxford University Press Rumelhart D E & McClelland J L 1986 PDP models and general issues in cognitive science In D E Rumelhart J L McClelland & the PDP Research Group (Eds.) Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure cognition (Vol 1: Foundations) Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Rumelhart D E McClelland J L & the PDP Research Group 1986 Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure cognition (Vol 1: Foundations) Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Ruse M 1998 Taking Darwin seriously: A naturalistic approach to philosophy Amherst N.Y.: Prometheus Books. Tooby J & Cosmides L 1990 On the universality human nature and the uniqueness the individual: The role genetics and adaptation Journal Personality 58 17–67 Tooby J & Cosmides L 1992 Psychological foundations culture In J Barkow L Cosmides & J Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation culture New York: Oxford University Press Tooby J & DeVore The reconstruction hominid evolution through strategic modeling In W G Kinzey (Ed.) The evolution human behavior: Primate models Albany N.Y.: SUNY Press Tooley M 1972 Abortion and infanticide Philosophy and Public Affairs 2 37–65 Toussaint–Samat M 1992 History food Cambridge Mass.: Blackwell. All the more reason not to get sidetracked by emotionally charged but morally irrelevant red herrings The sciences human nature can strengthen the interests women by separating those herrings from the truly important goals Feminism as a movement for political and social equity is important but feminism as an academic clique committed to eccentric doctrines about human nature is not Eliminating discrimination against women is important but believing that women and men are born with indistinguishable minds is not Freedom choice is important but ensuring that women make up exactly 50 percent all pressions is not And eliminating sexual assaults is important but advancing the theory that rapists are doing their part in a vast male conspiracy. “[Pinker] points us in the direction a more productive debate a debate in which the implications science are confronted forthrightly and not simply wished away by politicized scientists.” — Francis Fukuyama The Wall Street Journal  {iii}    “The Blank Slate is a stylish piece work I won't say it is better than The Language Instinct or How the Mind Works but it is as good — which is very high praise indeed What a superb thinker and writer he is: what a role model to young scientists And how courageous to buck the liberal trend in science while remaining in person the best sort liberal Pinker is a star and the world science is lucky to have him.” — Richard Dawkins The Times Literary Supplement   Locke could not have imagined that his words would someday lead to Bambi (intended by Disney to teach self-reliance); nor could Rousseau have anticipated Pocahontas the ultimate noble savage Indeed the soul Rousseau seems to have been channeled by the writer a recent Thanksgiving op-ed piece in the Boston Globe: Social psychologists have amply documented that people have a powerful urge to do as their neighbors do When unwitting subjects are surrounded by confederates the experimenter who have been paid to do something odd many or most will go along They will defy their own eyes and call a long line “short” or vice versa nonchalantly fill out a questionnaire as smoke pours out a heating vent or (in aCandid Camera sketch) suddenly strip down to their underwear for no apparent But the social psychologists point out that human conformity no matter how hilarious it looks in contrived experiments has a genuine rationale in social life — indeed two Epstein J & Axtell R L 1996 Growing artificial societies: Social science from the bottom up Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Erikson M A & Kruschke J K 1998 Rules and exemplars in category learning Journal Experimental Psychology: General 127 107–140 Estrich S 2000 Sex and power New York: Riverhead Press Etcf N L 1999 Survival the prettiest: The science beauty New York: Doubleday Evans D & Zarate Introducing evolutionary psychology New York: Totem Books Evans D A 1998 Evolution and literature South Dakota Review 36 33–46 Faigman D L 1999 Legal alchemy: The use and misuse science in the law New York: W H Freeman. Poets and novelists have made many the points this book with greater wit and power than any academic scribbler could hope to do They allow me to conclude the book by revisiting some its main themes without merely repeating them What follows are five vignettes from literature that capture for me some the morals the sciences human nature They underscore that the discoveries those sciences should be faced not with fear and loathing but with the balance and discernment we use when we reflect on human nature in the rest our lives ~ The Brain — is wider than the Sky — For — put them side by side — The one the other will contain With ease — and you — beside — The Brain is deeper than the sea — Ellwood Charles 27 Elman Jeffrey 35–36 84 Elshtain Jean Bethke 342 Ember Carol 57 emotions 39–40 168       altruism. Perlf M 1999 In defense poetry: Put the literature back into literary studies Boston Review 24 22–26 Perry B D 1997 Incubated in terror: Neurobiological factors in the “cycle violence.” In J D Ossky (Ed.) Children in a violent society New York: Guilford Press Persico N Postlewaite A & Silverman D 2001 The effect adolescent experience on labor market outcomes: The case height Philadelphia: Department Economics University Pennsylvania Petitto L A Zatorre R J Gauna K Nikelski E J Dostie D & Evans A C 2000 Speech–like cerebral activity in proundly deaf people while processing signed language: Implications for the neural basis all human language Proceedings the National Academy Scien1–13966. Spoken language relies on human physical ability to produce sound which is a longitudinal wave propagated through the air at a frequency capable vibrating the ear drum This ability depends on the physiology the human speech organs These organs consist the lungs the voice box (larynx) and the upper vocal tract – the throat the mouth and the nose By controlling the different parts the speech apparatus the airstream can be manipulated to produce different speech sounds.[52] Why are most people repelled by this vision? Critics Skinner's Beyond Freedom and Dignity pointed out that no one doubts that behavior can be controlled; putting a gun to someone's head or threatening him with torture are time-honored Even Skinner's preferred method operant conditioning required starving the organism to 80 percent its free-feeding weight and confining it to a box where schedules reinforcement were carefully controlled The issue is not whether we can change human behavior but at. 3. atran 1995; Atran 1998; Gelman Coley & Gottfried 1994; Keil 1995 4. Bloom 1996; Keil 1989 5. Gallistel 1990; Kosslyn 1994 6. Butterworth 1999; Dehaene 1997; Devlin 2000; Geary 1994; Lakf & Nunez 2000 7. Cosmides & Tooby 1996; Gigerenzer 1997; Kahneman & Tversky 1982 8. Braine 1994; Jackendf 1990; Macnamara & Reyes 1994; Pinker 1989 9. Pinker 1994; Pinker 1999 10. Quoted in Ravitch 2000 p 388 11. McGuinness 1997 12. Geary 1994;. John Updike also asked for reflections at the turn the millennium commented on the future his own pression “A writer fiction a pressional liar is paradoxically obsessed with what is true,” he wrote and “the unit truth at least for a fiction writer is the human animal belonging to the species Homo sapiens unchanged for at least 100,000 years.” 6. special focus Art is set aside from ordinary life and made a dramatic focus experience 7. Imagination Artists and their audiences entertain hypothetical worlds in the theater the imagination. Kant Immanuel 180 193 287 301 332–33 Kantor J R 19–20 Karamazov Dmitri 85 Kasparov. Consciousness meets George Williams' criteria species universality complexity,[59] and functionality and it is a trait that apparently increases fitness.[60] Some the properties that define human language as opposed to other communication systems are: the arbitrariness the linguistic sign meaning that there is no predictable connection between a linguistic sign and its meaning; the duality the linguistic system meaning that linguistic structures are built by combining elements into larger structures that can be seen as layered e.g how sounds build words and words build phrases; the discreteness the elements language meaning that the elements out which linguistic signs are constructed are discrete units e.g sounds and words that can be distinguished from each other and rearranged in different patterns; and the productivity the linguistic system meaning that the finite number linguistic elements can be combined into a theoretically infinite number combinations.[58] Social contract 8 150–51 193 285–86 296 330 Social Contract The (Rousseau) 8 Though the exact forms art vary widely across cultures the activities making and appreciating art are recognizable everywhere The philosopher Denis Dutton has identified seven universal signatures:25 1. Expertise or virtuosity Technical artistic skills are cultivated recognized and admired 2. Nonutilitarian pleasure People enjoy art for art's sake and don't demand that it keep them warm or put food on the table 3. Style Artistic objects and performances satisfy rules composition that place them in a recognizable style 4. Criticism People make a point judging appreciating and interpreting works art 5. Imitation With a few important exceptions like music and abstract painting works art simulate experiences. The Constitution McGinnis shows was consciously designed to implement these goals It encouraged reciprocal exchanges through the Commerce Clause which authorized Congress to remove barriers to trade imposed by the states It protected them from the danger cheaters through the Contracts Clause which prevented states from impairing the enforcement contracts And it precluded rulers from confiscating the fruits the more productive citizens via the Takings Clause which forbids the government to expropriate private property without compensation. In an interview in the New York Times Magazine Carol Gilligan explained the implications her (preposterous) theory that behavior problems in boys such as stuttering and hyperactivity are caused by cultural norms that pressure them to separate from their mothers:  {172}  Q: You would argue that men's biology is not so powerful that we can't change the culture men? A: Right We have to build a culture that doesn't reward that separation from the person who raised them Q: Everything you've said suggests that unless men change in fundamental ways we're not going to have a sea change in the culture A: That seems. The same is true for our emotions toward family and friends: the richness and intensity the feelings in our minds are pro the preciousness and fragility those bonds in life In short without the possibility suffering what we would have is not harmonious bliss but rather no consciousness at all <<  {269}  >>   Chapter 15 Child abuse 164–65 308–9 child development:       chance in 396       family effects in 249 378–99       heritability traits in 373–78 Saperstein A M 1995 War and chaos American Scientist 83 548–557 Sapolsky R M 1997 The trouble with testosterone: And other essays on the biology the human predicament New York: Simon & Schuster Sayre–McCord G 1988 Essays on moral realism Ithaca N.Y.: Cornell University Press Scarr S & Carter–Saltzman 1979 Twin method: Defense a critical assumption Behavior Genetics 9 527–542 Scarr S & Weinberg R A 1981 The transmission authoritarian attitudes in families: Genetic  {484}  resemblance in social–political attitudes? In S Scarr (Ed.) Race social class and individual differences in IQ Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum. Anderson S W Bechara A Damasio H Tranel D & Damasio A R 1999 Impairment social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex Nature Neuroscience 2 1032–1037 Andreasen N C Flaum M Swayze V O'Leary D S Alliger R Cohen G Ehrhardt J & Yuh W T C 1993 Intelligence and brain structure in normal individuals American Journal Psychiatry 150 130–134 Antonaccio M & Schweiker W (Eds.) 1996 Iris Murdoch and the search for human goodness Chicago: University Chicago Press Archibald W P 1989 Marx and the missing link: Human nature Atlantic Highlands N.J.: Humanities Press International Arditi A Holtzman J D & Kosslyn S M 1988 Mental imagery and sensory experience in congenital blindness Neuropsychologia 26 1–12. ~ An emphasis on the open-endedness human rationality resonates with the finding from cognitive science that the mind is a combinatorial recursive Not only do we have thoughts but we have thoughts about our thoughts and thoughts about our thoughts about our thoughts The advances in human conflict resolution we have encountered in this chapter — submitting to the rule law figuring out a way for both sides to back down without losing face acknowledging the possibility one's own self-deception accepting the equivalence one's own interests and other people's — depend on this ability. However languages differ from biological organisms in that they readily incorporate elements from other languages through the process of diffusion as speakers of different languages come into contact Humans also frequently speak more than one language acquiring their first language or languages as children or learning new languages as they grow up Because of the increased language contact in the globalizing world many small languages are becoming endangered as their speakers shift to other languages that afford the possibility to participate in larger and more influential speech communities.[94]       behavioral genetics and 373 379 Intelligent Design 130 133 interest lending at 234–35 intuitive psychology see theory mind Iroquois Federation 296 Israel. Singer like Twain protests too much against the possibility that his readers might draw morals from the slice life he presents “Although I did not have the privilege going through the Hitler holocaust I have lived for years in New York with refugees from this ordeal I therefore hasten to say that this novel is by no means the story the typical refugee his life and struggle The characters are not only Nazi victims but victims their own personalities and fates.” In literature the exception is the rule Singer writes but only after noting that the exception is rooted in the rule Singer has been praised as a keen observer human nature not least because he imagines what happens when fate puts ordinary characters in extraordinary dilemmas This is the conceit behind his book and the superb 1989 film adaptation directed by Paul Mazursky and featuring Anjelica Huston and Ron Silver. But let's say that these parent-child interactions (in the technical sense) really do exist and really do shape the child The moral would be that across-the-board parenting advice is useless Anything that parents do to make some children better will make an equal number children worse. 1. kaplan 1973 p 10 2. E Felsenthal “Man's genes made him kill his lawyers claim,” Wall Street Journal November 15,1994 The defense was unsuccessful: see “Mobley v The State,” Supreme Court Georgia March 17,1995,265 Ga 292,455 S. 3. “Lawyers may use genetics study in rape defense,” National Post (Canada) Janu p A8 4. Jones 2000; Jones 1999 5. Dennett 1984 See also Kane 1998; Nozick 1981 pp 317–362; Ridley 2000; Staddon 1999. But we can best protect ourselves against such manipulation by pinpointing the vulnerabilities our faculties categorization language and imagery not by denying their complexity The view that humans are passive  {218}  receptacles stereotypes words and images is condescending to ordinary people and gives unearned importance to the pretensions cultural and academic elites And exotic pronouncements about the limitations our faculties such as that there is nothing outside the text or that we inhabit a world images rather than a real world make it impossible even to identify lies and misrepresentations let alone to understand how they are promulgated Needless to say debating the Pope is the ultimate exercise in futility The point this section is not to refute his doctrines nor is it to condemn religion or argue against the existence God Religions have provided comfort community and moral guidance to countless people and some biologists argue that a sophisticated deism toward which many religions are evolving can be made compatible with an evolutionary understanding the mind and human nature.2 My goal is defensive: to refute the accusation that a materialistic view the mind is inherently amoral and that religious conceptions are to be favored because they are inherently more humane. I am happy to acknowledge the superb environment for teaching and inquiry at the Massachusetts Institute Technology and the support Mriganka Sur head the Department Brain and Cognitive Sciences Robert  {xiii}  Silbey dean the School Science Charles Vest president MIT and many colleagues and students John Bearley the librarian the Teuber Library tracked down scholarly materials and answers to questions no matter how obscure I also gratefully acknowledge the financial support the MIT Mac Vicar Faculty Fellows program and the Peter de Florez chair My research on language is supported by NIH. “the Blank Slate is not dismal at all but unexpectedly bracing It feels a bit like being burgled You're shocked your things are gone but you can't help thinking about how you're going to replace them What Steven Pinker has done is break into our common human home and steal our illusions.” — John Morrish The Independent   “As a brightly lighted path between what we would like to believe and what we need to know [The Blank Slate] is required reading Pinker presents an unanswerable case for accepting that man can be as he is both wired and free.” — Frederic Raphael Los Angeles Times   When Galileo showed that his methods scientific discovery were competent to provide a mechanical theory which should cover every  {10}  occupant space Descartes found in himself two conflicting motives As a man scientific genius he could not but endorse the claims mechanics yet as a religious and moral man he could not accept as Hobbes accepted the discouraging rider to those claims namely that human nature differs only in degree complexity from clockwork.8 The fact that women are vulnerable to attack means we cannot have it all We cannot walk at night across an unlit campus or down a back alley without incurring real danger These are things every woman should be able to do but “shoulds” belong in a Utopian world They belong in a world where you drop your wallet in a crowd and have it returned complete with credit cards and cash A world in which unlocked Porsches are parked in the inner city And children can be left unattended in the park This is not the reality that confronts and confines Sword[Fish] boat captains help each other out on the high seas whenever they can; they lend engine parts fer technical advice donate food or fuel The competition between a dozen boats rushing a perishable commodity to market fortunately doesn't kill an inherent sense concern for each other This may seem terrifically noble but it's not — or at least not entirely It's also self-interested Each captain knows that he may be the next one with the frozen injector or the leaking Whether or not we can breed for certain traits should we do it? It would require a government wise enough to know which traits to select knowledgeable enough to know how to implement the breeding and intrusive enough to encourage or coerce people's most intimate decisions Few people in a democracy would grant their government that kind power even if it did promise a better society in the future The costs in freedom to individuals and in possible abuse by authorities are unacceptable. But because we are a social species Hobbesian traps more commonly pit groups against groups There is safety in numbers so humans bound by shared genes or reciprocal promises form coalitions for protection Unfortunately the logic the Hobbesian trap means there is also danger in numbers because neighbors may fear they are becoming outnumbered and form alliances in their turn to contain the growing menace Since one man's  {323}  containment is another man's encirclement this can send the spiral danger upward Human sociality is the original “entangling alliance,” in which two parties with no prior animus can find themselves at war when the ally one attacks the ally the other It is the reason I discuss homicide and war in a single chapter In a species whose members form bonds loyalty the first can easily turn into the second. These are just a few the fingerprints the Blank Slate the Noble Savage and the Ghost in the Machine on modern intellectual life In the following chapters we will see how the seemingly airy ideas Enlightenment philosophers entrenched themselves in modern consciousness and how recent discoveries are casting those ideas in doubt <<  {14}  >>   Chapter 2 Incest between mother and son unthinkable or tabooed incest prevention or avoidance in-group distinguished from out-group(s) in-group biases in favor inheritance rules insulting intention interest in biorms (living things or things that resemble them) interpreting behavior intertwining (e.g weaving) jokes kin close distinguished from distant kin groups kin terms translatable by basic relations procreation kinship statuses language  {437}  language employed to manipulate others language employed to misinform or mislead language is translatable Thiessen D & Young R K 1994 Investigating sexual coercion Society 31,60–63 Thompson P M Cannon T D Narr K L van Erp T G M Poutanen V.–R HiflmiaL 1C Lonnqvist J Standertskjold–Nordenstam C.–G Kaprio J Khaledy M Dail R Zocmam C I & Toga A W 2001 Genetic influences on brain structure Nature Seurosdtma 4 t–A Thornhill R 1998 Darwinian aesthetics In C Crawford & D L Krebs (Eds.) Handbookttaah–tionary psychology: Ideas issues and applications Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Thornhill R & Palmer C T 2000 A natural history rape: Biological bases sexual coaaam Cambridge Mass.:. Coalitional psychology posits five hypotheses on how these psychological adaptations operate:[139] The Great Chain was thick with moral implications Our home it was thought lay at the center the universe reflecting the importance our existence and behavior People lived their lives in their proper station (king duke or peasant) and after death their souls rose to a higher place or sank to a lower one Everyone had to be mindful that the human abode was a humble place in the scheme things and that they must look up to catch a glimpse heavenly perfection And in a world that seemed always to teeter on the brink famine and barbarism the Great Chain fered the comfort knowing that the nature things was orderly If the planets wandered from their spheres chaos would break out because everything was connected in the cosmic order  {138}  Evolutionary psychologists generally presume that like the body the mind is made up many evolved modular adaptations,[157] although there is some disagreement within the discipline regarding the degree general plasticity or "generality," some modules.[152] It has been suggested that modularity evolves because compared to non-modular networks it would have conferred an advantage in terms fitness[158] and because connection costs. Think about it First obvious fact: Men ten want to have sex with women who don't want to have sex with them They use every tactic that one human being uses to affect the behavior another: wooing seducing flattering deceiving sulking and paying Second obvious fact: Some men use violence to get what they want indifferent to the suffering they cause Men have been known to kidnap children for ransom (sometimes sending their parents an ear or finger to show they mean business) blind the victim a mugging so the victim can't identify them in court shoot out the kneecaps an associate as punishment for ratting to the police or invading their territory and kill a stranger for his brand-name athletic footwear It would be an extraordinary fact contradicting everything else we know about people if some men didn't use violence to. Cognitive neuroscience is undermining not just the Ghost in the Machine but also the Noble Savage Damage to the frontal lobes does not only dull the person or subtract from his behavioral repertoire but can unleash aggressive That happens because the damaged lobes no longer serve as inhibitory brakes on parts the limbic system particularly a circuit that links the amygdala to the hypothalamus via a pathway called the stria terminalis Connections between the frontal lobe in each hemisphere and the limbic system provide a lever by which a person's knowledge and goals can override other mechanisms and among those mechanisms appears to be one designed to generate behavior that. Berlin Isaiah 151 170 287 Berra Yogi 322 Bethell Tom 130 Betzig Laura 342 Bever Tom 80 Beyond Freedom and Dignity (Skinner) 169 Bible 2 128–29 “brain Is Wider Than the Sky The” (Dickinson) 423–24 Brain Storm (Dooling) 176 Brando Marlon 375 Brasilia 170 Brazelton T Berry 386 394 Brecht Bertolt 170 Breggin. Biologists reject Behe's argument for a number His specific claims about the “irreducible complexity” biochemistry are unproven or just wrong He takes every phenomenon whose evolutionary history has not yet been figured out and chalks it up to design by default When it comes to the intelligent designer Behe suddenly jettisons all scientific scruples and does not question where the designer came from or how the designer works And he ignores the overwhelming evidence that the process evolution far from being intelligent and purposeful is wasteful. ~ THE FOURTH BRIDGE from biology to culture is evolutionary psychology the study the phylogenetic history and adaptive functions the It holds out the hope understanding the design or purpose the mind — not in some mystical or teleological sense but in the sense the simulacrum engineering that pervades the natural world We see these signs engineering everywhere: in eyes that seem designed to form images in hearts that seem designed to pump blood in wings that seem designed to lift birds in flight. Kennedy R 1997 Race crime and the law New York: Vintage Kenrick D Groth G Trost M & Sadalla E 1993 Integrating evolutionary and social exchange perspectives on relationships: Effects gender self–appraisal and involvement level on mate selection criteria Journal Personality and Social Psychology 64 951–969 Kenrick D & Sheets V 1994 Homicide fantasies Ethology and Sociobiology 14 231–246  {475}  Kevles D J 1985 In the name eugenics: Genetics and the uses human heredity Cambridge–Mass.: Harvard University Press Keyser S J 1999 Meter and poetry In R A Wilson & F C Keil (Eds.) The MIT Encyclopedia the Cognitive Sciences Cambridge Mass.:. Scientists ten interpret the long childhood members Homo sapiens as an adaptation that allows children to acquire the vast store information from their culture before striking out on their own as adults If cultural learning depends on special psychological equipment we should see the equipment up and running early in childhood And indeed. The ideas Boas like the ideas the major thinkers in psychology were rooted in the empiricist philosophers the Enlightenment in this case George Berkeley (1685–1753) Berkeley formulated the theory idealism the notion that ideas not bodies and other hunks matter are the ultimate constituents reality After twists and turns that are too convoluted to recount here idealism became influential among nineteenth-century German thinkers It was embraced by the young Boas a German Jew from a secular liberal family. Hamilton William 108 109 111 244 255 Harris Judith Rich viii 320 381 385 390 395–99 In The Mating Mind the psychologist Gefrey Miller argues that the impulse to create art is a mating tactic: a way to impress prospective sexual and partners with the quality one's brain and thus indirectly one's genes Artistic virtuosity he notes is unevenly distributed neurally demanding hard to fake and widely prized Artists in other words are sexy Nature even gives us a precedent the bowerbirds Australia and New Guinea The males construct elaborate nests and fastidiously decorate them with colorful objects such as orchids snail shells berries and bark Some them literally paint their bowers with regurgitated fruit residue using leaves or bark as a brush The females appraise the bowers and mate with the creators the most symmetrical and well-ornamented ones Miller argues that the analogy. These cases do more than refute the doctrine extreme plasticity They set a challenge for the genetics and neuroscience the twenty-first century How does the genome tell a developing brain to differentiate into neural networks that are prepared for such abstract computational problems as recognizing a face or thinking about the interests other people? ~       chapter 3 The Last Wall to Fall 30       Chapter 4 Culture Vultures 59       Chapter 5 The Slate's Last Stand 73   PART II Fear and Loathing 103 43. bouchard 1994; Bouchard 1998; Damasio 2000; Lykken et al 1992; Plomin 1994; Thompson et al 2001; Tramo et al 1995; Wright 1995 44. Segal 2000 45. Lai et al 2001; Pinker 2001b 46. Frangiskakisetal 1996 47. Chorney et al 1998 48. Benjamin et al 1996 49. Leschetal 1996 50. Lai et al 2001; Pinker 2001b 51. Charlesworth 1987; Miller 2000b; Mousseau & Rf 1987; Tooby & Cosmides 1990 52. Bock & Goode 1996; Lykken 1995; Mealey 1995. Mind n A mysterious form matter secreted by the brain Its chief activity consists in the endeavor to ascertain its own nature the futility the attempt being due to the fact that it has nothing but itself to know itself with <<  {241}  >>   Chapter 14 Equality in spite evident nonidentity is a somewhat sophisticated concept and requires a moral stature which many individuals seem to be incapable They rather deny human variability and equate equality with identity Or they claim that the human species is exceptional in the organic world in that only morphological characters are controlled by genes and all other traits the mind or character are due to “conditioning” or other nongenetic factors Such authors conveniently ignore the results twin studies and the genetic analysis nonmorphological traits in animals An ideology based on such obviously wrong premises can only lead to disaster Its championship human equality is based on a claim identity As soon as it is proved that the latter does not exist the support equality is likewise Miller G F 2001 Aesthetic fitness: How sexual selection shaped artistic virtuosity as a fitness indicator and aesthetic preferences as mate choice criteria Bulletin Psychology and the Arts 2 20–25 Miller K D Keller J B & Stryker M.P 1989 Ocular dominance and column development: Analysis and simulation Science 245 605–615  {479}  Miller K R 1999 Finding Darwin's God: A scientist's search for common ground evolution New York: Cliff Street Books Minogue K 1985 Alien powers: The pure theory ideology' New York: St Martin's Press Minogue K 1999 Totalitarianism: Have we seen the last it? National Interest 57 35–H. First parents wield enormous power over their children and their actions can make a big difference to their happiness Childrearing is above all an ethical responsibility It is not OK for parents to beat humiliate deprive or neglect their children because those are awful things for a big strong person to do to a small helpless one As Harris writes “We may not hold their tomorrows in our hands but we surely hold their todays and we have the power to make their todays very miserable.”72  {399}  And in some cases organisms may benefit other organisms at a cost to themselves which biologists call altruism Altruism in this technical sense can evolve in two main ways First since relatives share genes any gene that inclines an organism toward helping a relative will increase the chance survival a copy itself that sits inside that relative even if the helper sacrifices its own fitness in the generous act Such genes will on average come to predominate as long as the cost to the helper is less than the benefit to the recipient discounted by their degree relatedness Family love — the cherishing children  {243}  siblings parents grandparents uncles and aunts nieces and nephews and cousins — can evolve This is called nepotistic altruism. Neel J V 1994 Physician to the gene pool: Genetic lessons and other stories New York: Wiley Neisser U 1967 Cognitive psychology Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice–Hall Neisser U Boodoo G Bouchard T.J Jr Boykin A.W Brody N Ceci S J Halpern D.F Loehlin J C Perlf R Sternberg R J & Urbina S 1996 Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns American Psychologist 51 77–101 Nesse R M & Lloyd A T 1992 The evolution psychodynamic mechanisms In J H Barkow L Cosmides & J Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation culture New York: Oxford University Press Neville H J & Bavelier D 2000 Specificity and plasticity in neurocognitive development in humans In M.S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.:. 6. dershowitz 1994; J Ellement “Alleged con man's defense: ‘Different’ mores,” Boston Globe Febru; N Hall “Metis woman avoids jail term for killing her husband,” National Post (Canada) Janu 7. B English “David Lisak seeks out a dialogue with murderers,” Boston Globe J 8. M Williams “Social work in the city: Rewards and risks,” New York Times July 30,2000 9. S Morse Review C Sandford's Springsteen point blank Boston Globe Novem 10. M Udovich Review M Meade's The unruly life Woody Allen New York. O'brien admits that for certain purposes such as navigating the ocean it is useful to assume that the Earth goes around the sun and that there are stars in distant galaxies But he continues the Party could also use alternative astronomies in which the sun goes around the Earth and the stars are bits of fire a few kilometers away And though O'Brien does not explain it in this scene Newspeak is the ultimate “prisonhouse of language,” a “language that thinks man and his ‘world.'” 13. twain 1884/1983 p 332 14. Twain 1884/1983 p 339 15. Singer 1972 16. The dialogue is condensed from Singer 1972 pp 68–78 and from the film adaptation <<  {461}  >> REFERENCES Abbott H P E 2001 Imagination and the adapted mind: A special double issue Substance 30. 82. j E Beals “Ending the silence on sexual violence,” Boston Globe April 10,2000 83. R Haynor “Violence against women,” Boston Globe October 22,2000 84. Brownmiller 1975 p 14 85. Young 1999 p 139 86. McElroy 1996 87. McElroy 1996 88. Thiessen &Young 1994 89. Dworkin 1993 90. J Tooby & L Cosmides “Reply to Jerry Coyne,” . /research/cep . The benefits parental investment to the fspring are large and are associated with the effects on condition growth survival and ultimately on reproductive success the fspring However these benefits can come at the cost parent's ability to reproduce in the future e.g through the increased risk injury when defending fspring against predators the loss mating opportunities whilst rearing fspring and an increase in the time to the next reproduction Overall parents are selected to maximize the difference between the benefits and the costs and parental care will likely evolve when the benefits exceed. Chapter 6: Political Scientists   1. Weizenbaum 1976 2. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p x 3. Herrnstein 1971 4. Jensen 1969; Jensen 1972 5. Herrnstein 1973 6. Darwin 1872/1998; Pinker 1998 7. Ekman 1987; Ekman 1998 8. Wilson 1975/2000 9. Sahlins 1976 p 3 10. Sahlins 1976 p x 11. Allen etal. Mother: What is that your business? [To the doctor.] He stopped doing his homework ALVY: What's the point? The scene is funny because Alvy has confused two levels analysis: the scale billions years with which we measure the universe and the scale  {191}  decades years and days with which we measure our lives As Alvy's mother points out “What has the universe got to do with it? You're here in Brooklyn! Brooklyn is not expanding!” People who are depressed at the thought that all our motives are selfish are as confused as Alvy They have mixed up ultimate causation (why something evolved by natural selection) with proximate causation (how the entity works here and now) The mix-up is natural because the two explanations can look so. And finally we get to the core the Party's philosophy O'Brien has refuted every one Winston's arguments dashed every one his hopes He has informed him “If you want a picture the future imagine a boot stamping on a human face — forever.” Toward the end this dialogue O'Brien reveals the proposition that makes the whole nightmare possible (and whose falsehood we may surmise will make it impossible) As usual the voice had battered Winston into helplessness Moreover he was in dread that if he persisted in his disagreement O'Brien would twist the dial again And yet he could not keep silent Feebly without arguments with nothing to support him except his inarticulate horror what O'Brien had said he returned to the attack “I don't know — I don't care Somehow you will fail Something will defeat you Life will defeat you.” Ortega y Gasset J 1932/1985 The revolt the masses Notre Dame Ind.: University Notre Dame Press  {480}  Ortega y Gasset J 1935/2001 Toward a philosophy history Chicago: University Illinois Press Orwell G 1949 New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Padden C A & Perlmutter D M 1987 American Sign Language and the architecture phonological theory Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 5 335–375 Paglia C 1990 Sexual personae: Art and decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press Paglia C 1992 Sex art and American culture New York: Vintage Panksepp J & Panksepp J B 2000 The seven sins evolutionary psychology Evolution and Cognition 6 108–131. Euthanasia 227 228 Evans David 417 ‘ Eve 2 evolution. Could THE RADICAL scientists really believe in the Blank Slate? The doctrine might seem plausible to some the scholars who live in a world disembodied ideas But could hardheaded bfins who live in a mechanistic world neurons and genes really think that the psyche soaks into the brain from the surrounding culture? They deny it in the abstract but when it comes to specifics their position is plainly in the tradition the tabula rasa social  {122}  science the early twentieth century Stephen Jay Gould Richard Lewontin and the other signatories the “Against ‘Sociobiology'” manifesto wrote: I hope that once this line reasoning is laid out it will immediately set f alarm bells We should not concede that any foreseeable discovery about humans could have such horrible implications The problem is not with the possibility that people might differ from one another which is a factual question that could turn out one way or the other The problem is with the line reasoning that says that if people do turn out to be different then discrimination oppression or genocide would be OK after all Fundamental values (such as  {142}  equality and human rights) should not be held hostage to some factual conjecture about blank slates that might be refuted tomorrow In this chapter we will see how these values might be put on a more secure foundation ~ Sexual attractiveness sexual jealousy sexual modesty sexual regulation sexual regulation includes incest prevention sexuality as focus interest shelter sickness and death seen as related snakes wariness around social structure socialization socialization expected from senior kin socialization includes toilet training spear special speech for special occasions statuses and roles statuses ascribed and achieved statuses distinguished from individuals statuses on other than sex age or kinship bases stop/nonstop contrasts (in speech sounds) succession sweets preferred symbolism In the 1970s and 1980s university departments began to include the term evolutionary biology in their titles The modern era evolutionary psychology was ushered in in particular by Donald Symons' 1979 book The Evolution Human Sexuality and Leda Cosmides and John Tooby's 1992 book The Adapted Mind.[5]       creationism and 132–33       genome and 91       group selection and 258–59        humans 16 53 238       intuitive faculties. Evolution is central to understanding ourselves because signs design in human beings do not stop at the heart or the eye For all its exquisite engineering an eye is useless without a brain Its output is not the meaningless patterns a screen saver but raw material for circuitry that computes a representation the external world That representation feeds other circuits that make sense the world by imputing causes to events and placing them in categories that allow useful predictions And that sense-making in turn works in the service motives such as hunger fear love curiosity and the pursuit status and esteem As I mentioned abilities that seem effortless to us — categorizing events deducing cause and effect and pursuing conflicting goals — are major challenges in designing an intelligent system ones that robot designers strive still unsuccessfully to duplicate. Descartes also found a moral bonus in his dualism (the belief that the mind is a different kind thing from the body): “There is none which is more effectual in leading feeble spirits from the straight path virtue than to imagine that the soul the brute is the same nature as our own and that in consequence after this life we have nothing to fear or to hope for any more than the flies and the ants.”7 Ryle explains Descartes's dilemma:       three laws 372–80 393       unique environment in 380–81       see also heritability Behavioral genetics 45–51 111 124 134 142 413       family effects in 378–87       mind–matter divide and 45–51 Family (or household) father and mother separate kin terms for fears fears ability to overcome some feasting females do more direct childcare figurative speech fire folklore food preferences food sharing future attempts to predict generosity admired gestures gift giving good and bad distinguished gossip government grammar group living groups that are not based on family hairstyles hand (word for) healing the sick (or attempting to) hospitality hygienic care identity collective Staddon J R 1999 On responsibility in science and law In E Paul F Miller & J Paul (Eds.) Responsibility (Vol 16) New York: Cambridge University Press Steiner G 1967 Language and silence: Essays on language literature and the inhuman New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press Steiner G 1984 Antigones: How the Antigone legend has endured in Western literature art and thought New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press Steiner W 2001 Venus in exile: The rejection beauty in 20th–century art New York: Free Press Stevens M 2001 Only causation matters: Reply to Ahn et al Cognition 82 71–76 Stevens P 2001 Magical thinking in complementary and alternative medicine Skeptical Inquirer 32–37. Where do these conclusions come from? The actual findings are easy to understand First adult siblings are equally similar whether they grew up together or apart Second adoptive siblings are no more similar than two people plucked f the street at random And third identical twins are no more similar than one would expect from the effects their shared genes As with the First Law the sheer consistency the outcome across three completely different methods (comparisons identical with fraternal twins siblings raised together with siblings raised apart adoptive siblings with biological siblings) emboldens one to conclude that the pattern is real Whatever experiences siblings share by growing up in the same home makes little or no difference in the kind people they turn out to be  {380}  Evolutionary psychology is based on the hypothesis that just like hearts lungs livers kidneys and immune systems cognition has functional structure that has a genetic basis and therefore has evolved by natural selection Like other organs and tissues this functional structure should be universally shared amongst a species and should solve important problems survival and reproduction The second misconception is to imagine that talk about costs and benefits  {244}  implies that people are Machiavellian cynics coldly calculating the genetic advantages befriending and marrying To fret over this picture or denounce it because it is ugly is to confuse proximate and ultimate causation People don't care about their genes; they care about happiness love power respect and other passions The cost-benefit calculations are a metaphorical way describing the selection alternative genes over millennia not a literal description what takes place in a human brain in real time Nothing prevents the amoral process natural selection from evolving a brain with genuine big-hearted emotions It is said that those who appreciate legislation and sausages should not see them being made The same is true for human emotions. This sea change included a revolution in the treatment human nature by scientists and scholars Academics were swept along by the changing attitudes to race and sex but they also helped to direct the tide by holding forth on human nature in books and magazines and by lending their expertise to government agencies The prevailing theories mind were refashioned to make racism and sexism as untenable as possible The doctrine the Blank  {17}  Slate became entrenched in intellectual life in a form that has been called the Standard Social Science Model or social constructionism.5 The model is now second nature to people and few are aware the history behind it.6 Carl Degler the foremost historian this revolution sums it up. Lewontin R C Rose S & Kamin L J 1984 Not in our genes New York: Pantheon Lingua Franca Editors 2000 The Sokal hoax: The sham that shook the academy Lincoln: University Nebraska Press Lockard J S & Paulhaus D L (Eds.) 1988 Self–deception: An adaptive mechanism Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice Hall Locke J 1690/1947 An essay concerning human understanding New York: E P Dutton Loehlin J C 1992 Genes and environment in personality development Newbury Park Calif.: Sage Loehlin J C 2001 Behavior genetics and parenting theory American Psychologist 56 169–170 Loehlin J C & Nichols R C 1976 Heredity environment and personality: A study 850 sets twins Austin: University.       basis 168–69 187–90 192–93 224 274–75 At the same time the doctrine the Blank Slate which had been blurred with ideals equality and progress for much the century was beginning to show cracks As the new sciences human nature began to flourish it was becoming clear that thinking is a physical process that people are not psychological clones that the sexes differ above the neck as well as below it that the human brain was not exempt from the process evolution and that people in all cultures share mental traits that might be illuminated by new ideas in evolutionary biology. One prominent proponent a discontinuity-based theory human language origins is linguist and philosopher Noam Chomsky.[29] Chomsky proposes that "some random mutation took place maybe after some strange cosmic ray shower and it reorganized the brain implanting a language organ in an otherwise primate brain."[30] Though cautioning against taking this story too literally Chomsky insists that "it may be closer to reality than many other fairy tales that are told about evolutionary processes including language."[30] Grammar is the study how meaningful elements called morphemes within a language can be combined into utterances Morphemes can either be free or bound If they are free to be moved around within an utterance they are usually called words and if they are bound to other words or morphemes they are called affixes The way in which meaningful elements can be combined within a language is governed by rules The rules for the internal structure words are called morphology The rules the internal structure phrases and sentences are called syntax.[73] A final blind spot to human nature is the failure contemporary artists and theorists to deconstruct their own moral pretensions Artists and critics have long believed that an appreciation elite art is ennobling and have spoken cultural philistines in tones ordinarily reserved for child molesters (as we see in the two meanings the word barbarian) The affectation social reform that surrounds modernism and postmodernism is part this tradition. Cultural psychology is the study the way cultural traditions and social practices regulate express transform and permute the human psyche resulting less in psychic unity for humankind than in ethnic divergences in mind self and emotion — Richard Shweder (1990)42 The superorganic or group mind also became an article faith in social science Robert Lowie (another Boas student) wrote “The principles psychology are as incapable accounting for the phenomena culture as is gravitation to account for architectural styles.”43 And in case you missed its full implications the anthropologist Leslie White spelled. “[Pinker] wades resolutely into the comforting gloom surrounding these not quite forbidden topics and calmly lucidly marshals the facts to ground his strikingly subversive Darwinian claims — subversive not any the things we properly hold dear but subversive the phony protective layers misinformation surrounding them My reservations with Pinker's view [will be resolved] in the bright light rational inquiry that he brings to these important topics.” — Dan Dennett The Times Literary Supplement   “The Blank Slate brilliantly delineates the current state play in the nature-nurture debate Read it to understand not just the moral and aesthetic blindness your friends but the misguided idealism nations A magnificent and timely work.” — Fay Weldon The Daily Telegraph   Wilkinson Milton J 335–36 Wilkinson Richard 304 Williams George 108 163 244 255 258 Wilson. “steven Pinker is a man encyclopedic knowledge and an incisive style argument His argument in The Blank Slate is that intellectual life in the West and much our social and political policy was increasingly dominated through the twentieth century by a view human nature that is fundamentally flawed; that this domination has been backed by something that amounts to academic terrorism (he does not put it quite so strongly): and that we would benefit  {ii}  substantially from a more realistic view Pinker's exposition is thoroughly readable and enviable clarity His explanation such a difficult technical matter as the analysis variance and regression in twin studies for example would be very hard to better He is not afraid using strong language in addition parts the book are delightfully funny.” — John R G Turner The Times Literary Supplement

The state our planet is a vital concern and we need the clearest possible understanding where the problems lie so as not to misdirect our efforts The repeated failure simple Malthusian thinking shows that it cannot be the best way to analyze environmental challenges Still Malthus's logic seems impeccable Where did it.   APPENDIX Donald E Brown's List Human Universals   This list compiled in 1989 and published in 1991 consists primarily “surface” universals behavior and overt language noted by ethnographers It does not list deeper universals mental structure that are revealed by theory and experiments It also omits near-universals (traits that most but not all cultures show) and conditional universals (“If a culture has trait A it always has trait B”) A list items added since 1989 is provided at the end For discussion and references see Brown's Human Universals (1991) and his entry for “Human Universals” in The MIT Encyclopedia the Cognitive Sciences (Wilson & Keil 1999)   abstraction in speech and thought actions under self-control distinguished from those not under control aesthetics Research on human nature would be controversial in any era but the new sciences picked a particularly bad decade in which to attract the spotlight In the 1970s many intellectuals had become political radicals Marxism was correct liberalism was for wimps and Marx had pronounced that “the ruling ideas each age have ever been the ideas its ruling class.” The traditional misgivings about human nature were folded into a hard-left ideology and scientists who examined the human mind in a biological context were now considered tools a reactionary establishment The critics announced they were part a “radical science movement,” giving us a convenient label for. Recognizing that we are equipped with sophisticated faculties that keep us in touch with reality does not entail ignoring the ways in which our faculties can be turned against us People lie sometimes baldly sometimes through insinuation and presupposition (as in the question “When did you stop beating your wife?”) People disseminate disinformation about ethnic groups not just pejorative stereotypes but tales exploitation and perfidy that serve to stoke moralistic outrage against them People try to manipulate social realities like status (which exist in the mind the beholder) to make themselves look good or to sell products. 59. cited in Williams 1966 p 116 60. Williams 1966 61. Fehr Fischbacher & Gachter in press; Gintis 2000 62. Nunney 1998; Reeve 2000; Trivers 1998; Wilson & Sober 1994 63. Williams 1988 pp 391–392 64. Frank 1988; Hirshleifer 1987; Trivers 1971 65. Hare 1993; Lykken 1995; Mealey 1995. Sullivan Arthur 283 Sulloway Frank 381 389 Summerhill (Neill) 222 Superfund Act (1980) 278 Testosterone 316 328 347–48       see also androgens Tetlock Philip 277 278 thalamus 44 87 92 95–96 98 Human Universals (Brown) 435–39 Humboldt Alexander von 301 Hume David 79 178 180 279 296 408 Hummel John 80 Hunt Morton 128 Traits:       emergenic 152–53       heritability 45–47 49–51 373–78       Machiavellian 259–60 The reason sentences can be seen as being composed phrases is because each phrase would be moved around as a single element if syntactic operations were carried out For example "the cat" is one phrase and "on the mat" is another because they would be treated as single units if a decision was made to emphasize the location by moving forward the prepositional phrase: "[And] on the mat the cat sat".[86] There are many different formalist and functionalist frameworks that propose theories for describing syntactic structures based on different assumptions about what language is and how it should be described Each them would analyze a sentence such as this in a different manner.[17] Some the vital signs the arts and humanities are indeed poor In 1997 the U.S House Representatives voted to kill the National Endowment for the Arts and the Senate was able to save it only by cutting its budget nearly in half Universities have disinvested in the humanities: since 1960 the proportion faculty in liberal arts has fallen by half salaries and working conditions have stagnated and more and more teaching is done by graduate students and part-time New Ph.D.s are ten unemployed or resigned to a life one-year appointments In many liberal arts colleges humanities departments have been downsized merged or eliminated altogether. The demands reciprocal altruism can explain why the social and moralistic emotions evolved Sympathy and trust prompt people to extend the first favor Gratitude and loyalty prompt them to repay favors Guilt and shame deter them from hurting or failing to repay others Anger and contempt prompt them to avoid or punish cheaters And among humans any tendency an individual to reciprocate or cheat does not have to be witnessed firsthand but can be recounted by language This leads to an interest in the reputation others transmitted by gossip and public approval or condemnation and a concern with one's own reputation Partnerships friendships alliances and communities can emerge cemented by these emotions and concerns. The moral is that a discovery that brain development depends on brain activity may say nothing about learning or experience only that the brain takes advantage its own information-transmission abilities while wiring itself up. Warhol Andy 411 Warren Earl 181 288 291 Watson John B 19 20 24 30 77 123–24 207 A statement like “The chance dying botulism poisoning in a given year is 000001” is virtually incomprehensible For one thing magnitudes with lots zeroes at the beginning or end are beyond the ken our number sense The psychologist Paul Slovic and his colleagues found that people are unmoved by a lecture on the hazards not wearing a seat belt which mentions that a fatal collision occurs once in every 3.5 million person-trips But they say they will buckle up when the odds are recalculated to show that their lifetime chance dying in a collision. The rules by which signs can be combined to form words and phrases are called syntax or grammar The meaning that is connected to individual signs morphemes words phrases and texts is called semantics.[59] The division language into separate but connected systems sign and meaning goes back to the first linguistic studies de Saussure and is now used in almost all branches linguistics.[60] But the theory reciprocal altruism raises another possibility: that some the genetic differences among people in their social emotions are systematic One exception to the rule that selection reduces variability arises when the best strategy depends on what other organisms are doing The child's game scissors-paper-rock is one analogy and another may be found in the decision which route to take to work As commuters begin to avoid a congested highway and opt for a less traveled route the new one will no longer be less traveled so many will choose the first one until congestion builds up there which will induce still other commuters to choose the second route and so on The commuters will eventually distribute themselves in some ratio between the two roads The same thing can happen in evolution where it is called frequency-dependent selection  {261}  But Brownmiller's theory went well beyond the moral principle that women have a right not to be sexually assaulted It said that rape had nothing to do with an individual man's desire for sex but was a tactic by which the entire male gender oppressed the entire female gender In her famous words: Man's discovery that his genitalia could serve as a weapon to generate fear must rank as one the most important discoveries prehistoric times along with the use fire and the first crude stone axe From prehistoric times to the present I believe rape has played a critical function it is nothing more or less than a conscious process intimidation by which all men keep all women in. Evolutionary psychologists are commonly chided for “excusing” men's promiscuity with the theory that a wandering eye in our ancestors was rewarded with a greater number descendants They can take heart from a  {179}  recent biography that said Bruce Springsteen's “self-doubts made him frequently seek out the sympathy groupies,”9 a book review that said Woody Allen's sexual indiscretions “originated in trauma” and an “abusive” relationship with his mother,10 and Hillary Clinton's explanation her husband's libido in her infamous interview. 12. chorover 1979 pp 108–109 13. Wilson 1975/2000 p 548 14. Wilson 1975/2000 p 555 15. Wilson 1975/2000 p 550 16. Wilson 1975/2000 p 554 17. Wilson 1975/2000 p 569 18. Segerstrale 2000; Wilson 1994 19. Wright 1994 20. Trivers & Newton 1982 21. Trivers 1981 22. Trivers. Not at all! By unhandcuffing widely shared values from moribund factual dogmas the rationale for those values can only become clearer We understand why we condemn prejudice cruelty to children and violence against women and can focus our efforts on how to implement the goals we value most We thereby protect those goals against the upheavals factual understanding that science perennially delivers.       violence and 51 175 176 314 315       see also behavioral genetics genetically modified foods 229–30 231 The humor comes from the clash between ant psychology which originates in a genetic system that makes workers more closely related to one another than they would be to their fspring and human psychology in which our genetic distinctness leads us to ask “What about my needs?” Trivers following on the work William Hamilton and George Williams did some algebra that predicts the extent to which people should ask themselves that question.4 Our intuitions about life and mind like our intuitions about matter and space may have run up against a strange world forged by our best science We have seen how the concept life as a magical spirit united with our bodies doesn't get along with our understanding the mind as the activity a gradually developing brain Other intuitions about the mind find themselves just  {240}  as flat-footed in pursuit the advancing frontier cognitive neuroscience We have every reason to believe that consciousness and decision making arise from the electrochemical activity neural networks in the brain But how moving molecules should throw f subjective feelings (as opposed to mere intelligent computations) and how they bring about choices that we freely make (as opposed to behavior that is caused) remain deep enigmas to our Pleistocene psyches. Why on earth should people's beliefs about sex predict their beliefs about the size the military? What does religion have to do with taxes? Whence the linkage between strict construction the Constitution and disdain for shocking art? Before we can understand why beliefs about an innate human nature might cluster with liberal beliefs or with conservative beliefs we have to understand why liberal beliefs cluster with other liberal beliefs and conservative beliefs cluster with other conservative beliefs. Jackson D J & Huston T L 1975 Physical attractiveness and assertiveness Journal Social Psychology 96 79–84 Jaffe S & Hyde J S 2000 Gender differences in moral orientation Psychological Bulletin 126 703–726 Jaggar A M 1983 Feminist politics and human nature Lanham Md.: Rowman & Littlefield James W 1890/1950 The principles psychology New York: Dover Janda L H 1998 Psychological testing: Theory and applications Boston: Allyn & Bacon Jensen A 1969 How much can we boost IQ and scholastic achievement? Harvard Educational Review 39 1–123 Jensen A 1971 A note on why genetic correlations are not squared Psychological Bulletin 75 223–224. Newell A 1980 Physical symbol systems Cognitive Science 4 135–183 Newsome W T 2001 Life faith life science Paper presented at the conference “Science and the Spiritual Quest,” Memorial Church Harvard University Cambridge Mass Nisbett R E & Cohen D 1996 Culture honor: The psychology violence in the South New York: HarperCollins Nolfi S Elman J L & Parisi D 1994 Learning and evolution in neural networks Adaptive Behavior 3 5–28 Norenzayan A & Atran S In press Cognitive and emotional processes in the cultural transmission natural and nonnatural beliefs In M Schaller & C Crandall (Eds.) The psychological foundations culture Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Nowak M A May R M & Sigmund K 1995 The arithmetic mutual help Scientific American 272 50–55. 66. browne 1998; Furchtgott-Roth & Stolba 1999; Goldin 1990; Gottfredson 1988; Kleinfeld 1999; Roback 1993; Young 1999 67. Lubinski & Benbow 1992  {457}  68. See Browne 1998 and the references in note 63 69. Buss 1992; Ellis 1992 70. Hrdy 1999 71. Browne 1998; Hrdy 1999 72. Roback 1993 73. Becker 1991 74. Furchtgott-Roth & Stolba 1999 75. Quoted in C Young “Sex and science,”. Learnability theory 101 Le Corbusier 170–71 Lefkowitz Mary 342 left–handedness 121 Lehrman Karen 343 353 Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm 34 Lenin. The longest-standing right-wing opposition to the sciences human nature comes from the religious sectors the coalition especially Christian fundamentalism Anyone who doesn't believe in evolution is certainly not going to believe in the evolution the mind and anyone who believes in an immaterial soul is certainly not going to believe that thought and feeling consist information processing in the tissues the brain The religious opposition to evolution is fueled by several moral fears Most obviously the fact evolution challenges the literal truth the creation story in the Bible and thus the authority that religion draws from it As one creationist minister put it “If the Bible gets it wrong in biology then why should I trust the Bible when it talks about morality and salvation?”26 1. alexander 1987; Haidt in press; Krebs 1998; Trivers 1971; Wilson 1993; Wright 1994 2. Haidt KoUer & Dias 1993 3. Haidt 2001 4. Haidt in press 5. Shweder et al 1997 6. Haidt in press; Rozin 1997; Rozin Markwith & Stoess 1997 7. Glendon 2001; Sen 2000 8. Cronk 1999; Sommers 1998; Wilson 1993; C Sommers 1998 “Why Johnny can't tell right from wrong,” American Outlook Summer 98 pp 45 — 47 9. D Symons personal communication J  {453}  Let us then suppose the mind to be as we say white paper void all characters without any ideas How comes it to be furnished? Whence comes it by that vast store which the busy and boundless fancy man has painted on it with an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials reason and knowledge? To this I answer in one word from EXPERIENCE.1 A blanket fear all artificial and genetically modified foods is patently irrational on health grounds and it could make food more expensive and hence less available to the poor Where do these specious fears come from? Partly they arise from the carcinogen-du-jour school journalism that uncritically reports any study showing elevated cancer rates in rats fed megadoses chemicals But partly they come from an intuition about living things that was first identified by the anthropologist James George Frazer in 1890 and has recently been studied in the lab by Paul Rozin Susan Gelman Frank Keil Scott Atran and other cognitive The question why more women don't choose careers in engineering has a rather obvious answer: Because they don't want to Wherever you go you will find females far less likely than males to see what is so fascinating about ohms carburetors or quarks Reinventing the curriculum will not make me more interested in learning how my dishwasher  {353}  External language is course a fine example culture the province  {72}  social scientists and scholars in the humanities The way that language can be understood at some half-dozen connected levels analysis from the brain and evolution to the cognitive processes individuals to vast cultural systems shows how culture and biology may be connected The possibilities for connections in other spheres human knowledge are plentiful and we will encounter them throughout the book The moral sense can illuminate legal and ethical codes The psychology kinship helps us understand sociopolitical arrangements The mentality aggression helps to make sense war and conflict resolution Sex differences are relevant to gender politics Human aesthetics and emotion can enlighten our understanding. Pinker S $(window).scroll(function(e){ $el = $('.docHeader'); if ($(this).scrollTop() > 200 && $ ('position') != 'fixed'){ $('.docHeader').css({'position': 'fixed' 'top': '0px' 'width': '100vw'}); } if ($(this).scrollTop() < 200 && $ ('position') == 'fixed') { $('.docHeader').css({'position': 'static' 'top': '0px' 'width': '100%'}); } });    {i}  >>   PENGUIN BOOKS   Holden C 2000 Molecule shows Anasazi ate their enemies Science 289 1663 Horgan J 1993 Eugenics revisited: Trends in behavioral genetics Scientific American 268,122–131 Horgan J 1995 The new Social Darwinists Scientific American 273 174–181 Horowitz D L 2001 The deadly ethnic riot Berkeley: University of California Press Hrdy S B 1999 Mother nature: A history of mothers infants and natural selection New York: Pantheon Books Hubel D H 1988 Eye brain and vision New York: Scientific American Hume D 1739/2000 A treatise of human nature New York: Oxford University Press Hummel J E & Biederman I 1992 Dynamic binding in a neural network for shape recognition Psychological Review 99 480–517. ~ So patterns in the input can tune a patch sensory cortex to mesh with that input but only within the limits the wiring already present Sur suggests that the reason the auditory cortex in the rewired ferrets can process visual information at all is that certain kinds signal processing may be useful to perform on raw sensory input whether it is visual auditory or tactile: The Blank Slate ought to be read by anybody who feels they have had enough nature-nurture rows or who thinks they already know where they stand on the science wars It could change their minds If nothing else Mr Pinker's book is a wonderfully readable taster new research much it ingenious designed to show that many more our emotional biases and mental aptitudes than previously thought are hard-wired or to use the old word innate This is a breath air for a topic that has been politicized for too long.” — The Economist   Romanticism 10 154 159–65 255 263 264 300–301 331 413       see also naturalistic fallacy; Noble Savage. Feuds 324–29 430–31 Feynman Richard 239 Fisher Helen 342 355 Fiske Alan 233 247 257. 45. quoted in Degler 1991 p 204 46. Degler 1991; Shipman 1994 47. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 188 48. Quoted in Degler 1991 pp 103–104 49. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 210 50. Cowie 1999; Elman et al 1996 pp 390–391 51. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 330 52. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 95 53. Quoted in Degler 1991 p 100 54. Charles Singer A short history biology; quoted in Dawkins 1998 p 90   Pinker S 1999 Words and rules: The ingredients language New York; HaipoGnfiiB Pinker S 2001a Four decades rules and associations or whatever bate? In E Dupoux (Ed.) Language the brain and cognitive development MIT Press Pinker S 2001b Talk genetics and vice–versa Nature 413 465–466 Pinker S & Mehler J (Eds.) 1988 Connections and symbols Cambridge Mass.: MIT Ptas Pinker S & Prince A 1988 On language and connectionism: Analysis a Parallel Distribolei Processing model language acquisition Cognition 28 73–193 Pinker S & Prince A 1996 The nature human concepts: Evidence from an unusual source Communication and Cognition 29 307–361. Number sense 192 209–10 220 223 Nurture Assumption The (Harris) viii 381 392 Nussbaum Martha 172 Oakshott Michael 290. The most sweeping attempt to survey the underlying dimension is Thomas Sowell's A Conflict Visions.8 Not every ideological struggle fits his scheme but as we say in social science he has identified a factor that can account for a large proportion the variance Sowell explains two “visions” the nature human beings that were expressed in their purest forms by Edmund Burke (1729–1797) the patron secular conservatism and William Godwin (1756–1836) the British counterpart to Rousseau In earlier times they might have been referred to as different visions the perfectibility man Sowell calls them the Constrained Vision and the Unconstrained Vision; I will refer to them as the Tragic Vision (a term he uses in a later book) and the Utopian Vision.9 The modern concept democracy emerged in seventeenth– and eighteenth-century England and was refined in the frenzy theorizing that surrounded the American independence movement It is no coincidence that the major theoreticians the social contract such as Hobbes Locke and Hume were also major armchair psychologists As Madison wrote “What is government itself but the greatest all reflections on human nature?”32 To a survival machine another survival machine (which is not its own child or another close relative) is part its environment like a rock or a river or a lump food It is something that gets in the way or something that can be exploited It differs from a rock or a river in one important respect: it is inclined to hit back This is because it too is a machine that holds its immortal genes in trust for the future and it too  {319}  will stop at nothing to preserve them Natural selection favors genes that control their survival machines in such a way that they make the best use their environment This includes making the best use other survival machines both the same and different Slippery slopes 228–29 Slovic Paul 231 302 Small Meredith 342 smell (olfactory) system 93 Humans then are just rats with bigger blank slates plus something called “cultural devices.” And that brings us to the other half the twentieth-century revolution in social science ~ He's so unhip when you say “Dylan,” He thinks you're talkin’ about Dylan Thomas (whoever he was) The man ain't got no culture — Simon and Garfunkel Researchers on the evolutionary origin language generally find it plausible to suggest that language was invented only once and that all modern spoken languages are thus in some way related even if that relation can no longer be recovered  because limitations on the methods available for reconstruction.[34] This book is based on the estimation that whatever the exact picture turns out to be a universal complex human nature will be part it I think we have reason to believe that the mind is equipped with a battery emotions drives and faculties for reasoning and communicating and that they have a common logic across cultures are difficult to erase or redesign from scratch were shaped by natural selection acting over the course human evolution and owe some their basic design (and some their variation) to information in the genome This general picture is meant to embrace a variety theories present and future and a range foreseeable scientific discoveries  {74}  Advertising to children • automobile safety • Barbie dolls • “big box” chain stores • cheesecake photos • clothing from Third World factories • consumer product safety • corporate-owned farms • defense-funded research • disposable diapers • disposable packaging • ethnic jokes • executive salaries • fast food • flirtation in the workplace • food additives • fur • hydroelectric dams • IQ tests • logging • mining • nuclear power • oil drilling • owning certain stocks • poultry farms • public holidays (Columbus Day Martin Luther King Day) • research on AIDS • research on breast cancer • spanking • suburbia (“sprawl”) • sugar • tax cuts • toy guns • violence on television • weight fashion models The sciences human nature seem to imply that the same is true right and wrong merit and worthlessness beauty and ugliness holiness and baseness They are neural constructs movies we project onto the interior our skulls ways to tickle the pleasure centers the brain with no more reality than the difference between red and green When Marley's ghost asked Scrooge why he doubted his senses he said “Because a little thing affects them A slight disorder the stomach makes them cheats You may be an undigested bit beef a blot mustard a crumb cheese a fragment an underdone potato There's more gravy than grave about you whatever you are!” Science seems to be saying that the same is true everything. Descartes rejected the idea that the mind could operate by physical principles He thought that behavior especially speech was not caused by anything but freely chosen He observed that our consciousness unlike our bodies and other physical objects does not feel as if it is divisible into parts or laid out in space He noted that we cannot doubt the existence our minds — indeed we cannot doubt that we areour minds — because the very act thinking presupposes that our minds exist But we can doubt the existence our bodies because we can imagine ourselves to be immaterial spirits who merely dream or hallucinate that we are incarnate.       chimpanzees and 61–62       culture learning and 61–63 Theory Moral Sentiments The (Smith) 288  {508}  Thomas Elizabeth Marshall 56 Thornhill Nancy Wilmsen 342 Childhood abuse recently implicated in Richard Rhodes's Why They Kill is a third putative cause “The tragedy is that people who have been victimized  {309}  ten become victimizers themselves,” said the president the Criminal Justice Policy Foundation “It's a cycle we could break but it involves some expense As a society we haven't put our resources there.”15 Note in these statements the mouthing the creed (“Violence is a learned behavior”) the certainty that it is true (“The reality is”) and the accusation that we suffer from a lack commitment (“We haven't put our resources there”) rather than an ignorance how to solve the problem.       language and 207–11       see also postmodernism Evolution Human Sexuality The (Symons) 114–15 Expanding Circle The (Singer) 167 320 Expression the Emotions in Man and Animals The (Darwin) 107–8 eyes 51 Fagan Jeffrey 329 families: <<  {141}  >>   Chapter 8 Homosexuality 44 46 93–94 154 164 201–2 honor violent behavior and 326–29 428–31 Horace 406 ~ THE PAYF FOR a reality-based understanding rape is the hope reducing or eliminating it Given the theories on the table the possible sites for levers influence include violence sexist attitudes and sexual desire. In the course the chapter Huck has met up with two instances the Southern culture honor Among the low-lifes it amounted to hollow bluster and was played for laughs; among the aristocrats it led to the devastation two families and played out as tragedy I think Twain was commenting on the twisted logic violence and how it cuts across our stereotypes refined and coarse classes people Indeed the moral reckoning does not just cut across the classes but inverts them: the riffraff resolve their pointless dispute with face-saving verbiage; the gentlemen pursue their equally pointless one to a dreadful conclusion. 19. boyd & Richerson 1985; Cavalli-Sforza & Feldman 1981; Durham 1982; Lumsden & Wilson 1981 20. Cavalli-Sforza 1991; Cavalli-Sforza & Feldman 1981 21. Toussaint-Samat 1992 22.  23. Sowell 1996 p 378 See also Sowell 1994 and Sowell 1998 24. Diamond 1992; Diamond 1998 25. Diamond 1997 26. Putnam 1973 27. Chomsky 1980 p 227; Marr 1982; Tinbergen 1952 28. Pinker 1999   Levels analysis 70–72 neural networks and 81–83 thought and 207–11 426 Laski Harold 153 183 Lawrence D H 159 Lazarus Richard 39 One the tasks evolutionary psychology is to identify which psychological traits are likely to be adaptations byproducts or random variation George C Williams suggested that an "adaptation is a special and onerous concept that should only be used where it is really necessary."[32] As noted by Williams and others adaptations can be identified by their improbable complexity species universality and adaptive functionality In fact the entire question what went wrong (socially or biologically) when a person engages in violence is badly posed Almost everyone recognizes the need for violence in defense self family and innocent victims Moral philosophers point out that there are even circumstances in which torture is justified — say when a captured terrorist has planted a time bomb in a crowded place and refuses to say where it is More generally whether a violent mindset is called heroic or pathological ten depends on whose ox has been gored Freedom fighter or terrorist Robin Hood or thief Guardian Angel or vigilante nobleman or warlord martyr or kamikaze general or gang leader — these are value judgments not scientific classifications I doubt that the brains or genes most the lauded protagonists would differ from those their vilified counterparts. Many sex differences course have nothing to do with biology Hair styles and dress vary capriciously across centuries and cultures and in recent decades participation in universities pressions and sports has switched from mostly male to fifty-fifty or mostly female For all we know some the current sex differences may be just as ephemeral But gender feminists argue  {346}  that all sex differences other than the anatomical ones come from the expectations parents playmates and society The radical scientist Anne Fausto-Sterling wrote: That these visionaries did not anticipate the revolution in women's status the 1970s is a pointed reminder how quickly social arrangements can change It was not so long ago that women were seen as fit only to be housewives mothers and sexual partners were discouraged from entering the pressions because they would be taking the place a man and were routinely subjected to discrimination condescension and sexual extortion The ongoing liberation women after millennia oppression is one the great moral achievements our species and I consider myself fortunate to have lived through some its major victories. Newton's theory that a single set laws governed the motions all objects in the universe was the first event in one the great developments in human understanding: the unification knowledge which the biologist E O Wilson has termed consilience.1 Newton's breaching the wall between the terrestrial and the celestial was followed by a collapse the once equally firm (and now equally forgotten) wall between the creative past and the static present That happened when Charles Lyell showed that the Earth was sculpted in the past by forces we see today (such as earthquakes and erosion) acting over immense. Cohen Dov 327 328 collectivization 246 combinatorial thought 36–37 79–81 236–39 299 335–36       in violence 309–11 316–17       women as researchers. Many critics accuse Harris trying to absolve parents responsibility for their children's lives: if the kids turn out badly parents can say it's not their fault But by the same token she is assigning adults responsibility for their own lives: if your life is not going well stop moaning that it's all your parents’ fault She is rescuing mothers from fatuous theories that blame them for every misfortune that befalls their children and from the censorious know-it-alls who make them feel like ogres if they slip out the house to work or skip a reading Goodnight Moon And the theory assigns us all a collective responsibility for the health the neighborhoods and culture in which peer groups are embedded Finally: “So you're saying it doesn't matter how I treat my children?” What a question! Yes course it matters Harris reminds her readers the reasons. Nozick R 1974 Anarchy state and Utopia New York: Basic Books Nozick R 1981 Philosophical explanations Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Nunney L 1998 Are we selfish are we nice or are we nice because we are selfish? (Review E Sober and D S Wilson's “Unto others”) Science 281 1619–1621 Orians G H 1998 Human behavioral ecology: 140 years without Darwin is too long Bulletin the Ecological Society America 79 15–28 Orians G H & Heerwgen J H 1992 Evolved responses to landscapes In J H Barkow L Cosmides & J Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation culture New York: Oxford University Press. Marx K 1847/1995 The poverty philosophy Amherst N.Y.: Prometheus Books Marx K 1859/1979 Contribution to the critique political economy New York: International Publishers Marx K 1867/1993 Capital: A critique political economy London: Penguin Marx K & Engels F 1844/1988 The economic and philosophic manuscripts 1844 Amherst N.Y.: Prometheus Books Marx K & Engels F 1846/1963 The German ideology: Parts I & III New York: New World Paperbacks/International Publishers Masters R D 1982 Is sociobiology reactionary? The political implications inclusive–fitness theory Quarterly Review Biology 57 275–292 Masters R D 1989 The nature politics New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press.   Chapter 11 The Fear Nihilism THE FINAL FEAR biological explanations the mind is that they may strip our lives meaning and purpose If we are just machines that let our genes make copies themselves if our joys and satisfactions are just biochemical events that will someday sputter out for good if life was not created for a higher purpose and directed toward a noble goal then why go on living? Life as we treasure it would be sham a Potemkin village with only a façade value. One corollary reciprocal altruism shown in a number simulations is that frequency-dependent selection can produce temporary or permanent mixtures strategies For example even if reciprocators predominate in a population a minority cheaters can sometimes survive taking advantage the generosity the reciprocators as long as they don't grow so numerous as to meet other cheaters too ten or to be recognized and punished by the reciprocators Whether the population ends up homogeneous or with a mixture strategies depends on which strategies are competing which start f more numerous howeasily they enter and leave the population and the payfs for cooperation and One THE deepest fears people have a biological understanding the mind is that it would lead to moral nihilism If we are not created by God for a higher purpose say the critics on the right or if we are products selfish genes say the critics on the left then what would prevent us from becoming amoral egoists who look out only for number one? Wouldn't we have to see ourselves as venal mercenaries who cannot be expected to care for the less fortunate? Both sides point to Nazism as the outcome accepting biological theories human nature. The euphemism treadmill shows that concepts not words are primary in people's minds Give a concept a new name and the name becomes colored by the concept; the concept does not become freshened by the name at least not for long Names for minorities will continue to change as long as people have negative attitudes toward them We will know that we have achieved mutual respect when the names. Damasio Hannah 99–100 Daniels Denise 381 Danto Arthur 409 Darkness in El Dorado (Tierney) 116 Darrow Clarence 130 Wilson D S & Sober E 1994 Re–introducing group selection to the human behavior s havioral and Brain Sciences 17 585–608 Wilson E /2000 Sociobiology: The new synthesis (25th–anniversary ed.) Cambridge Harvard University Press Wilson E Biophilia Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Wilson E Naturalist Washington D.C.: Island Press Wilson E Consilience: The unity knowledge New York: Knopf Wilson J Q 1993 The moral sense New York:. With still other traits the average values for the two sexes differ by smaller amounts and in different directions for different Though men on average are better at mentally rotating objects and maps women are better at remembering landmarks and the positions objects Men are better throwers; women are more dexterous Men are better at solving mathematical word problems women at mathematical calculation Women are more sensitive to sounds and smells have better depth perception match shapes faster and are much better at reading facial expressions and body language Women are better spellers retrieve words more fluently and have a better memory for verbal material. Dostoevsky's prescience is itself astonishing because in 1880 only the rudiments neural functioning were understood and a reasonable person could have doubted that all experience arises from quivering nerve tails But no longer One can say that the information-processing activity the brain causes the mind or one can say that it is the mind but in either case the evidence is overwhelming that every aspect our mental lives depends entirely on physiological events in the tissues. Animal rights 227–28 320 Annie Hall 190–91 anthropology 22–23. 100. quoted in A Humphreys “Lawyers may use genetics study in rape defense,” National Post (Canada) Janu p A8 101. Quoted in Jones 1999 102. Paglia 1990 pp 51 57 103. McElroy 1996 104. J Phillips “Exploring inside to live on the outside,” Boston Globe Ma 105. S Satel “The patriarchy made me do it,” Women's Freedom Newsletter 5 September/October 1998 Chapter 19: Children 1. Turkheimer 2000. In other studies behavior is recorded more directly Graduate students hang out in a schoolyard with a stopwatch and clipboard observing what the children do Pupils are rated for aggressiveness by several teachers and the ratings are averaged People report how much television they watch or how many cigarettes they smoke Researchers tally cut-and-dried outcomes such as high school graduation rates criminal convictions or divorces. Dawkins R 1986 The blind watchmaker: Why the evidence evolution reveals a universe without design New York: Norton Dawkins R 1998 Unweaving the rainbow: Science delusion and the appetite for wonder Boston: Houghton Mifflin de Waal F 1998 Chimpanzee politics: Power and sex among the apes Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press Deacon T 1997 The symbolic species: The coevolution language and the brain New York: Norton Deary J J 2000 Looking down on human intelligence: From psychometrics to the brain New York: Oxford University Press Deater–Deckard K & Plomin R 1999 An adoption study the etiology teacher and parent reports externalising behavior problems in middle childhood Child Development 70 144–154. Language not a simple reflection reality language prestige from pricient use law (rights and obligations) law (rules membership) leaders lever linguistic redundancy logical notions logical notion “and” logical notion “equivalent” logical notion “general/particular” logical notion “not” logical notion “opposite” logical notion “part/whole” logical notion “same” magic magic to increase life magic to sustain life magic to win love male and female and adult and child seen as having different natures I do not claim to have solved the problem free will only to have shown that we don't need to solve it to preserve personal responsibility in the face an increasing understanding the causes behavior Nor do I argue that deterrence is the only way to encourage virtue just that we should recognize it as the active ingredient that makes responsibility worth keeping Most all I hope I have dispelled two fallacies that have allowed the sciences human nature to sow unnecessary fear The first fallacy is that biological explanations corrode responsibility in a way that environmental explanations do not The second fallacy is that causal explanations (both biological and environmental) corrode responsibility in a way that a belief in an uncaused will or soul.        perception 199–201 214–15. Lachter J & Bever T G 1988 The relation between linguistic structure and associative theories language learning–A constructive critique some connectionist learning models Cognition 28 195–247 Lai C S L Fisher S E Hurst J A Vargha–Khadem F & Monaco A P 2001 A novel forkhead–domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder Nature 413 519–523 Lakf G 1996 Moral politics: What conservatives know that liberals don't Chicago: University Chicago Press Lakf G & Johnson M 1980 Metaphors we live by Chicago: University Chicago Press Lakf G & Nunez R E 2000 Where mathematics comes from: How the embodied mind brings mathematics into being New York:. The third comes from the study neural plasticity which examines how the brain develops in the womb and early childhood and how it records experience as the animal learns Neuroscientists have recently shown how the brain changes in response to learning practice and input from the senses One spin on these discoveries may be called extreme plasticity According to this slant the cerebral cortex — the convoluted gray matter responsible for perception thinking language and memory — is a protean substance that can be shaped almost limitlessly by the structure and demands the environment The blank slate becomes the plastic slate.       developmental biology and 90–100 386–87 396–97       primary sensory cortex and 87–91 93–94 Both psychology and the other social sciences then denied that the minds individual people were important but they set out in different directions from there Psychology banished mental entities like beliefs and desires altogether and replaced them with stimuli and responses The other social sciences located beliefs and desires in cultures and societies rather than in the heads individual people The different social sciences also agreed that the contents cognition — ideas thoughts plans and so on — were really phenomena language overt behavior that anyone could hear and write down (Watson proposed that “thinking” really consisted teensy movements the mouth and throat.) But most all they shared a dislike instincts and evolution Prominent social scientists repeatedly declared the slate to. Does one need scientific methodology in order to conclude that the anti-female propaganda that permeates our nation's cultural output promotes a climate in which acts sexual hostility directed against women are not only tolerated but ideologically encouraged? The development program for the brain has to be resourceful Take the problem getting every axon (output fiber) from the eyes to connect to the brain in an orderly way Neighboring points in the eye must connect to neighboring points in the brain (an arrangement called topographic mapping) and corresponding locations in the two eyes should end up near each other in the brain but not get mixed up with. For — hold them — Blue to Blue — The one the other will absorb — As Sponges — Buckets — do — The Brain is just the weight God — For — Heft them — Pound for Pound — And they will differ — if they do — As Syllable from Sound —   Africa. Though I know no quantitative studies the targeting sexist attitudes does not seem to be a particularly promising avenue for reducing rape though course it is desirable for other reasons Countries with far more rigid gender roles than the United States such as Japan have far lower rates rape and within the United States the sexist 1950s were far safer for women than the more liberated 1970s and 1980s If anything the correlation might go in the opposite direction As women gain greater freedom movement because they are independent men they will more ten find themselves in dangerous situations. What do these discoveries mean? Do they show that the brain is “able to be shaped molded modeled or sculpted,” as the dictionary plastic would suggest? In the rest this chapter I will show you that the answer is Discoveries how the brain changes with experience do not show that learning is more powerful than we thought that the brain can be dramatically reshaped by its input or that the genes do not shape the brain Indeed demonstrations the plasticity the brain are less radical than they first appear: the supposedly plastic regions cortex are doing pretty much the same thing they would have been doing if they had never been altered And the most recent discoveries on brain development have refuted the idea that the brain is largely plastic Let me go over these points. 2. halpern Gilbert & Coren 1996 3. Allen etal 1975 4. Gould 1976a 5. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 267 6. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 267 7. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 14 8. Lewontin 1992 p 123 9. Precis Lewontin 1982 on the book jacket 10. Lewontin 1992 p 123 11. Montagu 1973a 12. S Gould “A time gifts,” New York Times September 26,2001 13. Gould 1998b. Ruse M 2000 Can a Darwinian be a Christian? The relationship between science and religion New York: Cambridge University Press Rushton J P 1996 Race intelligence and the brain: The errors and omissions the “revised” edition S J Gould's “The mismeasure man.” Personality and Individual Differences 23 169–180 Rushton J P Fulker D W Neale M C Nias D K B & Eysenck H J 1986 Altruism and aggression: The heritability individual differences Journal Personality and Social Psychol–1198 Rutter M 1997 Nature–nurture integration: The example antisocial behavior American Psychologist 52 390–398 Ryle G 1949 The concept mind London: Penguin. This chapter is about three scientific developments that are sometimes interpreted as undermining the possibility a complex human nature The first comes from the Human Genome Project When the sequence the human genome was published in 2001 geneticists were surprised that the number genes was lower than they had predicted The estimates hovered around 34,000 genes which lies well outside the earlier range 50,000 to 100,000.1 Some editorialists concluded that the smaller gene count refuted any claim about innate talents or tendencies because the slate is too small to contain much writing Some even saw it as vindicating the concept free will: the smaller the machine the more room for. As with so many ideas in social science the centrality language is taken to extremes in deconstructionism postmodernism and other relativist doctrines The writings oracles like Jacques Derrida are studded with such aphorisms as “No escape from language is possible,” “Text is self-referential,” “Language is power,” and “There is nothing outside the text.” Similarly J Hillis Miller wrote that “language is not an instrument or tool in man's hands a submissive means thinking Language rather thinks man and his ‘world' if he will allow it to do so.”26 The prize for the most extreme statement must go to Roland Barthes who declared “Man does not exist prior to language either as a species or as an individual.”27 ~ Bourdieu Pierre 407–8 413 bourgeoisie 128 152 157 158 410 416 bowerbirds 407–8 Bowles Samuel 303 Sur M Angelucci A & Sharma J 1999 Rewiring cortex: The role patterned activity in development and plasticity neocortical circuits Journal Neurobiology 41 33^13 Swim J K 1994 Perceived versus meta–analytic effect sizes: An assessment the accuracy gender stereotypes Journal Personality and Social Psychology 66 21–36 Symons D 1979 The evolution human sexuality New York: Oxford University Press Symons D 1995 Beauty is in the adaptations the beholder: The evolutionary psychology human female sexual attractiveness In P R Abramson & S D Pinkerton (Eds.) Sexual nature sexual culture Chicago: University Chicago Press Szathmary E Jordan F & Pal C 2001 Can genes explain biological complexity? Science 292 1315–1316. The FIRST STEP in understanding violence is to set aside our abhorrence it long enough to examine why it can sometimes pay f in personal or evolutionary terms This requires one to invert the statement the problem — not why violence occurs but why it is avoided Morality after all did not enter the universe with the Big Bang and then pervade it like background radiation It was discovered by our ancestors after billions years the morally indifferent process known as natural selection. Connectionism and extreme plasticity are popular among cognitive  {75}  scientists at the West Pole who reject a completely blank slate but want to restrict innate organization to simple biases in attention and memory Extreme plasticity also appeals to neuroscientists who wish to boost the importance their field for education and social policy and to entrepreneurs selling products to speed up infant development cure learning disabilities or slow down aging Outside the sciences all three developments have been welcomed by some scholars in the humanities who want to beat back the encroachments biology.2 The lean genome connectionism and extreme plasticity are the Blank Slate's. When we look at human bodies and brains we find more direct signs design for aggression The larger size strength and upper-body mass men is a zoological giveaway an evolutionary history violent male-male Other signs include the effects testosterone on dominance and violence (which we will encounter in the chapter on gender) the emotion anger (complete with reflexive baring the canine teeth and clenching the fists) the revealingly named fight-or-flight response the autonomic nervous system and the fact that disruptions inhibitory systems the brain (by alcohol damage to the frontal lobe or amygdala or defective genes involved in serotonin metabolism) can lead to aggressive attacks initiated by circuits in the limbic 32. from a talk at the Cornell University Institute on Women and Work quoted by C Young “The mommy wars,” Reason July 2000 33. Liza Mundy “The New Critics,” Lingua Franca 3 September/October 1993 p 27 34. “From Carol Gilligan's chair,” interview by Michael Norman New York Times Magazine November 7 1997 35. Letter by Bruce Bodner New York Times Magazine November 30,1997 36. C Young “Where the boys are,” Reason February 2 2001 37. Sommers 2000   Chapter 10: The Fear Determinism   Nazism and Marxism shared a desire to reshape humanity “The alteration of men on a mass scale is necessary,” wrote Marx; “the will to create mankind anew” is the core of National Socialism wrote They also shared a revolutionary idealism and a tyrannical certainty in pursuit of this dream with no patience for incremental reform or adjustments guided by the human consequences of their policies This alone was a recipe for disaster As Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn wrote in The Gulag Archipelago “Macbeth's self-justifications were feeble — and his conscience devoured him Yes even Iago was a little lamb too The imagination and the spiritual strength of Shakespeare's evildoers stopped short at a dozen corpses Because they had no ideology” <<  {5}  >>   Chapter 1 The ficial Theory “BLANK SLATE” is a loose translation the medieval Latin term tabula rasa — literally “scraped tablet.” It is commonly attributed to the philosopher John Locke (1632–1704) though in fact he used a different metaphor Here is the famous passage from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding: In September 2000 the anthropologists Terence Turner and Leslie Sponsel sent the executives the association a letter (which quickly proliferated throughout cyberspace) warning a scandal for anthropology that was soon to be divulged in a book by the journalist Patrick The alleged perpetrators were the geneticist James Neel a founder the modern science human genetics and the anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon famous for his thirty-year study the Yanomamö people the Amazon rainforest Turner and Sponsel wrote: A few parents have begun to question the imperative to become round-the-clock parenting machines A recent cover story in Newsweek entitled “The Parent Trap” reported on the frazzled mothers and fathers who devote every nonworking minute to entertaining and chauffeuring their children for fear that they will otherwise turn into ne'er-do-wells or cafeteria snipers A similar story in the Boston Globe Magazinewith the ironic title “How to Raise a Perfect Child ” elaborates: An idea is not false or evil because the Nazis misused it As the historian Robert Richards wrote an alleged connection between Nazism and evolutionary biology “If such vague similarities suffice here we should all be hustled to the gallows.”30 Indeed if we censored ideas that the Nazis abused we would have to give up far more than the application evolution and genetics to human behavior We would have to censor the study evolution and genetics period And we would have to suppress many other ideas that Hitler twisted into the foundations Nazism: • The germ theory disease: The Nazis repeatedly cited Pasteur and Koch to argue that the Jews were like an infectious bacillus that had to be eradicated to control a contagious disease. Native Americans 6 12 22–23 57 115–19 124 212 296 298 332 Natural Classicism 417 Violence 44 56–58 294 306–36       fear and 322–26       feuds and 430–31 Yes it is disappointing that there is no algorithm for growing a happy and successful child But would we really want to specify the traits our children in advance and never be delighted by the unpredictable gifts and quirks that every child brings into the world? People are appalled by human cloning and its dubious promise that parents can design their children by genetic engineering But how different is that from the fantasy that parents can design their children by how they bring them up? Realistic parents would be less anxious parents They could enjoy their time with their children rather than constantly trying to stimulate them socialize them and improve their characters They could read stories to their children for the pleasure it not because it's good for their neurons. 20. see Chapter 14 and also Burnstein Crandall & Kitayama 1994; Chagnon 1992; Daly Salmon & Wilson 1997; Daly & Wilson 1988; Fox 1984; Gaulin & McBurney 2001 pp 321–329; Mount 1992; Petrinovich O'Neill & Jorgensen 1993; Shoumatf 1985 21. See Chapter 14 and also Bowles & Gintis 1999; Cosmides & Tooby 1992; Fehr Fischbacher & Gachter in press; Fehr & Gachter 2000; Fiske 1992; Gaulin & McBurney 2001 pp 333–335; Gintis 2000; Klaw 1993; McCord 1989; Muravchik 2002; Price Cosmides & Tooby 2002; Ridley 1997; Spann 1989; Williams Harkins & Latane 1981. In the rest this chapter I explore the logic violence and why emotions and thoughts devoted to it may have evolved This is necessary to disentangle the knot biological and cultural causes that make violence so puzzling It can help explain why people are prepared for violence but act on those inclinations only in particular circumstances; when violence is at least in some sense rational and when it is blatantly self-defeating; why violence is more prevalent in some times and places than in others despite a lack any genetic difference among the actors; and ultimately how we might reduce and prevent violence  {318}  ~ On the other hand if the soul is predictably affected by the prospect esteem and shame or reward and punishment it is no longer truly free because it is compelled (at least probabilistically) to respect those contingencies Whatever converts standards responsibility into changes in the likelihood behavior — such as the rule “If the community would think you're a boorish cad for doing X don't do X” — can be programmed into an algorithm and implemented in neural hardware The soul is superfluous. The ideology group-against-group struggle explains the similar outcomes Marxism and Nazism The ideology the Blank Slate helps explain some the features that were unique to the Marxist states: • If people do not differ in psychological traits like talent or drive then anyone who is better f must be avaricious or larcenous (as I mentioned  {158}  earlier) Massive killing kulaks and “rich” or “bourgeois” peasants was a feature Lenin's and Stalin's Soviet Union Mao's China and Pol Pot's Cambodia. But Symons argues nothing the sort would happen The relation between the mates would evolve to be like the relation among the cells a single body whose genetic interests are also identical Heart cells and lung cells don't  {268}  have to fall in love to get along in perfect harmony Likewise the couples in this species would have sex only for the purpose procreation (why waste energy?) and sex would bring no more pleasure than the rest reproductive physiology such as the release hormones or the formation the gametes: Twin studies 46–48 98 102 142 146 374–77 378–79 396 397 2001: A Space Odyssey 337 The human genome then is fully capable building a complex brain in spite the bizarre proclamations how wonderful it is that people are almost as simple as worms course “the wonderful diversity the human species is not hard-wired in our genetic code,” but we didn't need to count genes to figure that out — we already know it from the fact that a child growing up in Japan speaks Japanese but the same child growing up in England would speak English It is an example a syndrome we will meet elsewhere in this book: scientific findings spin-doctored beyond recognition to make a moral point that could have been made more easily on other grounds The second scientific defense the Blank Slate comes from connectionism the theory that the brain is like the artificial neural networks simulated on computers to learn statistical Conflict resolution 58 168 330–31 332–36 conformity 63–65 271–72 294 Confucius. The fear that scientific knowledge undermines human values reminds me the opening scene in Annie Hall in which the young Alvy Singer has been taken to the family doctor: MOTHER: He's been depressed All a sudden he can't do anything DOCTOR: Why are you depressed Alvy? MOTHER: Tell Dr Flicker [Answers for him.] It's something he read DOCTOR: Something he read huh? ALVY: [Head down.] The universe is expanding DOCTOR: The universe is expanding? ALVY: Well the universe is everything and if it's expanding someday it will break apart and that would be the end everything! 49. marx quotation from Stevenson & Haberman 1998 p 146; Hitler quotation from Glover 1999 p 315 50. Besancon 1998 51. Watson 1985 52. Tajfel 1981 53. Originally in Red Flag (Beijing) June 1 1958; quoted in Courtois et al 1999   Chapter 9: The Fear Imperfectibility   1. The Prelude Book Sixth “Cambridge and the Alps,” I Published 1799–1805 2. Passmore 1970 epigraph 3. For example the Seville Statement on Violence 1990.   CONTENTS PREFACE vii   PART I The Blank Slate the Noble Savage,and the Ghost in the Machine 1       Chapter 1 The ficial Theory 5       Chapter 2. Rossen M Klima E S Bellugi U Bihrle A & Jones W 1996 Interaction between language and cognition: Evidence from Williams syndrome In J H Beitchman N J Cohen M M Konstantareas, {483}  & R Tannock (Eds.) Language learning and behavior disorders: i biological and clinical perspectives New York: Cambridge University Press Rossiter C (Ed.) 1961 The Federalist Papers New York: New American Library Rousseau J.–J 1755/1986 The first and second discourses together with the replies to critics on the origin languages New York: Perennial Library Rousseau J.–J 1755/1994 Discourse upon the origin and foundation inequality among New York: Oxford University Press Rousseau J.–J 1762/1979 Emile New York:. Bouchard T J Jr 1998 Genetic and environmental influences on intelligence and special mental abilities Human Biology 70 257–259 Bouchard T J Jr Lykken D T McGue M Segal N L & Tellegen A 1990 Sources human psychological differences: The Minnesota Study Twins Reared Apart Science 250 223–228 Bourdieu P 1984 Distinction: A social critique the judgment taste Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Bourgeois J.–P Goldman–Rakic P S & Rakic P 2000 Formation elimination and stabilization synapses in the primate cerebral cortex In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neuro– dge Mass.: MIT Press Bourke J 1999 An intimate history killing: Face–to–face killing in 20th–century war/are New York:. • and it is a bad idea to say that our motives are meaningful in a personal sense only because they are inexplicable in a biological sense  {194}  These are bad ideas because they make our values hostages to fortune implying that someday factual discoveries could make them obsolete And they are bad ideas because they conceal the downsides denying human nature: persecution the successful intrusive social engineering the writing f suffering in other cultures an incomprehension the logic justice and the devaluing human life. Critical period 387 critical theory 198 Critique Practical Reason (Kant) 193 Crittenden Danielle 339 Croce Jim 326 Cronin Helena 342 Cuban Missile Crisis 334 335 Cultural Revolution 152 Why is it important to sort this all out? The refusal to acknowledge human nature is like the Victorians’ embarrassment about sex only worse: it distorts our science and scholarship our public discourse and our day-to-day lives Logicians tell us that a single contradiction can corrupt a set statements and allow falsehoods to proliferate through it The dogma that human nature does not exist in the face evidence from science and common sense that it does is just such a corrupting influence. Singer's reminiscence is more nostalgic than bitter and course most families fer far more nurturance than repression or strife At the proximate level Tolstoy was surely right that there are happy and unhappy families and that unhappy families are unhappy in different ways depending on the chemistry the people thrown together by genetics and fate The conflict inherent to families does not make family ties any less central to human existence It only implies that the balancing competing interests that governs all human interactions does not end at the door the family home ~ The BLANK SLATE has made its last stand but as we have seen its latest scientific fortifications are illusory The human genome may have a smaller number genes than biologists had previously estimated but that only shows that the number genes in a genome has little to do with the complexity the organism Connectionist networks may explain some the building blocks cognition but they are too underpowered to account for thought and language on their own; they must be innately engineered and assembled for the tasks Neural plasticity is not a magical protean power the brain but a set tools that help turn megabytes genome into terabytes brain that make sensory cortex dovetail with its input and that implement the process called learning. Tamara: That's something you never knew HERMAN: It's as if you've risen from the dead TAMARA: We were dumped in an open pit They thought we were all dead But I crawled over some corpses and escaped at night How is it my uncle didn't know where you were — we had to put an advertisement in the paper? HERMAN: I don't have my own apartment I live with someone else TAMARA: What do you do? Where do you live? HERMAN: I didn't know you were alive and — TAMARA [smiles]: Who is the lucky woman who has taken my place? HERMAN [stunned; then replies]: She was our servant You knew her Yadwiga. The effects the shared environment can be measured in twin studies by subtracting the heritabihty value from the correlation between the identical twins The rationale is that identical twins are alike (measured by the correlation) because their shared genes (measured by the heritabihty) and their shared environment so the effects the shared environment can be estimated by subtracting the heritabihty from the correlation Alternatively the effects can be estimated in adoption studies simply by looking at the correlation between two adoptive siblings: they do not share genes so any similarities (relative to the sample) must come from the experiences they shared growing up in the same home A third technique is to compare the correlation between siblings reared together (who share genes and a home environment) with the correlation between siblings reared apart (who share. This well-populated gallery left-wing s should not come as a surprise even after centuries in which human nature was a preserve the right Mindful both science and history the Darwinian left has abandoned the Utopian Vision that brought so many unintended disasters Whether this non-Utopian left is really all that different from the contemporary secular right and whether its particular policies are worth their costs is not for me to argue here The point is that traditional political alignments ought to change as we learn more about human beings The ideologies the left and the right took shape before Darwin before Mendel before anyone knew what a gene or a neuron or a hormone was Every student political science is taught that political ideologies are based on theories human nature Why must they be based on theories that are three hundred years. Finally there are mental images the visualizations objects and scenes in the mind's eye The psychologist Stephen Kosslyn has shown that the brain is equipped with a system capable reactivating and manipulating memories perceptual experience a bit like Photoshop with its tools for assembling rotating and coloring Like language imagery may be used as a slave system — a “visuospatial sketchpad” — by the central executive the brain making it a valuable form mental representation We use mental imagery for example when we visualize how a chair might fit in a living room or whether a sweater would look good on a relative Imagery is also an invaluable tool to novelists who imagine scenes before describing them in words and to scientists who rotate molecules or play out forces and motions in their imagination. Romer's second point is that ideas are what economists call “nonrival goods.” Rival goods such as food fuel and tools are made matter and energy If one person uses them others cannot as we recognize in the saying “You can't eat your cake and have it.” But ideas are made information which can be duplicated at negligible cost A recipe for bread a blueprint for a building a technique for growing rice a formula for a drug a useful scientific law or a computer program can be given away without anything being subtracted from the giver The seemingly magical proliferation nonrival goods has recently confronted us with new problems concerning intellectual property as we try to adapt a legal system that was based on owning stuff to the problem owning information — such as musical recordings — that can easily be shared over the Internet. So what is the evidence that our species may have evolved mechanisms for discretionary violence? The first thing to keep in mind is that aggression is an organized goal-directed activity not the kind event that could come from a random malfunction If your lawnmower continued to run after you released the handle and it injured your foot you might suspect a sticky switch or other breakdown But if the lawnmower lay in wait until you emerged from the garage and then chased you around the yard you would have to conclude that someone had installed a chip that programmed it to do so The presence deliberate chimpicide in our chimpanzee cousins raises the possibility that the forces evolution not just the idiosyncrasies a particular human culture prepared us for violence And the ubiquity violence in human societies throughout history and prehistory is a stronger hint that we are so prepared. 32. blum 1997; Geary 1998; Halpern 2000; Kimura 1999 33. Blum 1997; Geary 1998; Halpern 2000; Kimura 1999 34. Provine 1993 35. Hrdy 1999 36. Fausto-Sterling 1985 pp 152–153 37. Brown 1991 38. Buss 1999; Geary 1998; Ridley 1993; Symons 1979; Trivers 1972 39. Daly & Wilson 1983; Geary 1998; Hauser 2000 40. Geary 1998; Silverman & Eals 1992 41. Gibbons 2000 42. Blum 1997; Geary 1998; Halpern 2000; Kimura 1999. The psychological roots culture also help explain why some bits culture change and others stay put Some collective practices have enormous inertia because they impose a high cost on the first individual who would try to change them A switch from driving on the left to driving on the right could not begin with a daring nonconformist or a grass-roots movement but would have to be imposed from the top down (which is what happened in Sweden at 5 a.m Sunday September 3 1967) Other examples are laying down your weapons when hostile neighbors are armed to the teeth abandoning the QWERTY keyboard layout and pointing out that the emperor is not wearing any clothes. Dutton D 1998 America's most wanted and why no one wants it Philosophy and Literature 22 530–543 Dutton D 2000 Mad about flowers Philosophy and Literature 24 249–260 Dutton D 2001 Aesthetic universals In B Gaut & D M Lopes (Eds.) The Routledge companion to aesthetics New York: Routledge Dworkin A 1993 Sexual economics: The terrible truth In Letters from a war–zone New York: Lawrence Hill Eagly A H 1995 The science and politics comparing women and men American Psychologist 50 145–158 Easterlin N Riebling B & Crews F 1993 After poststructuralism: Interdisciplinary and literary theory (rethinking theory) Evanston 111.: Northwestern University Press. Soviet Union 152 155 158 246 286–87 310 331 334 410 Sowell Thomas 287 295 Spanish. 15. d R Vickery “And who speaks for our earth?” Boston Globe December 1 1997 16. Green 2001; R Mishra “What can stem cells really do?” Boston Globe Aug   Chapter 2: Silly Putty   1. Jespersen 1938/1982 pp 2–3 2. Degler 1991; Fox 1989; Gould 1981; Richards 1987 3. Degler 1991; Fox 1989; Gould 1981; Rachels 1990; Richards 1987; Ridley 2000 4. Degler 1991; Gould 1981; Kevles 1985; Richards 1987; Ridley 2000. What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge analyzed with whatever tools work best Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray's Anatomy of the mind here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based: • An intuitive physics which we use to keep track of how objects fall bounce and bend Its core intuition is the concept of the object which occupies one place exists for a continuous span of time and follows laws of motion and force These are not Newton's laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.2 Kass Leon 130 133 274 339–40 Katz Lawrence 97–98 Keegan John 333 Keeley Lawrence 56 57 Keil Frank 230  {500}  The FIRST BRIDGE between biology and culture is the science mind cognitive science.2 The concept mind has been perplexing for as long as people have reflected on their thoughts and feelings The very idea has spawned paradoxes superstitions and bizarre theories in every period and culture One can almost sympathize with the behaviorists and social constructionists the first half the twentieth century who looked on minds as enigmas or conceptual traps that were best avoided in favor overt behavior or the traits a culture. A second reason is that “radical” thinkers got trapped by their own moralizing Once they staked themselves to the lazy argument that racism sexism war and political inequality were factually incorrect because there is no such thing as human nature (as opposed to being morally despicable regardless the details human nature) every discovery about human nature was by their own reasoning tantamount to saying that those scourges were not so bad after all That made it all the more pressing to discredit the heretics making the discoveries If ordinary standards scientific argumentation were not doing the trick other tactics had to be brought in because a greater good was. Diamond begins at the beginning For most human evolutionary history we lived as hunter-gatherers The trappings civilization — sedentary living cities a division labor government pressional armies writing metallurgy — sprang from a recent development farming about ten thousand years ago Farming depends on plants and animals that can be tamed and exploited and only a few species are suited to it They happened to be concentrated in a few parts the world including the Fertile Crescent China and Central and South America The first civilizations arose in those regions. There are two other reasons why the complexity the genome is not reflected in the number genes it contains One is that a given gene can produce not just one protein but several A gene is typically broken into stretches DNA that code for fragments protein (exons) separated by stretches DNA that don't (introns) a bit like a magazine article interrupted by ads The segments a gene can then be spliced together in multiple ways A gene composed exons A B C and D might give rise to proteins corresponding to  {78}  ABC ABD ACD and so on — as many as ten different proteins per gene This happens to a greater degree in complex organisms than in simple Le Corbusier was frustrated in his aspiration to flatten Paris Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro and rebuild them according to his scientific principles But in the 1950s he was given carte blanche to design Chandigarh the capital the Punjab and one his disciples was given a clean tablecloth for Brasilia the capital Brazil Today both cities are notorious as uninviting wastelands detested by the civil servants who live in them Authoritarian High Modernism also led to the “urban renewal” projects in many American cities  {171}  during the 1960s that replaced vibrant neighborhoods with freeways high-rises and empty windswept plazas. Sowell T 1995b The vision the anointed: Self–congratulation as a basis for social policy New York: Basic Books Sowell T 1996 Migrations and cultures: A world view New York: Basic Books Sowell T 1998 Conquests and cultures: An international history New York: Basic Books Spann E K 1989 Brotherly tomorrows: Movements for a cooperative society in America 1820–1920 New York: Columbia University Press Spelke E 1995 Initial knowledge: Six suggestions Cognition 50 433–447 Spelke E S Breinlinger K Macomber J & Jacobson K 1992 Origins knowledge Psychological Review 99 605–632 Sperber D 1985 Anthropology and psychology: Towards an epidemiology representations Man 20 73–89. Computer modelers ten set their models on simplified toy problems to ?rove that they can work in principle The question then becomes whether the models can “scale up” to more realistic problems or whether as skeptics say the modeler “is climbing trees to get to the moon.” Here we have the problem with connectionism Simple connectionist networks can manage impressive displays memory and generalization in circumscribed problems like reading a list words or learning stereotypes animals But they are simply too underpowered to duplicate more realistic feats human intelligence like understanding a sentence or reasoning about living things. You and I should not now pull on the ends the rope in which you have tied a knot war because the harder you and I pull the tighter this knot will become And a time may come when this knot is tied so tight that the person who tied it is no longer capable untying it and then the knot will have to be By identifying the trap they could formulate a shared goal escaping it In the teeth opposition from many their advisers and large sectors their publics both made concessions that averted a catastrophe. So men are not from Mars nor are women from Venus Men and women are from Africa the cradle our evolution where they evolved together as a single species Men and women have all the same genes except for a handful on the Y chromosome and their brains are so similar that it takes an eagle-eyed neuroanatomist to find the small differences between them Their average levels general intelligence are the same according to the best psychometric estimates,24 and they use language and think about the physical and living world in the same general way They feel the same basic emotions and both enjoy sex seek intelligent and kind partners get jealous make sacrifices for their children compete for status and mates and sometimes commit aggression in pursuit their interests. ~ WHERE DOES THIS leave intellectual life today? The hostility to the sciences human nature from the religious right is likely to increase but the influence the right will be felt more in direct appeals to politicians than from changes in the intellectual climate Any inroads the religious right into mainstream intellectual life will be limited by their opposition to the theory evolution itself Whether it is known as creationism or by the euphemism Intelligent Design a denial the theory natural selection will founder under the weight the mass evidence that the theory is correct How much additional damage the denial will do to science education and biomedical research before it sinks is unknown. 4. l Tye “Girls appear to be closing aggression gap with boys,” Boston Globe Ma 5. M Zoll “What about the boys?” Boston Globe Ap 6. Quoted in Young 1999 p 247 7. Crittenden 1999; Shalit 1999 8. L Kass “The end courtship,” Public Interest 126 Winter 1997 9. Patai 1998 10. Grant 1993; Jaggar 1983; Tong 1998  {456}  11. Sommers 1994 See also Jaggar 1983 12. Quoted in Sommers. Also up for grabs is exactly how our minds use the information coming in from the senses Once our faculties for language and social interaction are up and running some kinds learning may consist simply recording information for future use like the name a person or the content a new piece legislation Others may be more like setting a dial flipping a switch or computing an average where the apparatus is in place but a parameter is left open so the mind can track variation in the local environment Still others may use the information provided by all normal environments such as the presence gravity or the statistics colors and lines in the visual field to tune up our sensorimotor systems There are yet other ways that nature and nurture might interact and many will blur the distinction between. Hunter–gatherer societies 53 63 68 233–34 294 306–7 316 Hurtado Magdalena 342 Huston Anjelica 432 hyperreality 214 Public goods 256–58 294 Public Opinion (Lippmann) 201 punishment 180–85 Putnam Hilary 70 149 Pygmalion effect 206 Pylyshyn. But the right-wing opposition to the sciences human nature can no longer be associated only with Bible-thumpers and televangelists Today evolution is being challenged by some the most cerebral theorists in the formerly secular neoconservative movement They are embracing a hypothesis called Intelligent Design originated by the biochemist Michael The molecular machinery cells cannot function in a simpler form Behe argues and therefore it could not have evolved piecemeal by natural selection Instead it must have been conceived as a working invention by an intelligent designer The designer could in theory have been an advanced alien from outer space but everyone knows that the subtext the theory is that it must have. The idea an environment evolutionary adaptedness was first explored as a part attachment theory by John Bowlby.[39] This is the environment to which a particular evolved mechanism is adapted More specifically the environment evolutionary adaptedness is defined as the set historically recurring selection pressures that formed a given adaptation as well as those aspects the environment that were necessary for the proper development and functioning the adaptation Evolutionary psychology is founded on several core premises Karmilf–smith A Klima E S Bellugi U Grant J & Baron–Cohen S 1995 Is there a social module? Language face processing and Theory Mind in individuals with Williams syndrome Journal Cognitive Neuroscience 7 196–208 Katz L C & Crowley J C 2002 Development cortical circuits: Lessons from ocular dominance columns Nature Neuroscience Reviews 3 34–42 Katz L C & Shatz C J 1996 Synaptic activity and the construction cortical circuits Science 274 1133–1137 Katz L C Weliky M & Crowley J C 2000 Activity and the development the visual cortex: New perspectives In M.S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Keegan J 1976 The face battle New York: Penguin. In the face these difficult choices it is tempting to look to biology to find or ratify boundaries such as “when life begins.” But that only highlights the clash between two incommensurable ways conceiving life and mind The intuitive and morally useful concept an immaterial spirit simply cannot be reconciled with the scientific concept brain activity emerging gradually in ontogeny and phylogeny No matter where we try to draw the line between life and nonlife or between mind and nonmind ambiguous cases pop up to challenge our moral intuitions. Similarly the journalist Andrew Ferguson warns his readers that evolutionary psychology “is sure to give you the creeps,” because “whether behavior is moral whether it signifies virtue is a judgment that the new science and materialism in general cannot make.”39 The new sciences he writes claim that people are nothing but “meat puppets,” a frightening shift from the traditional Judeo-Christian view in which “human beings [are] persons from the start endowed with a soul created by God and infinitely precious.”40 76. quoted in C Holden “Parity as a goal sparks bitter battle,” Science 289 J 77. Quoted in C Holden “Parity as a goal sparks bitter battle,” Science 289 July 21,2000 78. Kleinfeld 1999 79. National Science Foundation Women Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 1998 .gov/sbe/srs/nsf99338 80. Thornhill & Palmer 2000 81. “Report on the situation human rights in the territory the former Yugoslavia,” 1993 United Nations Document E/CN.4/1993/50. The same arguments divide the visions on crime Those with the Utopian Vision see crime as inherently irrational and seek to prevent it by identifying the root causes Those with the Tragic Vision see crime as inherently rational and believe that the root cause is all too obvious: people rob banks because that's where the money is The most effective crime-prevention programs they say strike directly at the rational incentives A high probability unpleasant punishment raises the anticipated cost crime A public emphasis on personal responsibility helps enforce the incentives by closing any loopholes left open by the law And strict parenting practices allow children to internalize these contingencies. None this is meant to impugn the Blank Slate as an evil doctrine any more than a belief in human nature is an evil doctrine Both are separated by a great many steps from the wicked acts committed under their banners and they must be evaluated on factual grounds But it is meant to overturn the simplistic linkage the sciences human nature with the moral catastrophes the twentieth century That glib association stands in the way our desire to understand ourselves and it stands in the way the imperative to understand the causes those catastrophes All the more so if the causes have something to do with a side ourselves we do not fully understand Neural development and plasticity unquestionably make up one the great frontiers human knowledge How a linear string DNA can direct the assembly an intricate three-dimensional organ that lets us think feel and learn is a problem to stagger the imagination to keep neuroscientists engaged for decades and to belie any suggestion that we are approaching “the end science.” The other distinctive feature Homo sapiens as a species is course toolmaking Competitiveness can channel toolmaking into weaponry and diffidence can channel weaponry into an arms race An arms race like an alliance can make war more likely by accelerating the spiral fear and distrust Our species’ vaunted ability to make tools is one the reasons we are so good at killing one another The vicious circle a Hobbesian trap can help us understand why the escalation from friction to war (and occasionally the de-escalation to detente) can happen so suddenly Mathematicians and computer simulators have devised models in which several players acquire arms or form alliances in response to what the other players are doing The models ten display chaotic behavior in which small differences in the values the parameters can have large and unpredictable What is a neural network? Connectionists use the term to refer not to real neural circuitry in the brain but to a kind computer program based on the metaphor neurons and neural circuits In the most common approach a “neuron” carries information by being more or less active The activity level indicates the presence or absence (or intensity or degree confidence) a simple feature the world The feature may be a color a line with a certain slant a letter the alphabet or a property an animal such as having. Singer Isaac Bashevis 251 431–34 Singer Peter 166–67 298 320 Skinner. In part the respect awarded to the radical scientists has been earned Quite aside from their scientific accomplishments Lewontin is an incisive analyst on  {134}  many scientific and social issues Gould has written hundreds superb essays on natural history and Rose wrote a fine book on the neuroscience memory But they have also positioned themselves shrewdly on the intellectual landscape As the biologist John Alcock explains “Stephen Jay Gould abhors violence he speaks out against sexism he despises Nazis he finds genocide horrific he is unfailingly on the side the angels Who can argue with such a person?”51 This immunity from argument allowed the radical scientists’ unfair attacks on others to become part the conventional wisdom. Gibbons A 2000 Europeans trace ancestry to Paleolithic people Science 290,1080–1081 Gigerenzer G 1991 How to make cognitive illusions disappear: Beyond heuristics and biases European Review Social Psychology 2 83–115 Gigerenzer G 1997 Ecological intelligence: An adaptation for frequencies In D Cummins & C Allen (Eds.) The evolution mind New York: Oxford University Press Gigerenzer G & Hug K 1992 Domain specific reasoning: Social contracts cheating and perspective change Cognition 43 127–171 Gigerenzer G & Selten R (Eds.) 2001 Bounded rationality: The adaptive toolbox Cambridge Mass.:. Speaking is the default modality for language in all cultures The production spoken language depends on sophisticated capacities for controlling the lips tongue and other components the vocal apparatus the ability to acoustically decode speech sounds and the neurological apparatus required for acquiring and producing language.[46] The study the genetic bases for human language is at an early stage: the only gene that has definitely been implicated in language production is FOXP2 which may cause a kind congenital language disorder if affected by mutations.[47] Many intellectuals have averted their gaze from the evolutionary logic violence fearing that acknowledging it is tantamount to accepting it or even to approving it Instead they have pursued the comforting delusion the Noble Savage in which violence is an arbitrary product learning or a pathogen that bores into us from the outside But denying the logic violence makes it easy to forget how readily violence can flare up and ignoring the parts the mind that ignite violence makes it easy to overlook the parts that can extinguish it With violence as with so many other concerns human nature is the problem but human nature is also the solution Compositionality 36–37 80 236–39 335–36 computation 31–34 Computer Power and Human Reason (Weizenbaum) 105 conditioning: Vonnegut's DYSTOPIAN FANTASY was played out as a story-length farce but the most famous such fantasies was played out as a novel-length nightmare George Orwell's1984 is a vivid depiction what life would look like if the repressive strands society and government were extrapolated into the future In the half-century since the novel was published many developments have been condemned because their associations to Orwell's world: government euphemism national identity cards surveillance cameras personal data on the Internet and even in the first television commercial for the  {426}  Macintosh computer the IBM PC No other work fiction has had such an impact on people's opinions real-world issues. How can we tell which theory is preferable? A thought experiment can pit them against each other What would be the right thing to do if God had commanded people to be selfish and cruel rather than generous and kind? Those who root their values in religion would have to say that we ought to be selfish and cruel Those who appeal to a moral sense would say that we ought to reject God's command This shows — I hope — that it is our moral sense that deserves priority.8 4. “study says rape has its roots in evolution,” Boston Herald January 11,2000 p 3 5. Thornhill& Palmer 2001 6. Brownmiller & Merh 1992 7. Gould 1995 p 433 8. Well almost The cartoonist Jim Johnson told me that he may have slandered walruses: he subsequently learned that it is leopard seals that kill penguins for fun 9. Williams 1988 10. Jones 1999; Williams 1988 11. Williams 1966 p 255 12. On the relevance human nature to morality see McGinn 1997; Petrinovich 1995; Rachels 1990; Richards 1987; Singer 1981; Wilson 1993. Glover's anecdotes reinforce the hope that people are capable putting strangers inside a violence-pro moral circle But they also remind us that the default setting may be to keep. Minsky M & Papert S 1988 Epilogue: The new connectionism In Perceptrons (expanded tAX Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Mithen S J 1996 The prehistory the mind: A search for the origins art religion and science London: Thames and Hudson Miyashita–Lin E M Hevner R Wassarman K M Martinez S & Rubenstein J L R 1999 Eadv neocortical regionalization in the absence thalamic innervation Science 285 906–909 Monaghan E & Glickman S 1992 Hormones and aggressive behavior In J Becker M Breedlove & D Crews (Eds.) Behavioral endocrinology Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Montagu A (Ed.) 1973a Man and aggression (2nded.) New York: Oxford University Press. A second precept the Party's philosophy is the doctrine the super-organism: Can you not understand Winston that the individual is only a cell? The weariness the cell is the vigor the organism Do you die when you cut your fingernails?6 Consonants and vowel segments combine to form syllables which in turn combine to form utterances; these can be distinguished phonetically as the space between two inhalations Acoustically these different segments are characterized by different formant structures that are visible in a spectrogram the recorded sound wave (See illustration Spectrogram the formant structures three English vowels) Formants are the amplitude peaks in the frequency spectrum a specific sound.[53][54] Sommers C H 1994 Who stole feminism? New York: Simon & Schuster Sommers C H 1998 Why Johnny can't tell right from wrong American Outlook AS–A7 Sommers C H 2000 The war against boys: How misguided feminism is harming our young men New York: Touchstone Books Sougne J 1998 Connectionism and the problem multiple instantiation Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 183–189 Sowell T 1980 Knowledge and decisions New York: Basic Books Sowell T 1985 Marxism: Philosophy and economics New York: Quill Sowell T 1987 A conflict visions: Ideological origins political struggles New York: Quill Sowell T 1994 Race and culture: A world view New York: Basic Books Sowell T 1995a Ethnicity and IQ In S Fraser (Ed.) The Bell Curve wars: Race intelligence and the future America New York:. Lippmann had an immediate influence on social science (though the subtleties and qualifications his original argument were forgotten) Psychologists gave people lists ethnic groups and lists traits and asked them to pair them up Sure enough people linked Jews with “shrewd” and “mercenary,” Germans with “efficient” and “nationalistic,” Negroes with “superstitious” and “happy-go-lucky,” and so generalizations are pernicious when applied to individuals and though they are still lamentably common in much  {202}  the world they are now actively avoided by educated people and by mainstream public figures. Women experience basic emotions more intensely except perhaps Women have more intimate social relationships are more concerned about them and feel more empathy toward their friends though not toward strangers (The common view that women are more empathic toward everyone is both evolutionarily unlikely and untrue.) They maintain more eye contact and smile and laugh far more Men are more likely to compete with one another for status using violence or occupational achievement women more likely to use derogation and other forms verbal aggression. Nineteen Eighty-four was unforgettable literature not just a political screed because the way Orwell thought through the details how his society would work Every component the nightmare interlocked with the others to form a rich and credible whole: the omnipresent government the eternal war with shifting enemies the totalitarian control the media and private life the Newspeak language the constant threat personal betrayal.       universality 168–69 187–88 193 271–75 Moral Majority 276 moral progress 166–68 Mount Ferdinand 246 Chapter 4 Culture Vultures Like all men Babylon I have been proconsul; like all I have been a slave Look here — my right hand has no index finger Look here — through this gash in my cape you can see on my stomach a crimson tattoo — it is the second letter Beth On nights when the moon is full this symbol gives me power over men with the mark Gimel but it subjects me to those with the Aleph who on nights when there is no moon owe obedience to those marked with the Gimel In the half-light dawn in a cellar standing before a black altar I have slit the throats sacred bulls Once for an entire lunar year I was declared invisible — I would cry out and no one would heed my call I would steal bread and not be beheaded • women's cognitive strengths and weaknesses vary with the phase their menstrual When estrogen levels are high women get even better at tasks on which they typically do better than men such as verbal fluency When the levels are low women get better at tasks on which men typically do better such as mental rotation A variety sexual motives including their taste in men vary with the menstrual. Glover notes that many twentieth-century atrocities were set in motion when the moral emotions were disabled Decent people were lulled into committing appalling acts by a variety amoralizing causes such as Utopian ideologies phased decisions (in which the targets bombing might shift from isolated factories to factories near neighborhoods to the neighborhoods themselves) and the diffusion responsibility within a bureaucracy It was ten raw moral sentiment — feeling empathy for victims or asking oneself the moral-identity question “Am I the kind person who could do this?” — that {280}  stopped people in mid-atrocity The moral sense amplified and extended by reasoning and a knowledge history is what stands between us and a Mad Max nightmare ruthless psychopaths. Second our vast storehouse knowledge is certainly not couched in the words and sentences in which we learned the individual facts What did you read in the page before this one? I would like to think that you can give a reasonably accurate answer to the question Now try to write down the exact words you read in those pages Chances are you cannot recall a single sentence verbatim probably not even a single phrase What you remembered is the gist those passages — their content meaning or sense — not the language itself Many experiments on human memory have confirmed that what we remember over the long term is the content not the wording stories and conversations Cognitive scientists model this “semantic memory” as a web logical propositions images motor programs strings sounds and other data structures connected to one another. Foundational areas research in evolutionary psychology can be divided into broad categories adaptive problems that arise from the theory evolution itself: survival mating parenting family and kinship interactions with non-kin and cultural evolution Graglia F Carolyn 339 Great Chain Being 137–39 Great Society 286 Green Ronald 228 Greene Graham 245 Grogger Jeff 329. 59. etcf 1999 60. Frank 1988; Haidt in press; Trivers 1971 61. Daly & Wilson 1988; Frank 1988 62. McGuinness 1997; Pinker 1994 63. Brown 1991; Brown 2000 64. Baron-Cohen 1995; Hirschfeld & Gelman 1994; Spelke 1995 65. Boyd & Silk 1996; Calvin & Bickerton 2000; Kingdon 1993; Klein 1989; Mithen 1996 66. Gallistel 1992; Hauser 1996; Hauser 2000; Trivers 1985 67. James 1890/1950 vol 2 chap 24 68. Freeman 1983; Freeman 1999. From the gene's point view evolutionary success ultimately depends on leaving behind the maximum number copies itself in the population Until 1964 it was generally believed that genes only achieved this by causing the individual to leave the maximum number viable fspring However in 1964 W D Hamilton proved mathematically that because close relatives an organism share some identical genes a gene can also increase its evolutionary success by promoting the reproduction and survival these related or otherwise similar individuals Hamilton concluded that this leads natural selection to favor organisms that would behave in ways that maximize their inclusive fitness It is also true that natural selection favors behavior that maximizes personal fitness Hamilton's rule describes mathematically whether or not a gene for altruistic behavior will spread in a population: Hitchcock Alfred 402 Hitler Adolf 153–55.       arts and 405 412 417–18 Vonnegut Kurt 424–25 Waddington C H 109 Wald George 153 Walker Rebecca 343 Wallace Alfred Russel. In assembling a brain a complete genetic blueprint is out the question for two reasons One is that a gene cannot anticipate every detail the environment including the environment consisting the other genes in the genome It has to specify an adaptive developmental program that ensures that the organism as a whole functions properly across variations in nutrition other genes growth rates over the lifespan random perturbations and the physical and social environment And that requires feedback from the way the rest the organism is developing. Human language is also unique in being able to refer to abstract concepts and to imagined or hypothetical events as well as events that took place in the past or may happen in the future This ability to refer to events that are not at the same time or place as the speech event is called displacement and while some animal communication systems can use displacement (such as the communication bees that can communicate the location sources nectar that are out sight) the degree to which it is used in human language is also considered unique.[23]       and violence 313 314 315       words for 211–13 racial priling 148 Children immigrants soak up not just the language their adopted homeland but the culture as well For their entire lives my shtetl-born grandparents were strangers in a strange land Cars banks doctors schools and the urban concept time left them baffled and if the term “dysfunctional family” had been around in the 1930s and 1940s it would surely have applied to them Nevertheless my father growing up in a community immigrants who had arrived in different decades gravitated to other children and families who knew the ropes and ended up happy and successful Such stories are common in chronicles the immigrant So why do we insist that children's parents are the key to how they. People with the Utopian Vision point to market failures that can result from having a blind faith in free markets They also call attention to the unjust distribution wealth that tends to be produced by free markets Opponents with the Tragic Vision argue that the notion justice makes sense only when applied to human decisions within a framework laws not when applied to an abstraction called “society.” Friedrich Hayek wrote “The manner in which the benefits and burdens are apportioned by the market mechanism would in many instances have to be regarded as very unjust if it were the result a deliberate allocation to particular people.” But that concern with social justice rests on a confusion he claimed because “the particulars [a spontaneous order] cannot be just or unjust.”14 Symons Donald 114–15 252 267–68 272–73 Szathmary Eors 167 Take Our Daughters to Work Day 339 352 Taliban 254 Tasmania 69 Sponsel Leslie 115–19 sports 317 Springsteen Bruce 179 Stalin Joseph 152 158 295 Standard Social Science Model 67 69       see also social constructionism; social sciences The study of language linguistics has been developing into a science since the first grammatical descriptions of particular languages in India more than 2000 years ago after the development of the Brahmi script Modern linguistics is a science that concerns itself with all aspects of language examining it from all of the theoretical viewpoints described above.[39] Therefore genomics neural networks and neural plasticity fit into the picture that has emerged in recent decades a complex human nature It is not course a nature that is rigidly programmed impervious to the input free culture or endowed with the minutiae every concept and feeling But it is a nature that is rich enough to take on the demands seeing moving  {101}  planning talking staying alive making sense the environment and negotiating the world other people The aftermath the Blank Slate's last stand is a good time to take stock the case for the alternative Here is my summary the evidence for a complex human nature some it reiterating arguments from previous chapters some it anticipating arguments in chapters. This is not to say that the concept responsibility is a recommendation by policy wonks for preventing the largest number harmful acts at the least cost Even if experts had determined that punishing a Nazi would prevent no future atrocities or that we could save more lives by diverting the manpower to catching drunk drivers we would still want to bring Nazis to justice The  {181}  demand for responsibility can come from a burning sense just deserts not only from literal calculations how best to deter particular acts. Cambodia 152 155 158 Canada 16 311 331 333 cannibalism 306–7 320 Haidt HAS RECENTLY compiled a natural history the emotions making up the moral sense.4 The four major families are just what we would expect from Trivers's theory reciprocal altruism and the computer models the evolution cooperation that followed The other-condemning emotions — contempt anger and disgust — prompt one to punish cheaters The other-praising emotions — gratitude and an emotion that may be called elevation moral awe or being moved — prompt one to reward altruists The other-suffering emotions — sympathy compassion and empathy — prompt one to help a needy beneficiary And the self-conscious emotions — guilt shame and embarrassment — prompt one to avoid cheating or to repair its effects. Inclusive fitness is the sum an organism's classical fitness (how many its own fspring it produces and supports) and the number equivalents its own fspring it can add to the population by supporting others.[105] The first component is called classical fitness by Hamilton (1964) Burke E 17'90y'1967 Reflections on the revolution in France London: J M Dent & Sons Burnham R & Phelan J 2000 Mean genes: From sex to money to food: Taming our primal instincts Cambridge Mass.: Perseus Burnstein E Crandall C & Kitayama S 1994 Some neo–Darwinian decision rules for altruism: Weighing cues for inclusive fitness as a function the biological importance the decision Journal Personality and Social Psychology 67 773–789 Buss D & Duntley J D In press Why the mind is designed for murder: The coevolution killing and death prevention strategies Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Relativists have a point when they say that we don't just open our eyes and apprehend reality as if perception were a window through which the soul gazes at the world The idea that we just see things as they are is called naïve realism and it was refuted by skeptical philosophers thousands years ago with the help a simple phenomenon: visual illusions Our visual systems can play tricks on us and that is enough to prove they are gadgets not pipelines to the truth Here are two my favorites In Roger Shepard's “Turning the Tables”2 (right) the two parallelograms are identical in size and shape In Edward Adelson's “Checker Shadow Illusion”3 (below) the light square in the middle the shadow (B) is the same shade gray as the dark squares outside the shadow (A): Language change may be motivated by "language internal" factors such as changes in pronunciation motivated by certain sounds being difficult to distinguish aurally or to produce or through patterns change that cause some rare types constructions to drift towards more common types.[114] Other causes language change are social such as when certain pronunciations become emblematic membership in certain groups such as social classes or with ideologies and therefore are adopted by those who wish to identify with those groups or ideas In this way issues identity and politics can have pround effects on language structure.[115] The theories on which evolutionary psychology is based originated with Charles Darwin's work including his speculations about the evolutionary origins social instincts in humans Modern evolutionary psychology however is possible only because advances in evolutionary theory in the 20th century In the Preface I called the Blank Slate a sacred doctrine and human nature a modern taboo This can now be stated as a technical hypothesis The thrust the radical science movement was to moralize the scientific study the mind and to engage the mentality taboo Recall from Part II the indignant outrage the punishment heretics the refusal to consider claims as they were actually stated the moral cleansing through demonstrations and manifestos and public denunciations Weizenbaum condemned ideas “whose very contemplation ought to give rise to feelings disgust” and denounced the less-than-human scientists who “can even think such a thing.” But course it is the job scholars to think about things even if only to make it clear why they are wrong Moralization and scholarship thus ten find themselves on a collision course. The second challenge comes from the use computer models neural networks to explain cognitive processes These artificial neural networks can ten be quite good at learning statistical patterns in their input Some modelers from the school cognitive science called connectionism suggest that generic neural networks can account for all human cognition with little or no innate tailoring for particular faculties such as social reasoning or language In Chapter 2 we met the founders connectionism David Rumelhart and James McClelland who suggested that people are smarter than rats only because they have more associative cortex and because their environment contains a culture to organize it. One can certainly find things to criticize in the final chapter Sociobiology We now know that some Wilson's universals are inaccurate or too coarsely stated and his claim that moral reasoning will someday be superseded by evolutionary biology is surely wrong But the criticisms in “Against ‘Sociobiology'” were demonstrably false Wilson was called a “determinist,'” someone who believes that human societies conform to a rigid genetic formula But this is what he had written: The first and most easily verifiable diagnostic trait [about human societies] is statistical in nature The parameters social organization vary far more among human populations than among those any other primate species Why are human societies this flexible?13 Before presenting the new analysis the gender gap from equity feminists let me reiterate three points that are not in dispute First discouraging women from pursuing their ambitions and discriminating against them on the basis their sex are injustices that should be stopped wherever they are discovered. The idea from the cognitive revolution that the mind is a system universal generative computational modules obliterates the way that debates on human nature have been framed for centuries It is now simply misguided to ask whether humans are flexible or programmed whether behavior is universal or varies across cultures whether acts are learned or innate whether we are essentially good or essentially evil Humans behave flexibly because they are  {41}  programmed: their minds are packed with combinatorial stware that can generate an unlimited set thoughts and behavior Behavior may vary across cultures but the design the mental programs that generate it need not vary Intelligent behavior is learned successfully because we have innate systems that do the learning And all people may have good and evil motives but not everyone may translate them into behavior in the. But many the costs equality--outcome policies would be borne by women Many women scientists are opposed to hard gender preferences in science such as designated faculty positions for women or the policy (advocated by one activist) in which federal research grants would be awarded in exact proportion to the number men and women who apply for them The problem with these well-meaning policies is that they can plant seeds doubt in people's minds about the excellence the beneficiaries As the astronomer Lynne Hillenbrand said “If you're given an opportunity for the reason being female it doesn't do anyone any favors; it makes people question why you're there.”75 It is not just recent dreams collectivism that are subverted by kin solidarity The journalist Ferdinand Mount has documented that the family has been a subversive institution throughout history Family ties cut across the bonds connecting comrades and brethren and thus are a nuisance to governments cults gangs revolutionary movements and established religions But even a thinker as sympathetic to human nature as Noam Chomsky does not acknowledge that people feel differently about their children from how they feel about acquaintances and strangers Here is an excerpt an interview with the lead guitarist the rap metal group Rage Against the Machine: RAGE: Another unquestionable idea is that people are naturally competitive and that therefore capitalism is the only proper way to organize society Do. Once again postmodernism took this extreme to an even greater extreme in which the theory upstaged the subject matter and became a genre performance art in itself Postmodernist scholars taking f from the critical theorists Theodor Adorno and Michel Foucault distrust the demand for “linguistic transparency” because it hobbles the ability “to think the world more radically” and puts a text in danger being turned into a mass-market This attitude has made them regular winners the annual Bad Writing Contest which “celebrates the most stylistically lamentable passages found in scholarly books and articles.”60 In 1998 first prize went to the lauded pressor rhetoric at Berkeley Judith Butler for the following sentence: 71. brugger et al 2000; Melzack 1990; Melzack et al 1997; Ramachandran 1993 72. Curtiss de Bode & Shields 2000; Stromswold 2000 73. Described in Stromswold 2000 74. Farah et al 2000 75. Anderson et al 1999 76. Anderson 1976; Pinker 1979; Pinker 1984a; Quine 1969 77. Adams et al 2000 78. Tooby & Cosmides 1992; Williams 1966 79. Gallistel 2000; Hauser 2000 80. Barkow Cosmides & Tooby 1992; Burnham & Phelan 2000; Wright 1994. Cartmill M 1998 Oppressed by evolution Discover 19 78–83 Cartwright J 2000 Evolution and human behavior Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Caryl P G 1994 Early event–related potentials correlate with inspection time and intelligence Intelligence 18 15–46 Cashdan E 1989 Hunters and gatherers: Economic behavior in bands In S Plattner (Ed.) Economic anthropology Stanford Calif: Stanford University Press Caspi A 2000 The child is father the man: Personality continuities from childhood to adulthood Journal Personality and Social Psychology 78 158–172 Catalano S M & Shatz C J 1998 Activity–dependent cortical target selection by thalamic axons Science 24 559–562  {465}  Lloyd. Another study asked about a hospital administrator who had to decide whether to spend a million dollars on a liver transplant for a child or use it on other hospital needs (Administrators implicitly face this kind choice all the time because there are lifesaving procedures that are astronomically expensive and cannot be carried out on everyone who needs them.) Not only did respondents want to punish an administrator who chose to spend the money on  {278}  the hospital they wanted to punish an administrator who chose to save the child but thought for a long time before making the decision (like the frugal comedian Jack Benny when a mugger said “Your money or your life”). The formal study language is ten considered to have started in India with Pāṇini the 5th century BC grammarian who formulated 3,959 rules Sanskrit morphology However Sumerian scribes already studied the differences between Sumerian and Akkadian grammar around 1900 BC Subsequent grammatical traditions developed in all the ancient cultures that adopted writing.[41] By the 1970s many thinkers were not content to note that stereotypes about categories people can be inaccurate They began to insist that the categories themselves don't exist other than in our stereotypes An effective way to fight racism sexism and other kinds prejudice in this view is to deny that conceptual categories about people have any claim to objective reality It would be impossible to believe that homosexuals are effeminate blacks superstitious and women passive if there were no such things as categories homosexuals blacks or women to begin with For example the philosopher Richard Rorty has written,” ‘The homosexual,’ ‘the Negro,’ and ‘the female’ are best seen not as inevitable classifications human beings but rather as inventions that have done more harm than good.”8 Feminism 160 161 171–72 338–43       difference 342       equity. Even for those who are completely undeterrable because frontal-lobe damage genes for psychopathy or any other putative cause we do not have to allow lawyers to loose them on the rest us We already have a mechanism for those likely to harm themselves or others but who do not respond to the carrots and sticks the criminal justice system: involuntary civil commitment in which we trade f some guarantees civil liberties against the security being protected from likely predators In all these decisions the sciences human nature can help estimate the distribution deterrabilities but they cannot weight the conflicting values avoiding the greatest amount unnecessary punishment and preventing the greatest amount future Paleontology 55 306 Palmer Craig viii 161 176 359–69 Papert Seymour 80 Parallel Distributed Processing (Rumelhart McClelland. Farah M ] Rabinowitz C Quinn G E & Liu G T 2000 Early commitment neural substrates for face recognition Cognitive Neuropsychology 17 117–123 Fausto–Sterling.A 1985 Myths gender: Biological theories about women and men New York: Basic Books  {469}  Fehr E Fischbacher U & Gachter S In press Strong reciprocity human cooperation and the enforcement social norms Human Nature Fehr E & Gachter S 2000 Fairness and retaliation: The economics reciprocity Journal Economic Perspectives 14 159–181 Fernandez–Jalvo Y Diez J C Bermiidez de Castro J M Carbonell E & Arsuaga J L 1996 Evidence early cannibalism Science 271 277–278. Kahneman D & Tversky A 1982 On the study statistical intuitions Cognition 11 123–141 Kahneman D & Tversky A 1984 Choices values and frames American Psychologist 39 341–350 Kamin L 1974 The science and politics lQ Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Kaminer W 1990 A fearful freedom: Women's flight from equality Reading Mass.: Addison Wesley Kandel E R Schwartz J H & Jessell T M 2000 Principles neural science (4th ed.) New York: McGraw–Hill Kane R 1998 The significance free will New York: Oxford University Press Kanwisher N & Moscovitch M 2000 The cognitive neuroscience face processing: An introduction Cognitive Neuropsychology 17 1–13. Our ideas our values our acts even our emotions are like our nervous system itself cultural products — products manufactured indeed out tendencies capacities and dispositions with which we were born but manufactured nonetheless — Clifford Geertz (1973)40 Or to an unprogrammed computer: Man is the animal most desperately dependent upon such extragenetic outside-the-skin control mechanisms such cultural programs for ordering his behavior — Clifford Geertz (1973)41  {26}  Or to some other amorphous entity that can have many things done. 41. bishop Coudreau & O'Leary 2000; Bourgeois Goldman-Rakic & Rakic 2000; Chalupa 2000; Katz Weliky & Crowley 2000; Levitt 2000; Miyashita-Lin et al 1999; Rakic 2000; Rakic 2001; Verhage et al 2000; Zhou & Black 2000  {445}  42. See the references cited in the preceding note and also Geary & Huffman 2002; Krubitzer & Huffman 2000; Preuss 2000; Preuss 2001; Tessier-Lavigne & Goodman 1996 43. Geary & Huffman 2002; Krubitzer & Huffman 2000; Preuss 2000; Preuss 2001 44. D Normile “Gene expression differs in human and chimp brains,” Science 292 2001 pp 44–45 45. Kaas. Mahabharata 193 Mailer Norman 261–62 Mallon Ron 38 Malthus Thomas 236 238 Man and Aggression (Montagu) 124 Mansfield Harvey 339 Man Who Came to Dinner. Men have a higher tolerance for pain and a greater willingness to risk life and limb for status attention and other dubious rewards The Darwin Awards given annually to “the individuals who ensure the long-term survival our species by removing themselves from the gene pool in a sublimely idiotic fashion,” almost always go to men Recent honorees include the man who squashed himself under a Coke machine after tipping it forward to get a free can three men who competed over who could stomp the hardest on an antitank mine and the would-be pilot who tied weather balloons to his lawn chair shot two miles into the air and drifted out to sea (earning just an Honorable Mention because he was rescued by helicopter). Wealth Nations The (Smith) 233 Webb Beatrice 153 301 Webb Sidney 153 301 Weber Max 284 Weizenbaum Joseph 105–6 279 welfare. In the other direction signs a victim's humanity can occasionally break through and flip the switch back to the sympathy setting When George Orwell fought in the Spanish Civil War he once saw a man running for his life half-dressed holding up his pants with one hand “I refrained from shooting at him,” Orwell wrote “I did not shoot partly because that detail about the trousers I had come here to shoot at ‘Fascists'; but a man who is holding up his trousers isn't a ‘Fascist,’ he is visibly a fellow creature similar to your self.”59 Glover recounts another example reported by a South African journalist: From Rousseau to the Thanksgiving editorialist Chapter 1 many intellectuals have embraced the image peaceable egalitarian and ecology-loving natives But in the past two decades anthropologists have gathered data on life and death in pre-state societies rather than accepting the warm and fuzzy stereotypes What did they find? In a nutshell: Hobbes was right Rousseau. A REVOLT HAS begun Museum-goers have become bored with the umpteenth exhibit on the female body featuring dismembered torsos or hundreds pounds lard chewed up and spat out by the Graduate students in the humanities are grumbling in emails and conference hallways about being locked out the job market unless they write in gibberish while randomly dropping the names authorities like Foucault and Butler Maverick scholars are dfing the blinders that prevented them from looking at exciting developments in the sciences human nature And younger artists are wondering how the art world got itself into the bizarre place in which beauty is a. “we control life Winston at all its levels You are imagining that there is something called human nature which will be outraged by what we do and will turn against us But we create human nature Men are infinitely malleable.”9 ~ THE THREE WORKS I have discussed are didactic and unanchored in any existing time and place The remaining two are different Both are rooted in a culture a locale and an era Both savor their characters’ language milieu and philosophies life And both authors warned their readers not to generalize from the stories Yet both authors are famous for their insight into human nature and I believe I am doing them no injustice by presenting episodes from their works in. Keyser S J & Halle M 1998 On meter in general and on Robert Frost's loose iambics in particular In E Iwamoto (Ed.) Festschrift for Professor K Inoue Tokyo: Kanda University of International Studies Kimura D 1999 Sex and cognition Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Kingdon J 1993 Self–made man: Human evolution from Eden to extinction? New York: Wiley Kirwin B R 1997 The mad the bad and the innocent: The criminal mind on trial Boston: Little Brown Kitcher P 1982 Abusing science: The case against creationism Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Klaw S 1993 Without sin: The life and death ofthe Oneida community New York: Penguin Klein R G 1989 The human career: Human biological and cultural origins Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Tolstoy's FAMOUS REMARK that happy families are all alike but every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way is not true at the level ultimate  {248}  (evolutionary) causation Trivers showed how the seeds unhappiness in every family have the same underlying Though relatives have common interests because their common genes the degree overlap is not identical within all the permutations and combinations family members Parents are related to all their fspring by an equal factor 50 percent but each child is related to himself or herself by a factor 100 percent And that has a subtle but pround implication for the currency family life parents’ investment in their children. In other words if scientists are right that the mind emerged from living matter we would have to give up the value and dignity the individual solidarity and selflessness with regard to our fellow humans and the higher purpose realizing these values through the love God and knowledge his plans Nothing would keep us from a life callous exploitation and cynical self-centeredness. Though thoroughly Southern the perverse psychology the Grangerford-Shepherdson feud is familiar from the history and ethnography just about any region the world (In particular Huck's introduction to the Grangerfords was hilariously replayed in Napoleon Chagnon's famous account his baptism into anthropological fieldwork in which he stumbled into a feuding Yanomamö village and found himself trapped by dogs and staring down the shafts poison arrows.) And it is familiar in the cycles violence that continue to be played out by gangs militias ethnic groups and respectable nation-states Twain's depiction the origins endemic violence in an entrapping psychology honor has a timelessness that will I predict make it outlast fashionable theories the causes and cures violence ~ It can indeed be upsetting to think ourselves as glorified gears and springs Machines are insensate built to be used and disposable; humans are sentient possessing dignity and rights and infinitely precious A machine has some workaday purpose such as grinding grain or sharpening pencils; a human being has higher purposes such as love worship good works and the creation knowledge and beauty The behavior machines is determined by the ineluctable laws physics and chemistry; the behavior people is freely chosen With choice comes freedom and therefore optimism about our possibilities for the future With choice also comes responsibility which allows us to hold people accountable for their actions And course if the mind is separate from the body it can continue to exist when the body breaks down and our thoughts and pleasures will not someday be snuffed out forever. The use writing has made language even more useful to humans It makes it possible to store large amounts information outside the human body and retrieve it again and it allows communication across distances that would otherwise be impossible Many languages conventionally employ different genres styles and registers in written and spoken language and in some communities writing traditionally takes place in an entirely different language than the one spoken There is some evidence that the use writing also has effects on the cognitive development humans perhaps because acquiring literacy generally requires explicit and formal education.[109]       classical 19 94 413       operant 19 169 Condorcet Marquis de 288 Conflict Visions A (Sowell) 287 What KINDS differences are there to worry about? The chapters on gender and children will review the current evidence on differences between sexes and individuals together with their implications and non-implications The goal this part the chapter is more general: to lay out the kinds differences that research could turn up over the long term based on our understanding human evolution and genetics and to lay out the moral issues. As for music though it may be hard for anyone to compete against the best composers from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the past century has been anything but barren Jazz Broadway country blues folk rock soul samba reggae world music and contemporary composition have blossomed Each has produced gifted artists and has introduced new complexities rhythm instrumentation vocal style and studio production into our total musical experience Then there are genres that are flourishing as never before such as animation and industrial design and still others that have only recently come into existence but have already achieved moments high accomplishment such as computer graphics and rock videos (for instance Peter Gabriel's Sledgehammer). The three laws behavioral genetics may be the most important discoveries in the history psychology Yet most psychologists have not come to grips with them and most intellectuals do not understand them even when they have been explained in the cover stories newsmagazines It is not because the laws are abstruse: each can be stated in a sentence without mathematical paraphernalia Rather it is because the laws run roughshod over the Blank Slate and the Blank Slate is so entrenched that many intellectuals cannot comprehend an alternative to it let alone argue about whether it is right or wrong Here are the three laws:  {373}  • The First Law: All human behavioral traits are heritable • The Second Law: The effect being raised in the same family is smaller than the effect. Gould is not a doctrinarian like Rose and Lewontin but he too uses the first-person plural pronoun as if it somehow disproved the relevance genes and evolution to human affairs: “Which shall we choose? Let us take this stand We can do otherwise.” And he too cites Marx's “wonderful aphorism” about making our own history and believes that Marx vindicated the concept free will: Marx himself had a much more subtle view than most his contemporaries the differences between human and natural history He understood that the evolution consciousness and the consequent development social and economic organization introduced elements difference and volition that we usually label as “free will.”24  {128}  Pope G G 2000 The biological bases human behavior Needham Heights Mass.: Allyn & Bacon Pratto F & Bargh J A 1991 Stereotyping based on apparently individuating information: Trait and global components sex stereotypes under attention overload Journal Experimental Social Psychology 27 26–47 Preuss T 1995 The argument from animals to humans in cognitive neuroscience In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Preuss T M 2000 What's human about the human brain? In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Preuss T M 2001 The discovery cerebral diversity: An unwelcome scientific revolution In D Falk & K Gibson (Eds.) Evolutionary anatomy the primate cerebral cortex New York: Cambridge University Press. 24. brock 1993 p 372 n 14 p 385; Glover 1977; Tooley 1972; Warren 1984 25. Green 2001 26. R Bailey “Dr Strangelunch or: Why we  {451}  should learn to stop worrying and love genetically modified food,” Reason January 2001 27. “EC-sponsored research on safety genetically modified organisms — A review results.” Report EUR 19884 October 2001 European Union fice for Publications 28. Ames Pret & Gold 1990 29. Ames Pret & Gold 1990 30. E Schlosser “Why McDonald's fries taste so good,” Atlantic Monthly January 2001. But recently two scholars working independently have decisively shown that there is no need to invoke race to explain differences among cultures Both arrived at that conclusion by eschewing the Standard Social Science Model in which cultures are arbitrary symbol systems that exist apart from the minds individual people In his trilogy Race and Culture Migrations and Cultures and Conquests and Cultures the economist Thomas Sowell explained his starting point for an analysis cultural differences: We still don't know whether these unique experiences leave their fingerprints on our intellects and personalities But an even earlier pinball game certainly could do so the one that wires up our brain in the womb and early childhood As I have mentioned the human genome cannot possibly specify every last connection among neurons But the “environment,” in the sense of information encoded by the sense organs isn't the only other option Chance is another One twin lies one way in the womb and stakes out her share of the placenta the other has to squeeze around her A cosmic ray mutates a stretch of DNA a neurotransmitter zigs instead of zags the growth cone of an axon goes left instead of right and one identical twin's brain might gel into a slightly different configuration from. Hayek F A 1976 Law legislation and liberty (Vol 2: The mirage social justice) Chicago: University Chicago Press Hedges L V & Nowell A 1995 Sex differences in mental test scores variability and numbers high–scoring individuals Science 269 41–45  {473}  Hernadi P 2001 Literature and evolution Substance 30 55–71 Herrnstein R 1971.1.Q Atlantic Monthly 43–64 Herrnstein R J 1973 On challenging an orthodoxy Commentary 52–62 Herrnstein R J & Murray C 1994 The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life New York: Free Press Hinton G E & Nowlan S J 1987 How learning can guide evolution Complex Systems 1 495–502. Evolutionary psychologists sometimes look to chimpanzees bonobos and other great apes for insight into human ancestral behavior.[26] Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jethá argue that evolutionary psychologists have overemphasized the similarity humans and chimps which are more violent while underestimating the similarity humans and bonobos which are more peaceful.[42]       plasticity 44–45 74 83–100       sex differences in 347       visual cortex 87–97       see also neural plasticity Liberal arts 401–20 The word stereotype originally referred to a kind of printing plate Its current sense as a pejorative and inaccurate image standing for a category of people was introduced in 1922 by the journalist Walter Lippmann Lippmann was an important public intellectual who among other things helped to found The New Republic influenced Woodrow Wilson's policies at the end of World War I and wrote some of the first attacks on IQ testing In his book Public Opinion Lippmann fretted about the difficulty of achieving true democracy in an age in which ordinary people could no longer judge public issues rationally because they got their information in what we today call sound bites As part of this argument Lippmann proposed that ordinary people's concepts of social groups were stereotypes: mental pictures that are incomplete biased insensitive to variation and resistant to disconfirming information. In each these arenas people always appeal to some conception human nature whether they acknowledge it or not The problem is that the conceptions are ten based on gut feelings folk theories and archaic versions biology My goal is to make these conceptions explicit to suggest what is right and wrong about them and to spell out some the implications Ideas about human nature cannot on their own resolve perplexing controversies or determine public policy But without such ideas we are not playing with a full deck and are vulnerable to unnecessary befuddlement As the biologist Richard Alexander has noted “Evolution is surely most deterministic for those still unaware it.”1 Hummel J E & Holyoak K J 1997 Distributed representations structure: A theory analogical access and mapping Psychological Review 104 A27–A&6 Hunt M 1999 The new know–nothings: The political foes the scientific study human nature New Brunswick N.J.: Transaction Publishers Hyman S E 1999 Introduction to the complex genetics mental disorders Biological Psychiatry 45 518–521 Jackendf R 1990 Semantic structures Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Jackendf R 1996 How language helps us think Pragmatics and Cognition 4 1–34 Jackendf R S 1987 Consciousness and the computational mind Cambridge Mass.:. Why do virtually all cognitive scientists and linguists believe that language is not a prisonhouse thought?34 First many experiments have plumbed the minds creatures without language such as infants and nonhuman primates and have found the fundamental categories thought working away: objects space cause and effect number probability agency (the initiation behavior by a person or animal) and the functions Ryle Gilbert 9–10 126 Sahlins Marshall 108–9 135 St Helena 311 Salmon Catherine 342 Samoans 56 Sanger Margaret 153 The other reason that brains can't rely on a complete genetic blueprint is that the genome is a limited resource Genes are constantly mutating over evolutionary time and natural selection can weed out the bad ones only slowly Most evolutionary biologists believe that natural selection can support a genome that is only so big That means that the genetic plans for a complex brain have to be compressed to the minimum size that is consistent with the brain's developing and working properly Though more than half the genome is put to work primarily or exclusively in the brain that is not nearly enough to specify the brain's connection diagram. The landscape the sciences human nature is strewn with these third rails hot zones black holes and Chernobyls I have picked five them to explore in the next few chapters while necessarily leaving out many others (for instance race sexual orientation education drug abuse and mental illness)  {282}  Social psychologists have discovered that even in heated ideological battles common ground can sometimes be found.2 Each side must acknowledge that the other is arguing out principle too and that they both share certain values and disagree only over which to emphasize in cases where they conflict Finding such common ground is my goal in the discussions to follow Instincts do not create customs; customs create instincts for the putative instincts human beings are always learned and never native — Ellsworth Faris (1927)32 Cultural phenomena are in no respect hereditary but are characteristically and without exception acquired — George Murdock (1932)33 Man has no nature; what he has is history — Jose Ortega y Gasset (1935)34 But modernism wanted to do more than just afflict the comfortable Its glorification pure form and its disdain for easy beauty and bourgeois pleasure had an explicit rationale and a political and spiritual agenda In a review a book defending the mission modernism the critic Frederick Turner explains them: Psychological adaptations are hypothesized to be innate or relatively easy to learn and to manifest in cultures worldwide For example the ability toddlers to learn a language with virtually no training is likely to be a psychological adaptation On the other hand ancestral humans did not read or write thus today learning to read and write require extensive training and presumably represent byproducts cognitive processing that use psychological adaptations designed for other functions.[31] However variations in manifest behavior can result from universal mechanisms interacting with different local environments For example Caucasians who move from a northern climate to the equator will have darker skin The mechanisms regulating their pigmentation do not change; rather the input to those mechanisms change resulting in different output • if there is no human nature leading people to favor the interests their families over “society,” then people who produce more crops on their own plots than on communal farms whose crops are confiscated by the state must be greedy or lazy and punished accordingly Fear rather than self-interest becomes the incentive to work • Most generally if individual minds are interchangeable components a superorganic entity called society then the society not the individual is the natural unit health and well-being and the proper beneficiary human striving The rights the individual person have. Evolutionary psychology has its historical roots in Charles Darwin's theory natural selection.[5] In The Origin Species Darwin predicted that psychology would develop an evolutionary basis: In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches Psychology will be based on a new foundation that the necessary acquirement each mental power and capacity by gradation. Blum D 1997 Sex on the brain: The biological differences between men and women New York; Viking Boas F 1911 Language and thought In Handbook American Indian languages Lincoln Xebr.: Bison Books Bock G R & Goode J A (Eds.) 1996 The genetics criminal and antisocial behavior New York Wiley Bodmer W R & Cavalli–Sforza L L 1970 Intelligence and race Scientific American Boehm C 1999 Hierarchy in the forest: The evolution egalitarian behavior Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Borges J L 1964 The lottery in Babylon In Labyrinths: Selected stories and other writings New York: New Directions Bouchard T J Jr 1994 Genes environment and personality Science 264 1700–1701. The discovery that what we call “the person” emerges piecemeal from a gradually developing brain forces us to reframe problems in bioethics It would have been convenient if biologists had discovered a point at which the brain is fully assembled and is plugged in and turned on for the first time but that is not how brains work The nervous system emerges in the embryo as a simple tube and differentiates into a brain and spinal cord The brain begins to function in the fetus but it continues to wire itself well into childhood and even adolescence The demand by both religious and secular ethicists that we identify the “criteria for personhood” assumes that a dividing line in brain development can be found But any claim that such a line has been sighted leads to moral absurdities. Likes and dislikes making comparisons males on average travel greater distances over lifetime males engage in more coalitional violence mental maps mentalese moral sentiments moral sentiments limited effective range precedence concept (that's how the leopard got its spots) pretend play pride proverbs sayings proverbs sayings — in mutually contradictory forms resistance to abuse power to dominance risk taking self-control self-image awareness (concern for what others think) self-image manipulation self-image wanted to be positive sex differences in spatial cognition and behavior shame       secular concerns about 190–94 Nim Chimp (Orwell) 425–26 Nisbett Richard 327 328 Nixon Richard. In this chapter I will diagnose the malaise the arts and humanities and fer some suggestions for revitalizing them They didn't ask me but by their own accounts they need all the help they can get and I believe that part the answer lies within the theme this book I will begin by circumscribing the problem  {402}  ~ Children are not just attracted to the norms their peers; to some degree they are immune to the expectations their parents The theory parent-fspring conflict predicts that parents do not always socialize a child in the child's best interests So even if children acquiesce to their parents’ rewards punishments examples and naggings for the time being — because they are smaller and have no choice — they should not according to the theory allow their personalities to be shaped by these tactics Children must learn what it takes to gain status among their peers because status at one age gives them a leg up in the struggle for status at the next including the young-adult stages in which they first compete for the attention the opposite The fspring cannot rely on its parents for disinterested guidance One expects the fspring to be preprogrammed to resist some parental manipulation while being open to other forms When the parent imposes an arbitrary system reinforcement (punishment and reward) in order to manipulate the fspring to act against its own best interests selection will favor fspring that resist such schedules That children don't turn out the way their parents want is for many people one the bittersweet lessons parenthood “Your children are not your children,” wrote the poet Kahlil Gibran “You may give them your love but not your thoughts for they have their own thoughts.”26 Part V Hot Buttons 281       Chapter 16 Politics 283       Chapter 17 Violence 306       Chapter 18 Gender 337       Chapter 19 Children ~ Rice M 1997 Violent fender research and implications for the criminal justice system American Psychologist 52 414–423 Richards R J 1987 Darwin and the emergence evolutionary theories mind and behavior Chicago: University Chicago Press Richardson L F 1960 Statistics deadly quarrels Pittsburgh: Boxwood Press Ridley M 1986 The problems evolution New York: Oxford University Press Ridley M 1993 The red queen: Sex and the evolution human nature New York: Macmillan Ridley M 1997 The origins virtue: Human instincts and the evolution cooperation New York: Viking Ridley M 2000 Genome: The autobiography a species in 23 chapters New York: HarperCollins. Distilling the variation from the universal patterns is not just a way to tidy up a set messy data It can also provide clues about the innate circuitry that makes learning possible If the universal part a rule is embodied in the neural circuitry that guides babies when they first learn language it could explain how children learn language so easily and uniformly and without the benefit instruction Rather than treating the sound coming out Mom's mouth as just an interesting noise to mimic verbatim or to slice and dice in arbitrary ways the baby listens for heads and complements pays attention to how they are ordered and builds a grammatical system consistent with that ordering. Tragically you might arrive at this conclusion even if you didn't have an aggressive bone in your body All it would take is the realization that others might covet what you have and a strong desire not to be massacred Even more tragically your neighbors have every reason to be cranking through the same deduction and if they are it makes your fears all the more compelling which makes a preemptive strike all the more tempting which makes a preemptive strike by them all the more tempting and. I was brought up on three dead languages — Hebrew Aramaic and Yiddish — and in a culture that developed in Babylon: the Talmud The cheder [schoolroom] where I studied was a room in which the teacher ate and slept and his wife cooked There I studied not arithmetic geography physics chemistry or history but the laws governing an egg laid on a holiday and sacrifices in a temple destroyed two thousand years ago Although my ancestors had settled in Poland some six or seven hundred years before I was born I knew only a few words the Polish language I was an anachronism in every way but I didn't. At Harvard there were leaflets and teach-ins a protester with a bullhorn calling for Wilson's dismissal and invasions his classroom by slogan-shouting students When he spoke at other universities posters called him the “Right-Wing Prophet Patriarchy” and urged people to bring noisemakers to  {111}  his Wilson was about to speak at a 1978 meeting the American Association for the Advancement Science when a group people carrying placards (one with a swastika) rushed onto the stage chanting “Racist Wilson you can't hide we charge you with genocide.” One protester grabbed the microphone and harangued the audience while another doused Wilson with a pitcher water. Taking all these processes into account we get the following picture People are qualitatively the same but may differ quantitatively The quantitative differences are small in biological terms and they are found to a far greater extent among the individual members an ethnic group or race than between ethnic groups or races These are reassuring findings Any racist ideology that holds that the members an ethnic group are all alike or that one ethnic group differs fundamentally from another is based on false assumptions about our biology. Walker P L 2001 A bioarchaeological perspective on the history violence Annual Review Anthropology 30 573–596 Walker R (Ed.) 1995 To be real: Telling the truth and changing the face feminism New York: Anchor Books Wang F A Nemes A Mendelsohn M & Axel R 1998 Odorant receptors govern the formation a precise topographic map Cell 93 47–60 Ward K 1998 Religion and human nature New York: Oxford University Press Warren M A 1984 On the moral and legal status abortion In J Feinberg (Ed.) The problem abortion Belmont Calif.: Wadsworth Watson G 1985 The idea liberalism London: Macmillan Watson J B 1924/1998 Behaviorism New Brunswick N.J.: Transaction. Ome debates are so entwined with people's moral identity that one might despair that they can ever be resolved by reason and evidence Social psychologists have found that with divisive moral issues especially those on which liberals and conservatives disagree all combatants are intuitively certain they are correct and that their opponents have ugly ulterior motives They argue out respect for the social convention that one should always provide reasons for one's opinions but when an argument is refuted they don't change their minds but work harder to find a replacement argument Moral debates far from resolving hostilities can escalate them because when people on the other side don't immediately capitulate it only proves they are impervious to reason.1 At the time that Kroeber and Lowie wrote they had biology on their side Many biologists still thought that living things were animated by a special essence an elan vital and could not be reduced to inanimate matter A 1931 history biology referring to genetics as it was then understood said “Thus the last the biological theories leaves us where we first started in the presence a power called life or psyche which is not only its own kind but unique in each and all its exhibitions.”54 In the next chapter we will see that the analogy between the autonomy culture and the autonomy life would prove to be more telling than these social scientists realized Leo John 394 Lepowsky Maria 339 Lessing Doris 343 leviathan 7–8 318–319 330–32 Leviathan (Hobbes) 7 318–19 Caramazza A & Shelton J A 1998 Domain–specific knowledge systems in the brain: The animate–inanimate distinction Journal Cognitive Neuwscience 10 1–34 Carey S 1986 Cognitive science and science education American Psycholog–1130 Carey S & Spelke E 1994 Domain–specific knowledge and conceptual change In L A Hirschfeld & S.A Gelman (Eds.) Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture New York: Cambridge University Press Carpenter M Akhtar N & Tomasello M 1998 Fourteen– through eighteen–month–old infants differentially imitate intentional and accidental actions Infant Behavior and Development 21 315–330 Carroll J 1995 Evolution and literary theory Columbia: University Missouri Press. Brown Donald 55 57 435–39 Brown Roger 205 Brownmiller Susan 361–62 363–64. Whatever the proximate mechanisms kin recognition there is substantial evidence that humans act generally more altruistically to close genetic kin compared to genetic non-kin.[110][111][112] 64. bishop Coudreau & O'Leary 2000; Bourgeois Goldman-Rakic & Rakic 2000; Chalupa 2000; Geary & Huffman 2002; Katz Weliky & Crowley 2000; Krubitzer & Huffman 2000; Levitt 2000; Miyashita-Lin et al 1999; Preuss 2000; Preuss 2001; Rakic 2000; Rakic 2001; Tessier-Lavigne & Goodman 1996; Verhage et al 2000; Zhou & Black 2000 65. Katz Weliky & Crowley 2000 p 209 66. Crowley & Katz 2000 67. Verhage et al 2000 68. Miyashita-Lin et al 1999 69. Bishop Coudreau & O'Leary 2000 See also Rakic 2001 70. Thompson. 111. glover 1999 pp 231–232 112. M J Wilkinson personal communication October 29,2001; Wilkinson in press 113. See Chapters 3 and 13 and also Fodor & Pylyshyn 1988; Miller Galanter & Pribram 1960; Pinker 1997 chap 2; Pinker 1999 chap 1 Chapter 18: Gender 1. Jaggar 1983 2. Quoted in Jaggar 1983 p 27 3. J N Wilford “Sexes equal on South Sea isle,” New York.   Chapter 13 Out Our Depths   A man has got to know his limitations — Clint Eastwood in Magnum Force   MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today People gorge themselves in anticipation a famine that never comes engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don't want and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot. Death by Government (Rummel) 332 decision making 40 42–44 51 58 174–75 302–3 Declaration Independence 145 Heritability 45–47 49–51 373–78       in brain 347       discomfort about 351       gender gap and 351–61       in parenting 252–54 350 It is incidentally surprising to me that so many commentators should find it disturbing that IQ might be heritable perhaps largely so  {147}  Would it also be disturbing to discover that relative height or musical talent or rank in running the one-hundred-yard dash is in part genetically determined? Why should one have preconceptions one way or another about these questions and how do the answers to them whatever they may be relate either to serious scientific issues (in the present state our knowledge) or to social practice in a decent society?14 Game theory 58 182 242–43 255–59 323 334–35 Gardner Howard 222 Garfunkel Art 22 Gauguin. A man's honor is a kind “social reality” in John Searle's sense: it exists because everyone agrees it exists but it is no less real for that since it resides in a shared granting power When the lifestyle a people changes their culture honor can stay with them for a long time because it is difficult for  {328}  anyone to be the first to renounce the culture The very act renouncing it can be a concession weakness and low status even when the sheep and mountains are a distant memory. He was so young barely 4 when he was scarred by abuse that he can't even take it out and look at it There was terrible conflict between his mother and grandmother A psychologist once told me that for a boy being in the middle a conflict between two women is the worst possible situation There is always the desire to please each Mrs Clinton was raked by the pundits for trying to excuse her husband's sexual escapades though she said not a word about brains genes or evolution The logic the condemnation seems to be: If someone tries to explain an act as an effect some cause the explainer is saying that the act was not freely chosen and that the actor cannot be held responsible. On the other side there is an impressive body evidence (reviewed more thoroughly by the legal scholar Owen Jones than by Thornhill and Palmer) that the motives for rape overlap with the motives for sex:96 • Coerced copulation is widespread among species in the animal kingdom suggesting that it is not selected against and may sometimes be selected for It is found in many species insects birds and mammals including our relatives the orangutans gorillas and chimpanzees • Rape is found in all human societies. Haugeland J 1981 Semantic engines: An introduction to mind design In J Haugeland (Ed.) Mind design: Philosophy psychology artificial intelligence Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Hauser M D 1996 The evolution communication Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Hauser M D 2000 Wild minds: What animals really think New York: Henry Holt Hausman P 1999 On the rarity mathematically and mechanically gifted females The Fielding Institute Santa Barbara Calif Hawkes K O'Connell J & Rogers L 1997 The behavioral ecology modern hunter–gatherers and human evolution Trends in Evolution and Ecology 12 29–32 Hayek F A 1960/1978 The constitution liberty Chicago: University Chicago Press. The appeal neural networks is that they automatically generalize their training to similar new items If a network has been trained that tigers eat Frosted Flakes it will tend to generalize that lions eat Frosted Flakes because eating Frosted Flakes” has been associated not with “tigers” but with simpler features like “roars” and “has whiskers,” which make up part the representation h'ons too The school connectionism like the school associationism championed by Locke Hume and Mill asserts that these generalizations are the crux intelligence If so highly trained but otherwise generic neural networks can explain intelligence. Harris is forthcoming about this limitation and suggests that children differentiate themselves within a peer group not by their choice a peer group Within each group some become leaders others foot soldiers still others jesters loose cannons punching bags or peacemakers depending on what niche is available how suited a child is to filling it and chance Once a child acquires a role it is hard to shake it f both because other children force the child to stay in the niche and because the child specializes in the skills necessary to prosper in it This part the theory Harris notes is untested and difficult to test because the crucial first step — which child fills which niche in which group — is so capricious. Christian fundamentalism 128–29 Chugani Harry 86 Chung Connie 375 Churchill Winston 296 306 333 Clark Ramsey 313 Clarke Arthur C 337 Claverie Jean–Michel 77 Ramachandran V S & Blakeslee S 1998 Phantoms in the brain: Probing the mysteries the human mind New York: William Morrow Ramachandran V S & Hirstein W 1999 The science art Journal Consciousness Studies 6/7 15–41 Rapin I 2001 An 8–year–old boy with autism Journal the American Medical Association 285 1749–1757 Ravitch D 2000 Left back: A century failed school reforms New York: Simon & Schuster Rawls J 1976 A theory justice Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Recanzone G H 2000 Cerebral cortical plasticity: Perception and skill acquisition In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.:. 83. e Anderson “The code the streets,” Atlantic Monthly May 1994 pp 81–94 84. See also Patterson 1997 85. E Anderson “The code the streets,” Atlantic Monthly May 1994 pp 81–94 quotation from p 82 86. Quoted in L Helmuth “Has America's tide violence receded for good?” Science 289 2000 pp 582–585 quotation from p 582 87. L Helmuth “Has America's tide violence receded for good?” Science 289 2000 pp 582–585 quotation from p 583 88. Wilkinson 2000; Wilson & Daly 1997 89. Harris 1998a pp 212–213. The Party also believes that emotional ties to family and friends are “habits” that get in the way a smoothly functioning society: Already we are breaking down the habits thought that have survived from before the Revolution We have cut the links between child and parent and between man and man and between man and woman No one dares trust a wife or a child or a friend any longer But in the future there will be no wives and no friends Children will be taken from their mothers at birth as one takes eggs from a hen The sex instinct will be eradicated There will be no distinction between beauty and ugliness.8 All history is nothing but a continuous transformation human Circumstances make men just as much as men make The mode production material life conditions the social political and intellectual life processes in general It is not the consciousness  {156}  men that determines their being but on the contrary their social being that determines their In a foreshadowing Durkheim's and Kroeber's insistence that individual human minds are not worthy attention. 11. l Franks Interview with Hillary Clinton Talk August 1999 12. K Q Seelye “Clintons try to quell debate over interview,” New York Times August 5,1999 13. Dennett 1984; Kane 1998; Nozick 1981 pp 317–362; Ridley 2000; Staddon 1999 14. Quoted in Kaplan 1973 p 16 15. Daly & Wilson 1988; Frank 1988; Pinker 1997; Schelling 1960 16. Quoted in Kaplan 1973 p 29 17. Daly & Wilson 1988 p 256 18. Dershowitz 1994; Faigman 1999; Kaplan 1973; Kirwin 1997 19. Rice 1997   Stardust Memories 49 statistics 231–32 Moreover even when people believe that ethnic groups have characteristic traits they are never mindless stereotypers who literally believe that each and every member the group possesses those traits People may think that Germans are on average more efficient than non-Germans but no one believes that every last German is more efficient than every non- And people have no trouble overriding a stereotype when they have good information about an individual Contrary to a common accusation teachers’ impressions their individual pupils are not contaminated by their stereotypes race gender or socioeconomic status The teachers’ impressions accurately reflect the pupil's performance as measured by objective So what do we find? The effects shared environment are small (less than 10 percent the variance) ten not statistically significant ten not replicated in other studies and ten a big fat heimer was cautious in saying that the effects are smaller than those the genes Many behavioral geneticists go farther and say that they are negligible particularly in adulthood (IQ is affected by the shared environment in childhood but over the years the effect peters out to nothing.) Levitt P 2000 Molecular determinants regionalization the forebrain and cerebral cortex In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Lewis H.W 1990 Technological risk New York: Norton Lewontin R 1990 How much did the brain have to change for speech? (Commentary on Pinker & Bloom's “Natural language and natural selection”) Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 740–741 Lewontin R 1992 Biology as ideology: The doctrine DNA New York: HarperCollins Lewontin R C 1982 Human diversity San Francisco: Scientific American Lewontin R C 1983 The organism as the subject and object evolution Scientia 118 65–82. 52. quoted in Colapinto 2000 53. Colapinto 2000; Diamond & Sigmundson 1997 54. Skuse et al 1997 55. Barkley et al 1977; Harris 1998a; Lytton & Romney 1991; Maccoby & Jacklin 1987 56. B Friedan “The future feminism,” Free Inquiry Summer 1999 57. “Land plenty: Diversity as America's competitive edge in science engineering and technology,” Report the Congressional Commission on the Advancement Women and Minorities in Science Engineering and Technology Development September 2000. The genuine resolution the antagonism between man and nature and between man and man; it is the true resolution the conflict between existence and essence objectification and self-affirmation freedom and necessity individual and species It is the riddle history It doesn't get any less tragic or more Utopian than that Marx dismissed the worry that selfishness and dominance would corrupt those carrying out the general will For example he waved f the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin's fear that the workers in charge would become despotic: “If Mr Bakunin were familiar just with the position a manager in a workers’ cooperative he could send all his nightmares about authority to the devil.”29 And then there were the experts Brazelton called the thesis “absurd.”62 Jerome Kagan one the deans scholarly research on children said “I'm embarrassed for psychology.”63 Another developmental psychologist Frank Farley told Newsweek: She's all wrong She's taking an extreme position based on a limited set data Her thesis is absurd on its face but consider what might happen if parents believe this stuff! Will it free some to mistreat their kids since “it doesn't matter”? Will it tell parents who are tired after a long day that they needn't bother even paying any attention to their kid since “it doesn't matter”?64 Yet another problem is that connectionist networks track the statistics the input closely: how many verbs each sound pattern they have encountered That leaves them unable to account for the epiphany in which young children discover the -ed rule and start making errors like holded and heared Connectionist modelers can induce these errors only by bombarding the network with regular verbs (so as to burn in the -ed) in a way that is unlike anything real children experience Finally a mass evidence from cognitive neuroscience shows that grammatical combination (including regular verbs) and lexical lookup (including irregular verbs) are handled by different systems in the brain rather than by a single associative network. Totalitarianism 152 155 158 169–70 296 425–28 The anthropologist Alan Fiske has surveyed the ethnographic literature and found that virtually all human transactions fall into four patterns each with a distinctive The first is Communal Sharing: groups people such as the members a family share things without keeping track who gets what The second is Authority Ranking: dominant people confiscate what they want from lower-ranking ones But the other two types transactions are defined by exchanges. Chinese Revolution 11 152 155–58 295 Chirot Daniel 170 This is fine as far as it goes but the diplomats are sometimes frustrated that at the end the day the two sides seem to hate each other as much as they did at the beginning They continue to demonize their opponents warp the facts and denounce the conciliators on their own side as traitors Milton J Wilkinson a diplomat who failed to get the Greeks and Turks to bury the hatchet over Cyprus suggests that peacemakers must understand the emotional faculties adversaries and not just neutralize the current rational  {336}  incentives The best-laid plans peacemakers are ten derailed by the adversaries’ ethnocentrism sense honor moralization and self- These mindsets evolved to deal with hostilities in the ancestral past and we must bring them into the open if we are to work around them in the present. The fact that the brain changes when we learn is not as some have claimed a radical discovery with pround implications for nature and nurture or human potential Dmitri Karamazov could have deduced it in his nineteenth-century prison cell as he mulled over the fact that thinking comes from quivering nerve tails rather than an immaterial soul If thought and action are products the physical activity the brain and if thought and action can be affected by experience then experience has to leave a trace in the physical structure the brain  {86}  Trade 167–69 233–36 255–56 290–91 297 320 Traffic 276 Tragic Vision 287–305 33. dehaeneetal 1999 34. Pinker 1994 chap 3; Siegal Varley & Want 2001; Weiskrantz 1988 35. Gallistel 1992; Gopnik Meltzf & Kuhl 1999; Hauser 2000 36. Anderson 1983 37. Pinker 1994 38. “'Minority’ a bad word in San Diego,” Boston Globe April 4 2001; S Schweitzer “Council mulls another word for ‘minority,'” Boston Globe August 9 2001 39. Brooker 1999 pp 115–116 40. Leslie 1995 41. Abbott 2001; Leslie 1995 42. Frith 1992. What would individualized parenting look like? Presumably parents would tailor their parenting to the needs and talents each child A headstrong child would elicit firmer discipline than a compliant one; a fearful child would elicit more protectiveness than a bold one The problem as we saw in an earlier section is that the differences in parenting cannot be separated from the preexisting differences in the children If the fearful child turns into a fearful adult we don't know whether it was an effect the overprotective parent or a continuation the fearfulness the child was. Bauer R A 1952 The new man in Soviet psychology Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Becker G S 1991 A treatise on the family (enlarged ed.) Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Behe M J 1996 Darwin's black box: The biochemical challenge to evolution New York: Free Press Behrens R R 1998 Art design and gestalt theory Leonardo 31 299–304 Belenky M E Clinchy B M Goldberger N R & Tarule J M 1986 Women's ways knowing New York: Basic Books Bell Q 1992 On human finery London: Allison & Busby Benedict R 1934/1959 Anthropology and the abnormal In M Mead (Ed.) An anthropologist at work: Writings Ruth Benedict Boston: Houghton Mifflin. But it was not a time for cool heads Rather than detach the moral doctrines from the scientific ones which would ensure that the clock would not be turned back no matter what came out the lab and field many intellectuals including some the world's most famous scientists made every effort to connect the two The discoveries about human nature were greeted with fear and loathing because they were thought to threaten progressive ideals All this could be relegated to the history books were it not for the fact that these intellectuals who once called themselves radicals are now the establishment and {104}  the dread they sowed about human nature has taken root in modern intellectual life. If only one person in the world held down a terrified struggling screaming little girl cut f her genitals with a septic blade and sewed her back up leaving only a tiny hole for urine and menstrual flow the only question would be how severely that person should be punished and whether the death penalty would be a sufficiently severe sanction But when millions people do this instead the enormity being magnified millions-fold suddenly it becomes “culture,” and thereby magically becomes less rather than more horrible and is even defended by some Western “moral thinkers,” including feminists.9 A final elusive talent is our ability to engage in categorical as opposed to fuzzy reasoning: to understand that Bob Dylan is a grandfather even though he is not very grandfatherly or that shrews are not rodents though they look just like mice With nothing but a soup neurons to stand for an object's properties and no provision for rules variables and s the networks fall back on stereotypes and are bamboozled by atypical examples  {81}  Braine M D S 1994 Mental logic and how to discover it In J Macnamara & G Reyes (Eds.) The logical foundations cognition New York: Oxford University Press Bregman A S 1990 Auditory scene analysis: The perceptual organization sound Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Bregman A S & Pinker S 1978 Auditory streaming and the building timbre Canadian Journal Psychology 32 19–31 Breland K & Breland M 1961 The misbehavior organisms American Psychologist 16 681–684 Brink D O 1989 Moral realism and the foundations ethics New York: Cambridge University Press Brociner K 2001 Utopianism human nature and the left Dissent 89–92. [Bob the biggest man on the boat] jumped up in the air and cracked his heels together again and shouted out: “Whoo-oop! I'm the original iron-jawed brass-mounted copper-bellied corpse-maker from the wilds Arkansaw! Look at me! I'm the man they call Sudden Death and General Desolation! Sired by a hurricane dam'd by an earthquake half-brother to the cholera nearly related to the smallpox on the mother's side! Look at me! I take nineteen alligators and a bar'l whisky for breakfast when I'm in robust health and a bushel rattlesnakes and a dead body when I'm ailing I split the everlasting rocks with my glance and I squench the thunder when I speak! Whoo-oop! Stand back and give me room according to my strength! Blood's my natural drink and the wails the dying is music to my ear Cast your eye on me gentlemen! and lay low and hold your breath for I'm ‘bout to turn myself loose!" ~ ACCORDING TO TRIVERS every human relationship — our ties to our parents siblings romantic partners and friends and neighbors — has a distinct psychology forged by a pattern converging and diverging interests What about the relationship that is according to the pop song “the greatest love all” — the relationship with the self? In a pithy and now-famous passage Trivers wrote: Baby and Child Care (Spock) 20 Baddeley Alan 209–10 Bailey Ronald 131 Baker Mark 38 Bakunin Mikhail 295 331 Bambi 12 Barash. “two CHEERS FOR democracy,” proclaimed E M Forster “Democracy is the worst form government except all those other forms that have been tried,” said Winston Churchill These are encomiums worthy the Tragic Vision For all their flaws liberal democracies appear to be the best form large-scale social organization our sorry species has come up with so far They provide more comfort and freedom more artistic and scientific vitality longer and safer lives and less disease and pollution than any the alternatives Modern democracies never have famines almost never wage war on one another and are the top choice people all over the world who vote with their feet or with their boats The moderate success democracies like the failures radical revolutions and Marxist governments is now widely enough agreed upon that it may serve as another empirical test for rival theories human nature. The entry notes that images are associated with the world publicity advertising and fashion and thereby with business and prits An image may thus be tied to “an imposed stereotype or an alternative subjective or cultural identity.” Media images become mental images: people cannot help but think that women or politicians or African Americans conform to the depictions in movies and advertisements And this elevates cultural studies and postmodernist art into forces for personal and political liberation: The study “images women” or “women's images” sees this field as one in which stereotypes women can be reinforced parodied or actively contested through critical analysis alternative histories or creative work in writing and the media committed to the production positive counter- The BLANK SLATE is ten accompanied by two other doctrines which have also attained a sacred status in modern intellectual life My label for the first the two is commonly attributed to the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) though it really comes from John Dryden's The Conquest Granada published in 1670:   I am as free as Nature first made man,Ere the base laws servitude began,When wild in woods the noble savage ran   Parenting viii ix x 164–65 171–72 378–99       behavioral genetics and 378–87 “lottery in Babylon The” (Borges) 59  {501}  Loury Glenn 206 Love Canal 278 Low Bobbie 342 Lowie Robert 26 28 29 31 Lubinski David 356 luck life. Abbott Jack Henry 261–62 abortion 227–28 269 Abzug Bella 353 Adam 2 Adams John 145 297.       human nature and 1–2       morality and 138 182 186–90 religiosity 375 Darwinian Left A (Singer) 298 300 Dawkins Richard 53 112 113 114 191 241 318–19 deafness.       number genes in 74 75–78       variability in 142–43 germ theory disease 154 Gestalt 418 Ghiglieri Michael 166 The theory self-deception was foreshadowed by the sociologist Erving Gfman in his 1959 book The Presentation Self in Everyday Life which disputed the romantic notion that behind the masks we show other people is the one true self No said Gfman; it's masks all the way down Many discoveries in the ensuing decades have. The stories in “The Thousand and One Nights” are stories about storytelling without ever ceasing to be stories about love and life and death and money and food and other human necessities Narration is as much a part human nature as breath and the circulation the blood Modernist literature tried to do away with storytelling which it thought vulgar replacing it with flashbacks epiphanies streams consciousness But storytelling is intrinsic to biological time which we cannot escape Life Pascal said is like living in a prison from which every day fellow prisoners are taken away to be executed We are all like Scheherazade under sentences death and we all think our lives as narratives with beginnings middles and The combinatorial powers the human mind can help explain a paradox about the place our species on the planet Two hundred years ago the economist Thomas Malthus (1766–1834) called attention to two enduring features human nature One is that “food is necessary for the existence man.” The other is that “the passion between the sexes is necessary and will remain nearly in its present state.” He famously deduced: The power population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man Population when unchecked increases in a geometrical ratio Subsistence increases only in an arithmetic ratio A slight acquaintance with numbers will show the immensity the first power in comparison with the second. ~ THE MOST SICKENING associations a biological conception human nature are the ones to Nazism Though the opposition to the idea a human nature began decades earlier historians agree that bitter memories the Holocaust were the main reason that human nature became taboo in intellectual life after World. Sokal Alan 410 Solzhenitsyn Aleksandr 157 Sommers Christina Hf 172 341 342 Sontag. Liberalism and conservatism have not just genetic roots course but historical and intellectual ones The two political philosophies were articulated in the eighteenth century in terms that would be familiar to readers the editorial pages today and their foundations can be traced back millennia to the political controversies ancient Greece During the past three centuries many revolutions and uprisings were fought over these philosophies as are the major elections in modern democracies. The left and the right also agree that the new sciences human nature threaten the concept moral responsibility When Wilson suggested that in humans as in many other mammals males have a greater desire for multiple sexual partners than do females Rose accused him really saying: Don't blame your mates for sleeping around ladies it's not their fault they are genetically Compare Tom Wolfe tongue only partly in cheek: The male the human species is genetically hardwired to be polygamous i.e unfaithful to his legal mate Any magazine-reading male gets the picture soon enough (Three million years evolution made me do it!)46  {133}  Plamenatz J 1963 Man and society: A critical examination some important social and political theories from Machiavelli to Marx (Vol 2) London: Longman Plamenatz J 1975 Karl Marx's philosophy man New York: Oxford University Press Plomin R 1990 The role inheritance in behavior Science 248 183–248 Plomin R 1991 Continuing commentary: Why children in the same family are so different from one another Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 336–337 Plomin R 1994 Genetics and experience: The interplay between nature and nurture Thousand Oaks Calif.: Sage Plomin R & Daniels D 1987 Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 1–60.       stereotypes in 201 204–6       violence and 311 Mehler Barry 378 Melamid Alexander 408–9 Melzack Ronald 98 ~ Spatial sense 220 Specter Arlen 312 speech–recognition stware 106 Spencer Herbert 15–16 150 Sperber Dan 65 Sperry Roger 43 Spock Benjamin 20       chapter 9 The Fear Imperfectibility 159       Chapter 10 The Fear Determinism 174       Chapter 11 The Fear Nihilism 186   PART IV Know Thyself 195 An important proviso: Differences among homes don't matter within the samples homes netted by these studies which tend to be more middle-class than the population as a whole But differences between those samples and other kinds homes could matter The studies exclude cases criminal neglect physical and sexual abuse and abandonment in a bleak orphanage so they do not show that extreme cases fail to leave scars Nor can they say anything about the differences between cultures — about what makes a child a middle-class American as opposed to a Yanomamö warrior or a Tibetan monk or even a member an urban street gang In general if a sample comes from a restricted range homes it may underestimate effects homes across. They also accused Wilson discussing “the salutary advantages genocide” and making “institutions such as slavery seem natural in human societies because their ‘universal’ existence in the biological kingdom.” In  {110}  case the connection wasn't clear enough one the signatories wrote elsewhere that “in the last analysis it was sociobiological scholarship that provided the conceptual framework by which eugenic theory was transformed into genocidal practice”. “well I should reckon! It started thirty years ago or som'ers along there There was trouble ‘bout something and then a lawsuit to settle it and the suit went agin one the men and so he up and shot the man that won the suit — which he would naturally do course Anybody would.” “What was the trouble about Buck? — land?” “I reckon maybe — I don't know.” “Well who done the shooting? Was it a Grangerford or a Shepherdson?”  {431}  “Laws how do I know? It was so long ago.” “Don't anybody know?” “Oh yes pa knows I reckon and some the other old people; but they don't know now what the row was about in the first place.”12       evidence for sexual component 367–68       reduction 368–71 rational–actor theory 303       see also economics human nature as seen in  {505}  2>Rawls John 150–51 Reagan Ronald 287 Do what you want when you graduate or wait 20 years for your mid-life crisis Insurance for when the robots take over all the boring jobs Okay then Follow your dreams in your next life Yeah like your parents are so happy Careerism may explain the disenchantment some students feel with liberal arts but not all it The economy is in better shape today than it was in periods in which the humanities were more popular and many young people still do not shoot themselves from cannons into their careers but use their college years to enrich themselves in various ways There is no good reason that the arts and humanities should not be able to compete for students’ attention during this interlude A knowledge culture history and ideas is still an asset in most pressions as it is in everyday life But students stay away from the humanities anyway. Universal Declaration Human Rights 167 Universal Grammar 37–38 55 Universal People 55 universals human 37–38 55 435–39       see also specific topics The physiologist Jared Diamond is a proponent ideas in evolutionary psychology and consilience between the sciences and the humanities particularly In Guns Germs and Steel he rejected the standard assumption that history is just one damn thing after another and tried to explain the sweep human history over tens thousands years in the context human evolution and ll and Diamond have made an authoritative case that the fates human societies come neither from chance nor from race but from the human drive to adopt the innovations others combined with the vicissitudes geography and ecology. On one wing we have Gould asking the rhetorical question: Why do we want to fob f responsibility for our violence and sexism upon our genes?47 And on the other wing we find Ferguson raising the same point: The “scientific belief” would appear to be corrosive any notion free will personal responsibility or universal For Rose and Gould the ghost in the machine is a “we” that can construct history and change the world at will For Kass Wolfe and Ferguson it is a “soul” that makes moral judgments according to religious precepts But all them see genetics neuroscience and evolution as threats to this irreducible locus free choice. The mind man by indetermination by the power choice and cultural communication is on the verge escape from the blind control that deterministic world with which the Darwinists had unconsciously shackled man The inborn characteristics laid upon him by the biological extremists have crumbled away Wallace saw and saw correctly that with the rise man the evolution parts was to a marked degree outmoded that mind was now the arbiter human They circled and flailed at each other and knocked each other's hats f until Bob said as Huck describes it never mind this warn't going to be the last this thing because he was a man that never forgot and never forgive and so The Child better  {429}  look out for there was a time a-coming just as sure as he was a living man that he would have to answer to him with the best blood in his body The Child said no man was willinger than he for that time to come and he would give Bob fair warning now never to cross his path again for he could never rest till he had waded in his blood for such was his nature though he was sparing him now on account his family if. One the major documents late twentieth-century psychology was the two-volume Parallel Distributed Processing by David Rumelhart James McClelland and their collaborators which presented a style neural network modeling called Rumelhart and McClelland argued that generic associationist networks subjected to massive amounts training could explain all cognition They realized that this theory left them without a good answer to the question “Why are people smarter than rats?” Here is their answer: Consider this story: Julie and Mark are brother and sister They are traveling together in France on summer vacation from college One night they are staying alone in a cabin near the beach They decide that it would be interesting and fun if they tried making love At the very least it would be a new experience for each them Julie was already taking birth control pills but Mark uses a condom too just to be safe They both enjoy making love but they decide not to do it again They keep the night as a special secret which makes them feel even closer to each other What do you think about that; was it OK for them to. Gintis Herbert 303 304  {498}  glass ceiling 351–52 Glendon Mary Ann 272 Glover Jonathan 170 274 279 320–21 335       visual system and 405 412 417–18 Asimov Isaac 133 associationism 18–19. Psychopaths can be clever and charming and Mailer was only the latest in a series intellectuals from all over the political spectrum who were conned in the 1960s and 1970s In 1973 William F Buckley helped win the early release Edgar Smith a man who had been convicted molesting a fifteen-year-old cheerleader and crushing her head with a rock Smith won his freedom in exchange for confessing to the crime and then as Buckley was interviewing him on his national television program he recanted the confession Three years later he was arrested for beating another young woman with a rock and he is now serving a life sentence for attempted Not everyone was conned The comedian Richard Pryor described his experience at the Arizona State Penitentiary during the filming. Van Essen D C & Deyoe E A 1995 Concurrent processing in the primate visual cortex In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Van Valen L 1974 Brain size and intelligence in man American Journal Physical Anthropology 40,417–424 Vandell D L 2000 Parents peer groups and other socializing influences Developmental Psychology 36 699–710 Vasquez J A 1992 The steps to war: Toward a scientific explanation Correlates War findings In J A Vasquez & M T Henehan (Eds.) The scientific study peace and war: A text reader New York: Lexington Books Veblen T 1899/1994 The theory the leisure class New York: Penguin Venable V 1945 Human nature: The Marxian view New York: Knopf. Golden Rule 168–69 187–88 193 224 274–75 336 Goldin Claudia 353 Golding William 124 Goldman. Regardless what lies behind our instincts for art those instincts bestow it with a transcendence time place and culture Hume noted that “the general principles taste are uniform in human nature the same Homer who pleased at Athens and Rome two thousand years ago is still admired at Paris and London.”42 Though people can argue about whether the glass is half full or half empty a universal human aesthetic really can be discerned beneath the variation across cultures Dutton comments: Dialectical Biologist The (Levins) 126 dialectical biology 113 126 135 Dialogue Concerning the Two Systems (Galileo) 138 Diamond Jared 68–69 Dickeman Mildred 342 Dickens Charles 291–92 What about the takeover the visual cortex by Braille in blind people? At first glance it looks like real transubstantiation But maybe not We are not witnessing just any talent taking over just any vacant lot in the cortex Braille reading may use the anatomy the visual cortex in the same way that seeing does. Behaviorism 19–21 40 124 170 177 Behavior Organisms The (Skinner) 20 Behe Michael 130 Bell Clive 413 Bell Quentin. Cooke B & Turner F (Eds.) 1999 Biopoetics: Evolutionary explorations in the arts St Paul Miniu: Paragon House Cosmides L & Tooby J 1992 Cognitive adaptations for social exchange In J H Barkow L Cosmides & J Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation Culture New York: Oxford University Press Cosmides L & Tooby J 1996 Are humans good intuitive statisticians after all? Rethinking some conclusions from the literature on judgment under uncertainty Cognition 58 1–73  {466}  Courtois S Werth N Panne J.–L Paczkowski A Bartosek K & Margolin J.–L 1999 The black book communism: Crimes terror repression Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press. Moralistic fallacy 162–63 178 313 moralization 275–7 morality 269–80 Immigration 17 391 inequality 141–58 304 infanticide 227 248–49 information 31–34 238. 16. g Kane “Violence as a cultural imperative,” Boston Sunday Globe October 6,1996 17. Quoted in A Flint “Some see bombing's roots in a US culture conflict,” Boston Globe June 1,1995 18. A Flint “Some see bombing's roots in a US culture conflict,” Boston Globe June 1 1995 19. M Zuckf “More murders more debate,” Boston Globe J 20. A Diamant “What's the matter with men?” Boston Globe Magazine Ma 21. Mesquida & Wiener 1996 22. Freedman 2002. Hardcastle V G & Buller D J 2000 Evolutionary psychology meet developmental neurobiology: Against promiscuous modularity Brain and Mind 1 307–325 Hare R D 1993 Without conscience: The disturbing world the psychopaths around us New York: Guilford Press Harpending H & Sobus J 1987 Sociopathy as an adaptation Ethology and Sociobiology 8 63–72 Harris J R 1995 Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory development Psychological Review 102 458–489 Harris J R 1998a The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do New York: Free Press Harris J R 1998b The trouble with assumptions (Commentary on “Parental socialization emotion” by Eisenberg Cumberland and Spinrad) Psychological Inquiry 9 294–297. Though psychology is not as politicized as some the other social sciences it too is sometimes driven by a Utopian vision in which changes in child-rearing and education will ameliorate social pathologies and improve human welfare And psychological theorists sometimes try to add moral heft to arguments for connectionism or other empiricist theories with warnings about the  {28}  pessimistic implications theories They argue for example that theories open the door to inborn differences which could foster racism or that the theories imply that human traits are unchangeable which could weaken support for social ~ Crick Francis. • rapists generally apply as much force as is needed to coerce the victim into sex They rarely inflict a serious or fatal injury which would preclude  {368} conception and birth Only 4 percent rape victims sustain serious injuries and fewer than one in five hundred is murdered • Victims rape are mostly in the peak reproductive years for women between thirteen and thirty-five with a mean in most data sets twenty-four Though many rape victims are classified as children (under the age sixteen) most these are adolescents with a median age fourteen The age distribution is very different from that victims other violent crimes and is the opposite what would happen if rape victims were picked for their physical vulnerability or by their likelihood holding positions power. Cognitive scientists have discovered that distinct kinds representations and processes are used in different domains knowledge such as words and rules for language the concept an enduring object for understanding the physical world and a theory mind for understanding other Developmental psychology has shown that these distinct modes interpreting experience come on line early in life: infants have a basic grasp objects numbers faces tools language and other domains human This part the book will show why a renewed conception meaning and morality will survive the demise the Blank Slate I am not to say the least proposing a novel philosophy life like the spiritual leader some new cult The arguments I will lay out have been around for centuries and have been advanced by some history's greatest thinkers My goal is to put them down in one place and connect them to the apparent moral challenges from the sciences human nature to serve as a reminder why the sciences will not lead to a Nietzschean total eclipse all values The anxiety about human nature can be boiled down to four fears: • If people are innately different oppression and discrimination would be justified • If people are innately immoral hopes to improve the human condition would be futile. Rozin Paul 230–31 272 275 Rumelhart David 21 35 74 Rummel R J 332 Russell Bertrand 2 26 270 Russian Revolution 295 Connectionism 21 27–28 35–36 74–75 78 79–82 100 Conquest Robert 170 Instead regarding the individual as a First Cause as a prime mover as the initiator and determinant the culture process we now see him as a component part and a tiny and relatively insignificant part at that a vast socio-cultural system that embraces innumerable individuals at any one time and extends back into their remote past as well For purposes scientific interpretation the culture process may be regarded as a thing sui generis; culture is explainable in terms In other words we should forget about the mind an individual person like you that tiny and insignificant part a vast sociocultural system The mind that counts is the one belonging to the group which is capable thinking feeling and acting on. Anthropologists and historians have also been counting bodies Many intellectuals tout the small numbers battlefield casualties in pre-state societies as evidence that primitive warfare is largely ritualistic They do not notice that two deaths in a band fifty people is the equivalent ten million deaths in a country the size the United States The archaeologist Lawrence Keeley has summarized the proportion male deaths caused by war in a number societies for which data are available:71  {57}      The MANY ROOTS our suffering illuminated by Trivers are not a cause for lamentations and wailings The genetic overlaps that unite and divide us are tragic not in the everyday sense a catastrophe but in the dramatic sense a stimulus that encourages us to ponder our condition According to a in the Cambridge Encyclopedia “The fundamental purpose tragedy was claimed by Aristotle to be the awakening pity and fear a sense wonder and awe at the human potential including the potential for suffering; it makes an assertion human value in the face a hostile universe.” Trivers's accounts the inherent conflicts within families couples societies and the self can reinforce that purpose. Now there is nothing in science or social science that would rule out policies implementing a fifty-fifty distribution wages and jobs between the sexes  {358}  if a democracy decided that this was an inherently worthy goal What the findings do say is that such policies will come with costs as well as benefits The obvious benefit equality--outcome policies is that they might neutralize the remaining discrimination against women But if men and women are not interchangeable the costs have to be considered. In a further move we are thought to exist in a world hyperreality in which images are self-generating and entirely detached from any  {214}  supposed reality This accords with a common view contemporary entertainment and politics as being all a matter “image,” or appearance rather than substantial content. We know in a general way how the brain assembles itself under the guidance of the Even before the cortex has been formed the neurons destined to make up different areas are organized into a"proto-map.” Each area in the proto-map is composed of neurons with different properties molecular mechanisms that attract different input fibers and different patterns of responses to the input Axons are attracted and repelled by many kinds of molecules dissolved in the surrounding fluid or attached to the membranes of neighboring cells And different sets of genes are expressed in different parts of the growing cortex The neuroscientist Lawrence Katz has lamented that fire-together-wire-together has become a “dogma” keeping neuroscientists from exploring the full reach of these genetic Mothers are more attached to their children on average than are fathers That is true in societies all over the world and probably has been true our lineage since the first mammals evolved some two hundred million. Dennett D C 1986 The logical geography computational approaches: A view from the East Pole In M Harnish & M Brand (Eds.) The representation knowledge and belief Tucson: University Arizona Press Dennett D C 1991 Consciousness explained Boston: Little Brown Dennett D C 1995 Darwin's dangerous idea: Evolution and the meanings life New York: Simon & Schuster Dershowitz A M 1994 The abuse excuse Boston: Little Brown Descartes R 1637/2001 Discourse on method New York: Descartes R 1641/1967 Meditations on first philosophy In R Popkin (Ed.) The philosophy the 16th and 17th centuries New York:.       and politics 247 266–68 294 427       see also parenting Farah Martha 99 Faris Ellsworth 24 Faris Robert 27 Farley. Neuroscience 111 131 341–42 386–87       cognitive 41–45       commercial applications 87 18. gould 1981 pp 24–25 For reviews see Blinkhorn 1982; Davis 1983; Jensen 1982; Rushton 1996; Samelson 1982 19. Putnam 1973 p 142 20. See the consensus statements by Neisser et al 1996; Snyderman & Rothman 1988; and Gottfredson 1997; and also Andreasen et al 1993; Caryl 1994; Deary 2000; Haier et al 1992; Reed & Jensen 1992; Thompson et al 2001; Van Valen 1974; Willerman et al 1991 21. Moore & Baldwin 1903/1996; Rachels 1990 22. Rawls 1976 23. Hayek 1960/1978 24. Chirot 1994; Courtois et al 1999; Glover 1999 25. Horowitz 2001; Sowell 1994; Sowell 1996. <<  {400}  >>   Chapter 20 The Arts THE ARTS ARE in trouble I didn't say it; they did: the critics scholars and (as we now say) content providers who make their living in the arts and humanities According to the theater director and critic Robert Brustein: Buck adds that the feud is carried along by the two families’ sense honor: “There ain't a coward amongst them Shepherdsons — not a one And there ain't no cowards amongst the Grangerfords either.”13The reader anticipates trouble and it comes soon enough A Grangerford girl runs f with a Shepherdson boy the Grangerfords head f in hot pursuit and all the Grangerford males are killed in an ambush “I ain't a'going to tell all that happened,” says Huck; “it would make me sick again if I was to do that I wished I hadn't ever come ashore that night to see such things.”14 Another example is the Great Vowel Shift in English which is the reason that the spelling English vowels do not correspond well to their current pronunciation This is because the vowel shift brought the already established orthography out synchronization with pronunciation Another source sound change is the erosion words as pronunciation gradually becomes increasingly indistinct and shortens words leaving out syllables or sounds This kind change caused Latin mea domina to eventually become the French madame and American English ma'am.[112] In the 1960s Noam Chomsky formulated the generative theory language According to this theory the most basic form language is a set syntactic rules that is universal for all humans and which underlies the grammars all human languages This set rules is called Universal Grammar; for Chomsky describing it is the primary objective the discipline linguistics Thus he considered that the grammars individual languages are only importance to linguistics insar as they allow us to deduce the universal underlying rules from which the observable linguistic variability is generated.[44] Also necessary for vengeance to work as a deterrent is that the willingness to pursue it be made public because the whole point deterrence is to give would-be attackers second thoughts beforehand And this brings us to Hobbes's final reason for quarrel ~ Montagu Ashley 24 26 27 124 134 258 307 Monty Python's Flying Circus 72 Moore G.E 150 All this from the number 34,000! Which leads to the question What number genes would have proven that the diversity our species was wired into our genetic code or that we are less free than we had realized or that the political right is right and the left is wrong? 50,000? 150,000? Conversely if it turned out that we had only 20,000 genes would that have made us even freer or the environment even more important or the political left even more comfortable? The fact is that no one knows what these numbers mean No one has the slightest idea how many genes it would take to build a system hard-wired modules or a general-purpose learning program or anything in between — to say nothing original sin or the superiority the ruling class In our current state ignorance how the genes build a brain the number genes in the human genome is just a number. Locke John 5–6 12 18 19 34–35. I have long felt that the prevailing tendency to regard all the marked distinctions human character as innate and in the main indelible and to ignore the irresistible pros that by far the greater part those differences whether between individuals races or sexes are such as not only might but naturally would be produced by differences in circumstances is one the chief hindrances to the rational treatment great social questions and one the greatest stumbling blocks to human improvement [This tendency is] so agreeable to human indolence as well as to conservative interests generally that unless attacked at the very root it is sure to be carried to even a greater length than is really justified by the more moderate forms intuitional philosophy.9 Ultimatum game 256 United Nations. That theory human nature — namely that it barely exists — is the topic this book Just as religions contain a theory human nature so theories  {3}  human nature take on some the functions religion and the Blank Slate has become the secular religion modern intellectual life It is seen as a source values so the fact that it is based on a miracle — a complex mind arising out nothing — is not held against it Challenges to the doctrine from skeptics and scientists have plunged some believers into a crisis faith and have led others to mount the kinds bitter attacks ordinarily aimed at heretics and infidels And just as many religious traditions eventually reconciled themselves to apparent threats from science (such as the revolutions Copernicus and Darwin) so I argue will our values survive the demise the. • if people are products of biology free will would be a myth and we could no longer hold people responsible for their actions • If people are products of biology life would have no higher meaning and purpose Each will get a chapter I will first explain the basis of the fear: which claims about human nature are at stake and why they are thought to have treacherous implications I will then show that in each case the logic is faulty; the implications simply do not follow But I will go farther than that It's not just that claims about human nature are less dangerous than many people think It's that the denial of human nature can be more dangerous than people think This makes it imperative to examine claims about human nature objectively without putting a moral thumb on either side of the scale and to figure out how we can live with the claims should they turn out to. One reason to hold someone responsible is to deter the person from committing similar acts in the future But that cannot be the whole story because it is different only in degree from the contingencies punishment used by behaviorists to modify the behavior animals In a social language-using reasoning organism the policy can also deter similar acts by other organisms who learn the contingencies and control their behavior so as not to incur the penalties That is the ultimate reason we feel compelled to punish elderly Nazi war criminals even though there is little danger that they would perpetrate another holocaust if we let them die in their beds in Bolivia By holding them responsible — that is by publicly enforcing a policy rooting out and punishing evil wherever and whenever it occurs — we hope to deter others from committing comparable evils in the future. Buss D M 1992 Mate preference mechanisms: Consequences for partner choice and intrasexual competition In J Barkow L Cosmides & J Tooby (Eds.) The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation culture New York: Oxford University Press Buss D M 1994 The evolution desire New York: Basic Books Buss D M 1995 Evolutionary psychology: A new paradigm for psychological science Psychological Inquiry 6 1–30 Buss D M 1999 Evolutionary psychology: The new science the mind Boston: Allyn and Bacon Buss D M 2000 The dangerous passion: Why jealousy is as necessary as love and sex New York: Free Press Butterworth B 1999 The mathematical brain London: Macmillan Calvin W H 1996a The cerebral code Cambridge Mass.:. Stein Gertrude 417–18 Steinem Gloria 171 343 353 Steiner George 266 415 431 Steiner Wendy 417 stem cell research. Note the tricky framing the issue The notion that money is a genetically coded universal is so ridiculous (and not incidentally something Wilson ever proposed) that any alternative has to be seen as more plausible than that But if we take the alternative on its own terms rather than as one prong in a false dichotomy Gould and Lewontin seem to be saying that the genetic components human behavior will be discovered primarily in the “generalities eating excreting and sleeping.” The rest the slate presumably is blank This debating tactic — first deny the Blank Slate then make it look plausible by pitting it against a straw man — can be found elsewhere in the writings the radical scientists Gould for instance writes: Evolutionary psychology argues that to properly understand the functions the brain one must understand the properties the environment in which the brain evolved That environment is ten referred to as the "environment evolutionary adaptedness".[25] ~ WHAT IS THE brain actually doing when it undergoes the changes we call plasticity? One commentator called it “the brain equivalent Christ turning water into wine” and thus a dispro any theory that parts the brain have been specialized for their jobs by Those who don't believe in miracles are skeptical Neural tissue is not a magical substance that can assume any form demanded it but a mechanism that obeys the laws cause and effect When we take a closer look at the prominent examples plasticity we discover that the changes are not miracles after all In every case the altered cortex is not doing anything very different from what it ordinarily does.       and Ghost in the Machine 42 44 129       mind–matter divide and 41–45       see also brain Newell Alan 105 New Formalism 417 New Know–Nothings The: The Political Foes the Scientific Study Human Nature (Hunt) 128 Mind–matter divide 8–11 31–48       behavioral genetics and 45–51       cognitive science and 31–34       evolutionary psychology and 51–58 Rozin notes that smoking has recently been moralized For many years the decision whether to smoke was treated as a matter preference or prudence: some people simply didn't enjoy smoking or avoided it because it was hazardous to their health But with the discovery the harmful effects secondhand smoke smoking is now treated as an immoral act Smokers are banished and demonized and the psychology disgust and contamination is brought into play Nonsmokers avoid not just smoke but anything that has ever been in contact with smoke: in hotels they demand smoke-free rooms or even smoke-free floors Similarly the desire for retribution has been awakened: juries have slapped tobacco companies with staggering financial penalties appropriately called “punitive damages.” This is not to say that these decisions are unjustified only that we should be aware the emotions that may be driving them. Yes within seconds the miraculous reunion they are bickering picking up from where they left f when they were separated a decade before What a wealth psychology is folded into that scene! Men's inclination to polygamy and the frustrations it inevitably brings Women's keener social intelligence and their preference for verbal over physical aggression against romantic rivals The stability personality over the lifespan The way that social behavior is elicited by the specifics a situation especially the specifics other  {434}  people so that two people play out the same dynamic whenever they are together. The misuse biology by the Nazis is a reminder that perverted ideas can have horrifying consequences and that intellectuals have a responsibility to take reasonable care that their ideas not be misused for evil ends But part that responsibility is not to trivialize the horror Nazism by exploiting it for rhetorical clout in academic catfights Linking the people you disagree with to Nazism does nothing for the memory Hitler's victims or for the effort to prevent other genocides It is precisely because these events are so grave that we have a special responsibility to identify their causes precisely. Beauty 53 387–88 405       denial 413–14 Beauvoir Simone de 171 Becker. Roosevelt Theodore 153 Rorty Richard 202 Rose Hilary. Another STRANGE FEATURE the moral emotions is that they can be turned on and f like a switch These mental spoinks are called moralization and amoralization and have recently been studied in the lab by They consist in flipping between a mindset that judges behavior in terms preference with a mindset that judges behavior in. Selfish Gene The (Dawkins). Nor is the physical structure the brain a blank slate In the mid-nineteenth century the neurologist Paul Broca discovered that the folds and wrinkles the cerebral cortex do not squiggle randomly like fingerprints but have a recognizable geometry Indeed the arrangement is so consistent from brain to brain that each fold and wrinkle can be given a name Since that time neuroscientists have discovered that the gross anatomy the brain — the sizes shapes and connectivity its lobes and nuclei and the basic plan the cerebral cortex — is largely shaped by the genes in normal prenatal So is the quantity gray matter in the different regions the brains different people including the regions that underlie language and Evolutionary psychology is the long-forestalled scientific attempt to assemble out the disjointed fragmentary and mutually contradictory human disciplines a single logically integrated research framework for the psychological social and behavioral sciences – a framework that not only incorporates the evolutionary sciences on a full and equal basis but that systematically works out all the revisions in existing belief and research practice that such a synthesis requires.[11] The SPECTER eugenics can be disposed as easily as the specters discrimination and Social Darwinism Once again the key is to distinguish biological facts from human values. So external and internal controls there would be “Parchment barriers,” said Madison were not enough; rather “ambition must be made to counteract ambition.”40 Checks and balances were instituted to stalemate any faction that grew too powerful They included the division authority between federal and state governments the separation powers among the executive legislative and judiciary branches and the splitting the legislative branch into two houses Madison was especially adamant that the Constitution rein in the part human nature that encourages war which is not a primitive lust for blood he claimed but an advanced lust for esteem: Headlines such as “Scientist ‘Killed Amazon Indians to Test Race Theory'” soon appeared around the world followed by an excerpt Tierney's book in The New Yorker and then the book itself titledDarkness in El Dorado: How Scientists and Journalists Devastated the Under pressure from the publisher's libel lawyers some the more sensational accusations in the book had been excised watered down or put in the mouths Venezuelan journalists or untraceable informants But the substance the charges This part the book is about the politically motivated reactions to the new sciences human nature Though the opposition was originally a brainchild the left it is becoming common on the right whose spokespeople are fired up by some the same moral objections In Chapter 6 I recount the shenanigans that erupted as a reaction to the new ideas about human nature In Chapter 7 I show how these reactions came from a moral imperative to uphold the Blank Slate the Noble Savage and the Ghost in the Machine War is only one the ways in which people kill other people In much the world war shades into smaller-scale violence such as ethnic strife turf battles blood feuds and individual homicides Here too despite undeniable improvements we do not have anything like peace Though Western societies have seen murder rates fall between tenfold and a hundredfold in the past millennium the United States lost a million people to homicide in the twentieth century and an American man has about a one-half percent lifetime chance being murdered.7 Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests viii 106–7 134–35 145 146–47 201 301–2 378 Pure ENVIRONMENTAL THEORIES violence remain an article faith because they embody the Blank Slate and the Noble Savage Violence according to these theories isn't a natural strategy in the human repertoire; it's learned  {313}  behavior or poisoning by a toxic substance or the symptom an infectious illness In earlier chapters we saw the moral appeal such doctrines: to differentiate the doctrine-holders from jingoists earlier periods and ruffians different classes; to reassure audiences that they do not think violence is “natural” in the sense “good”; to express an optimism that violence can be eliminated particularly by benign social programs rather than punitive deterrence; to stay miles away from the radioactive position that some individuals classes or races are innately more violent than others. Music related in part to religious activity music seen as art (a creation) music vocal music vocal includes speech forms musical redundancy musical repetition musical variation myths narrative nomenclature (perhaps the same as classification) nonbodily decorative art normal distinguished from abnormal states nouns numerals (counting) Oedipus complex oligarchy (de facto) one (numeral) onomatopoeia overestimating objectivity thought pain past/present/future person concept personal names phonemes phonemes defined by sets minimally contrasting features Some these speculations have yet to be developed into fully testable hypotheses and a great deal research is required to confirm their validity.[132][133]       right–wing support 128–29 Gibran Kahlil 249 Gigerenzer Gerd 302 Gilbert William 283 Gilligan Carol 171 342 Gilmore Gary 261 Gingrich. 60. quoted in Dawkins 1998 p 50 61. McGinn 1993; McGinn 1999; Pinker 1997 chap 8   Chapter 14: The Many Roots of Our Suffering   1. Trivers 1976 2. Trivers 1971; Trivers 1972; Trivers 1974; Trivers 1976; Trivers 1985 3. Alexander 1987; Cronin 1992; Dawkins 1976/1989; Ridley 1997; Wright 1994 4. Hamilton 1964; Trivers 1971; Trivers 1972; Trivers 1974; Williams 1966 5. “Renewing American Civilization,” a talk presented at Reinhardt College January.       emotions studied in 39–40 107–8 221 243 255 271–75       genetics. Also brain tissue is not some genie that can grant its owner any power that would come in handy It is a physical mechanism an arrangement matter that converts inputs to outputs in particular ways The idea that a single generic substance can see in depth control the hands attract a mate bring up children elude predators outsmart prey and so on without some degree specialization is not credible Saying that the brain solves these problems because its “plasticity” is not much better than saying it solves them by magic Still in this chapter I will examine the latest scientific objections to human nature carefully Each the discoveries is important on its own terms even if it does not support the extravagant conclusions that have been drawn And once the last supports for the Blank Slate have been evaluated I can properly sum up the scientific case for the alternative. Freeman D 1999 The fateful hoaxing Margaret Mead: A historical analysis her Samoan research Boulder Colo.: Westview Press Frith C 1992 The cognitive neuropsychology schizophrenia New York: Psychology Press Fry D 2000 Conflict management in cross–cultural perspective In F Aureli & F B M de Waal (Eds.) Natural conflict resolution Berkeley: University California Press Furchtgott–Roth D & Stolba C 1999 Women's figures: An illustrated guide to the economic progress women in America Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute Press Galileo G 1632/1967 Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems Berkeley: University California Press. A fifth idea: The mind is a complex system composed many interacting parts The psychologists who study emotions in different cultures have made another important discovery Candid facial expressions appear to be the same everywhere but people in some cultures learn to keep a poker face in polite A simple explanation is that the affect programs fire up facial expressions in the same way in all people but a separate system “display rules” governs when they can be shown  {40}  Trivers later wrote the attacks on sociobiology “Although some the attackers were prominent biologists the attack seemed intellectually feeble and lazy Gross errors in logic were permitted as long as they appeared to give some tactical advantage in the political struggle Because we were hirelings the dominant interests said these fellow hirelings the same interests we were their mouthpieces employed to deepen the [deceptions] with which the ruling elite retained their unjust advantage Although it follows from evolutionary reasoning that individuals will tend to argue in ways that are ultimately (sometimes unconsciously) self-serving it seemed a priori unlikely that evil should reside so completely in one set hirelings and virtue in the other.”22 What happens when a child loses a part the cortex in both hemispheres so neither hemisphere can take over the job the missing part in the other? If cortical regions are interchangeable plastic and organized by the input then an intact part the brain should take over the function the missing parts The child may be a bit slower because he is working with less brain tissue but he should develop a full complement human faculties But that is not what seems to happen Several decades ago neurologists studied a boy who suffered a temporary loss oxygen to the brain and lost both the standard language areas in the left hemisphere and their mirror images on the right Though he was just ten days old when he sustained the damage he grew into a child with permanent difficulties in speaking and Maynard Smith J 1975/1993 The theory evolution New York: Cambridge University Press Maynard Smith J & Szathmary E 1997 The major transitions in evolution New York: Oxford University Press Mayr E 1963 Animal species and evolution Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Mayr E 1982 The growth biological thought Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press McCauley C R 1995 Are streotypes exaggerated? A sampling racial gender academic occupational and political stereotypes In Y.–T Lee L J Jussim & C R McCauley (Eds.) Stereotype accuracy: Toward appreciating group differences Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association  {478}  Kagan and other developmentalists told reporters about the “many many good studies that show parents can affect how children turn out.” It is hard to read the passage and not think the current enthusiasm for proposals in which enlightened mandarins would reengineer childrearing the arts and the relationship between the sexes in an effort to build a better society Dystopian novels course work by grotesque exaggeration Any idea can be made to look terrifying in caricature even if it is reasonable in moderation I do not mean to imply that a concern with the interests society or in improving human relationships is a step toward totalitarianism But satire can show how popular ideologies may have forgotten downsides — in this case how the notion that language thought and emotions are social conventions  {428}  creates an opening for social engineers to try to reform them Once we become aware the downsides we no longer have to treat the ideologies as sacred cows to which factual discoveries must be subordinated. The most consequential episode in which belligerents sought a way to release their deadly embrace was the Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 when the United States discovered Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba and demanded that they be removed Khrushchev and Kennedy were both reminded the human costs the nuclear brink they were approaching Khrushchev by memories two world wars fought on his soil Kennedy by a graphic briefing the aftermath an atomic bomb And each understood they were in a Hobbesian trap Kennedy had just read The Guns August and saw how the leaders great nations could blunder into a pointless war Khrushchev wrote to Kennedy: 23. gould 1976a; Gould 1981; Gould 1998a; Lewontin 1992; Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984; Rose & Rose 2000; Rose 1997 24. In titles alone we find “determinism” in Gould 1976a; Rose 1997; Rose & the Dialectics Biology Group 1982; and four the nine chapters in Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984  {446}  25. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 236 26. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 5 27. Dawkins 1976/1989 p 164 28. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 11 29. Dawkins 1985 30. Lewontin Rose & Kamin. But there is still much to be wary in human moralizing: the confusion morality with status and purity the temptation to overmoralize matters judgment and thereby license aggression against those with whom we disagree the taboos on thinking about unavoidable tradefs and the ubiquitous vice self-deception which always manages to put the self on the side the angels Hitler was a moralist (indeed a moral vegetarian) who by most accounts was convinced the rectitude his cause As the historian Ian Buruma wrote “This shows once again that true believers can be more dangerous than cynical operators The latter might cut a deal; the former have to go to the end — and drag the world down with them.”18 ~ SO IF WE are put in this world to rise above nature how do we do it? Where in the causal chain evolved genes building a neural computer do we find a  {166}  chink into which we can fit the seemingly unmechanical event “choosing values”? By allowing for choice are we just inviting a ghost back into the machine? 16. “if the law supposes that the law is a ass — a idiot” (from Oliver Twist) 17. Quoted in Sowell 1995 p 11 18. Hayek 1976 19. This is a point contact with an alternative theory the psychological underpinnings the left-right divide proposed by the linguist George Lakf: that the left believes that government should act like a nurturant parent whereas the right believes it should act like a strict parent;. But love and solidarity are relative To say that people are more caring toward their relatives is to say that they are more callous toward their nonrelatives The epigraph to Robert Wright's book on evolutionary psychology is an excerpt from Graham Greene's The Power and the Glory in which the protagonist broods about his daughter: “He said ‘Oh god help her Damn me I deserve it but let her live forever.’ This was the love he should have felt for every soul in the world: all the fear and the wish to save concentrated unjustly on the one child He began to weep He thought: This is what I should feel all the time for everyone.” Actually the doctrine hyperreality contradicts the common view contemporary politics and entertainment as being a matter image and appearance The whole point the common view is that there is a reality separate from images and that is what allows us to decry the images that are misleading We can for example criticize an old movie that shows slaves leading happy lives or an ad that shows a corrupt politician pretending to defend the environment If there were no such thing as substantial content we would have no basis for preferring an accurate documentary about slavery to an apologia for it or preferring a good expose a politician to a slick campaign ad. And that covers only the immediate participants As Jong lamented elsewhere there are never just two people in bed They are always accompanied in their minds by parents former lovers and real and imagined rivals In other words third parties have an interest in the possible outcome a sexual liaison The romantic rivals the man or woman who are being cuckolded or rendered celibate or bereft by their act love have reasons to want to be in their places The interests third parties help us understand why sex is almost universally conducted in private Symons points out that because a man's reproductive success is strictly limited by his access to women in the minds men sex is always a rare commodity People may have sex in private for the same reason that people during a famine eat in private: to avoid inciting dangerous Why DO SECULAR thinkers fear that biology drains life meaning? It is because biology seems to deflate the values we most cherish If the reason we love our children is that a squirt oxytocin in the brain compels us to protect our genetic investment wouldn't the nobility parenthood be undermined and its sacrifices devalued? If sympathy trust and a yearning for justice evolved as a way to earn favors and deter cheaters wouldn't that imply that there are really no such things as altruism and justice for their own sake? We sneer at the philanthropist who prits from his donation because the tax savings the televangelist who thunders against sin but visits prostitutes the politician who defends the downtrodden only when the cameras are rolling and the sensitive new-age guy who backs feminism because it's a good way to attract women Evolutionary psychology seems to be saying that we are all such hypocrites all. For a decade feminists have drilled their disciples to say “Rape is a crime violence but not sex.” This sugar-coated Shirley Temple  {370}  nonsense has exposed young women to disaster Misled by feminism they do not expect rape from the nice boys from good homes who sit next to them. 28. bouchard 1994; Plomin & Daniels 1987; Rowe 1994; Turkheimer 2000; Turkheimer & Waldron 2000 29. Schutze 1987 30. B Singer “How to raise a perfect child ” Boston Globe Magazine Ma pp 12–36 31. D Barry “Is your kid's new best friend named ‘Bessie'? Be very afraid,” Miami Herald Octo 32. Harris 1998a chap 2; Lytton 1990 33. Harris 1998a chap 4; Harris 2000b 34. Harris 1998a pp 319–320 323 35. Harris 1998a; Harris 1998b; Harris 2000a; Harris 2000b. The social scientists who believed in an absolute separation culture from biology may not have literally believed in a spook haunting the brain Some used the analogy the difference between living and nonliving matter Kroeber wrote: “The dawn the social is not a link in any chain not a step in a path but a leap to another plane [It is like] the first occurrence life in the hitherto lifeless universe From this moment on there should be two worlds in place one.”52 And Lowie insisted that it was “not mysticism but sound scientific method” to say that culture was “sui generis” and could be explained only by culture because everyone knows that in biology a living cell can come only from another living  {29}  Birth order 389–90 “Black Male” art exhibit 217 411 Black Panthers 111 301 Blank Slate 11 17       origin. Godfray H C 1995 Evolutionary theory parent–fspring conflict Nature 376 133–138 Goguen J A E 1999 Special Issue on Art and the Brain Journal Consciousness Studies 6 Goldberg L R 1968 Simple models or simple processes? Some research on clinical judgments American Psychologist 23 483–496 Goldenberg J Mazursky D & Solomon S 1999 Creative sparks Science 285 1495–1496 Goldin C 1990 Understanding the gender gap: An economic history American workers New York: Oxford University Press Goleman D 1985 Vital lies simple truths: The psychology self–deception New York: Simon & Schuster Gombrich E 1982/1995 The sense order: A study in the psychology decorative art (2nd ed.) London: Phaidon Press. Van Buren Abigail 47 van Gogh Vincent 407 409–10 Vasquez John 323–24 Veblen Thorstein. 23. rose 1997 pp 7 309 24. Gould 1992 25. Hunt 1999 26. Quoted in J Salamon “A stark explanation for mankind from an unlikely rebel” (Review the PBS series “Evolution”) New York Times September 24,2001 27. D Wald “Intelligent design meets congressional designers,” Skeptic 8 2000 p 13 Lyrics from “Bad Touch” by the Bloodhound Gang 28. Quoted in D Falk “Design or chance?” Boston Globe Magazine October 21,2001 pp 14—23 quotation. Some PEOPLE HAVE suggested to me that these grandiloquent arguments are just too fancy for the dangerous world we live in Granted there is evidence that people are different but since data in the social sciences are never perfect and since a conclusion inequality might be used to the worst ends by bigots or Social Darwinists shouldn't we err on the side caution and stick with the null hypothesis that people are identical? Some believe that even if we were certain that people differ genetically we might still want to promulgate the fiction that they are the same because it is less open. In my view the consequences this background amorality were best worked out by Hobbes in Leviathan Unfortunately Hobbes's pithy phrase “nasty brutish and short” and his image an all-powerful leviathan keeping us from each other's throats have led people to misunderstand his argument Hobbes is commonly interpreted as proposing that man in a state nature was saddled with an irrational impulse for hatred and destruction In fact his analysis is more subtle and perhaps even more tragic for he showed how the dynamics violence fall out interactions among rational and self-interested agents Hobbes's analysis has been rediscovered by evolutionary biology game theory and social psychology and I will use it to organize my discussion the logic violence before turning to the ways in which humans deploy peaceable instincts to counteract their violent ones. As an object linguistic study "language" has two primary meanings: an abstract concept and a specific linguistic system e.g "French" The Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure who defined the modern discipline linguistics first explicitly formulated the distinction using the French word langage for language as a concept langue as a specific instance a language system and parole for the concrete usage speech in a particular language.[4]   Chapter 10 The Fear Determinism This chapter is not about the boo-word that is frequently (and inaccurately) hurled at any explanation a behavioral tendency that mentions evolution or genetics It is about determinism in its original sense the concept that is opposed to “free will” in introductory philosophy courses The fear determinism in this sense is captured in a limerick:   There was a young man who said: “Damn! It grieves me to think that I am Predestined to move In a circumscribed groove: In fact not a bus but a tram.”   Chomsky N 1993 Language and thought Wakefield R.I.: Moyer Bell Chomsky N 2000 New horizons in the study language and mind New York: Cambridge University Press Chorney M J Chorney K Seese N Owen M J McGuffin P Daniels J Thompson L A Detterman D K Benbow C P Lubinski D Eley T C & Plomin R 1998 A quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with cognitive ability in children Psychological Science 9 159–166 Chorover S L 1979 From genesis to genocide: The meaning human nature and the power behavior control Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Clahsen H 1999 Lexical entries and rules language: A multidisciplinary study German inflection Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22,991–1013. Mesquida C G & Wiener N I 1996 Human collective aggression: A behavioral ecology perspective Ethology and Sociobiology 17 247–262 Miller E E 1997 Could nonshared environmental variation have evolved to assure diversification through randomness? Evolution and Human Behavior 18 195–221 Miller E K 2000 The prefrontal cortex and cognitive control Nature Reviews Neuroscience 1 59–65 Miller G.A Galanter E & Pribram K.H 1960 Plans and the structure behavior New York: Adams–Bannister–Cox Miller G F 2000a The mating mind: How sexual choice shaped the evolution human nature New York: Doubleday Miller G F 2000b Sexual selection for indicators intelligence In G Bock J A Goode & K Webb (Eds.) The nature intelligence Chichester U.K.: Wiley. The brain is the coordinating center all linguistic activity; it controls both the production linguistic cognition and meaning and the mechanics speech production Nonetheless our knowledge the neurological bases for language is quite limited though it has advanced considerably with the use modern imaging techniques The discipline linguistics dedicated to studying the neurological aspects language is called neurolinguistics.[48]       culture and 38–39       morality and 271–72 The cruel joke continues when Herman learns that he has even more too much a good thing It turns out that his first wife survived the Nazi bullet and escaped to Russia; she has moved to New York and is staying with her pious elderly uncle and aunt Every Jew in the postwar period knows emotional reunions the survivors Holocaust-ravaged families but the reunion a husband and a wife whom he had given up for dead is a scene almost unimaginable poignancy Herman enters the apartment Reb Abraham: ABRAHAM: A miracle from heaven Broder a miracle Your wife has returned [Abraham leaves Tamara enters.] TAMARA: Hello Herman  {433}  HERMAN: I didn't know that you. One important problem with this explanation is that individuals may be able to evolve the capacity to obscure their reputation reducing the probability q that it will. There is in fact no incompatibility between the principles feminism and the possibility that men and women are not psychologically identical To repeat: equality is not the empirical claim that all groups humans are interchangeable; it is the moral principle that individuals should not be judged or constrained by the average properties their group In the case gender the barely defeated Equal Rights Amendment put it succinctly: “Equality Rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account sex.” If we recognize this principle no one has to spin myths about the indistinguishability the sexes to justify equality Nor should anyone invoke sex differences to justify discriminatory policies or to hector women into doing what they don't want. Critics have argued that evolutionary psychology might be used to justify existing social hierarchies and reactionary policies.[141][142] It has also been suggested by critics that evolutionary psychologists' theories and interpretations empirical data rely heavily on ideological assumptions about race and gender.[143] But intuitive essentialism can also lead people into Children falsely believe that a child English-speaking parents will speak English even if brought up in a French-speaking family and that boys will have short hair and girls will wear dresses even if they are brought up with no other member their sex from which they can learn those habits Traditional peoples believe in sympathetic magic otherwise known as voodoo They think similar-looking objects have similar powers so that a ground-up rhinoceros horn is a cure for erectile dysfunction And they think that animal parts can transmit their powers to anything they mingle with so that eating or wearing a part a fierce animal will make one fierce. Harris J R 2000a Research on child development: What we can learn from medical research Paper presented at the Children's Roundtable Brookings Institution Washington D.C September 28 Harris J R 2000b Socialization personality development and the child's environments: Comment on Vandell (2000) Developmental Psychology 36 711–723 Harris J R In press Personality and birth order: Explaining the differences between siblings Politics and the Life Sciences Harris M 1985 Good to eat: Riddles food and culture New York: Simon & Schuster Hartman J L Garvik B & Hartwell L 2001 Principles for the buffering genetic variation Science 291 1001–1004. Dworkin Andrea 171 365 Dworkin Ronald 288 Eagly Alice 309 Easterlin Nancy 417 Eastwood Clint 219 economics:       behavioral 256–58 302–4 Hitler was evil because he caused the deaths thirty million people and conceivable suffering to countless others not because his beliefs made reference to biology (or linguistics or nature or smoking or God) Smearing the guilt from his actions to every conceivable aspect his factual beliefs can only backfire Ideas are connected to other ideas and should any Hitler's turn out to have some grain truth — if races for example turn out to have any biological reality or if the Indo-Europeans really were a conquering tribe — we would not want to concede that Nazism wasn't so wrong. American Medical Association 311 American Psychological Association 311 American Revolution 296 Amnesty International 307 amygdala. What the available evidence does seem to show is that ideology or a philosophical belief that the world could be a freer and more just place played a large part in the shift from biology to culture Science or at least certain scientific principles or innovative scholarship also played a role in the transformation but only a limited one The main impetus came from the will to establish a social order in which innate and immutable forces biology played no role in accounting for the behavior social groups.7 Philosophy and Literature 415 physical fallacy 234 physics 30 137 239       intuitive 220 223 239 Picasso Pablo 409 Pindar 287 ~ THE TRUISM THAT all good things come with costs as well as benefits applies in full to the combinatorial powers the human mind If the mind is a biological organ rather than a window onto reality there should be truths that are literally inconceivable and limits to how well we can ever grasp the discoveries science. But beginning in the 1950s with the cognitive revolution all that changed It is now possible to make sense mental processes and even to study them in the lab And with a firmer grasp on the concept mind we can see that many tenets the Blank Slate that once seemed appealing are now unnecessary or even incoherent Here are five ideas from the cognitive revolution that have revamped how we think and talk. 14. mealey 1995 15. Gould 1998a p 262 16. Bamforth 1994; Chagnon 1996; Daly & Wilson 1988; Divale 1972; Edgerton 1992; Ember 1978; Ghiglieri 1999; Gibbons 1997; Keeley 1996; Kingdon 1993; Knauft 1987; Krech 1994; Krech 1999; Wrangham & Peterson 1996 17. Gould 1998a p 262 18. Gould 1998a p 265 19. Levins & Lewontin 1985 p 165 20. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p ix  {447}  21. Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 p 76 22. Lewontin Rose & Kamin. • victims rape are more traumatized when the rape can result in a conception It is most psychologically painful for women in their fertile years and for victims forced intercourse as opposed to other forms rape • Rapists are not demographically representative the male gender They are overwhelmingly young men the age the most intense sexual competitiveness The young males who allegedly have been “socialized” to rape mysteriously lose that socialization as they. Neill A S 222 neologisms 211–13 nepotism 245–46 253 294 Nesse Randolph 264       see also superorganism group selection 258–59 Group Socialization theory 390–98       public reaction to 392–95 Gulag Archipelago The (Solzhenitsyn) 157 guns 311 Guns Germs and Steel (Diamond) 68 Adventures of Huckleberry Finn The (Twain) 428–31 Aesop 256 Afghanistan. On strictly rational grounds the volatility sex is a paradox because in an era with contraception and women's rights these archaic entanglements should have no claim on our feelings We should be ziplessly loving the one we're with and sex should inspire no more gossip music fiction raunchy humor or strong emotions than eating or talking does The fact that people are tormented by the Darwinian economics babies they are no longer having is testimony to the long reach human nature  {255}  ~ WHAT ABOUT PEOPLE who are not tied by blood or children? No one doubts that human beings make sacrifices for people who are unrelated to them But they could do so in two different ways. It is not clear whether these worldly thinkers are really convinced that Darwinism is false or whether they think it is important for other people to believe it is false In a scene from Inherit the Wind the play about the Scopes Monkey Trial the prosecutor and defense attorney (based on William Jennings Bryan and Clarence Darrow) are relaxing together after a day in court The prosecutor says the Tennessee locals: They're simple people Henry; poor people They work hard and they need to believe in something something beautiful Why do you want to take it away from them? It's all they have That is not far from the attitude the neocons Kristol has written:  {131}  Never in my fifteen years as a science writer have I seen the subject I love so dearly abused so greatly What is so appalling here — quite aside from the laughable grasp family dynamics — is the misrepresentation science Science can never prove what percentage personality is caused by upbringing By suggesting that it can and does he invites us to see scientists as at best naïve and at worst fascistic It is precisely this kind claim that in my opinion is giving science a bad name and is helping to fuel a significant backlash against Soul 8–9 10 28–29 31 133 186–87 224–27 243 293       see also Ghost in the Machine Barkley R A Ullman D G Otto L & Brecht J M 1977 The effects sex typing and sex appropriateness modeled behavior on children's imitation Child Development 48 721–725 Barkow J H Cosmides L & Tooby J 1992 The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation culture New York: Oxford University Press Baron–Cohen S 1995 Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory mind Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Barry D 1995 Dave Barry's complete guide to guys New York: Ballantine Barsky R F 1997 Noam Chomsky: A life dissent Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Barthes R 1972 To write: An intransitive verb? In R Macksey & E Donato (Eds.) The languages criticism and the science man: The structuralist controversy Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.       anatomy 44       art and 405 412       cognitive neuroscience and 41–45       complexity 197       corpus callosum severed. The dominant theories elite art and criticism in the twentieth century grew out a militant denial human nature One legacy is ugly baffling and insulting art The other is pretentious and unintelligible scholarship And they're surprised that people are staying away in droves? ~       chapter 6 Political Scientists 105       Chapter 7 The Holy Trinity 121   PART III Human Nature with a Human Face 137       Chapter 8 The Fear Inequality 141 This is Harris's explanation the elusive environmental shaper personality which she calls Group Socialization theory It's not all in the genes but what isn't in the genes isn't from the parents either Socialization — acquiring the norms and skills necessary to function in society — takes place in the peer group Children have cultures too which absorb parts the adult culture and also develop values and norms their own Children do not spend their waking hours trying to become better and better approximations adults They strive to be better and better children ones that function well in their ownsociety It is in this crucible that our personalities are formed. Rose H & Rose S (Eds.) 2000 Alas poor Darwin! Arguments against evolutionary psychology New York: Harmony Books Rose S 1978 Pre–Copernican sociobiology? New Scientist 80 45–46 Rose S 1997 Lifelines: Biology beyond determinism New York: Oxford University Press Rose S & the Dialectics of Biology Group 1982 Against biological determinism London: Allison & Busby Rosen S 1992 War power and the willingness to suffer In J A Vasquez & M T Henehan (Eds.) The scientific study of peace and war: A text reader New York: Lexington Books. Among the Jivaro head-hunting was a ritual obligation all males and a required male initiation for teenagers There too most men died in  {117}  war Among the Jivaro leaders however those who captured the most heads had the fewest wives and those who had the most wives captured the fewest The author the anthropologist Elsa Redmond had actually written: Here is the analysis that preceded the famous “life man” passage: So that in the nature man we find three principal causes quarrel First competition; secondly diffidence; thirdly glory The first maketh men invade for gain; the second for safety; and the third for reputation The first use violence to make themselves masters other men's persons wives children and cattle; the second to defend them; the third for trifles as a word a smile a different opinion and any other sign undervalue either direct in their persons or by reflection in their kindred their friends their nation their pression. Wilson E O 30 108–12. Harris Marvin 63–64 “Harrison Bergeron” (Vonnegut) 424–25 Harvey William 30 Hatch Orrin 226 Hausman Patti 352 353 Hawaiian language 14–15 90. hobbes 1651/1957 p 190 91. Hobbes 1651/1957 p 223 92. Fry 2000 93. Daly & Wilson 1988; Keeley 1996 94. Daly & Wilson 1988; Nisbett & Cohen 1996 95. Daly&Wilson 1988 96. Daly&Wilson 1988 97. Wilson & Herrnstein 1985 98. L Helmuth “Has America's tide violence receded for good?” Science 289 2000; Kelling&Sousa 2001 99. Time October 17,1969 p 47 100. Kennedy 1997.   THE VOICE THE SPECIES The Blank Slate was an attractive vision It promised to make racism sexism and class prejudice factually untenable It appeared to be a bulwark against the kind thinking that led to ethnic genocide It aimed to prevent people from slipping into a premature fatalism about preventable social ills It put a spotlight on the treatment children indigenous peoples and the underclass The Blank Slate thus became part a secular faith and appeared to constitute the common decency. The other moral doctrine (which is found in some but not all Christian denominations) is that the soul enters the body at conception and leaves it at death thereby defining who is a person with a right to life The doctrine makes abortion euthanasia and the harvesting stem cells from blastocysts equivalent to murder It makes humans fundamentally different from animals And it makes human cloning a violation the divine order All this would seem to be threatened by neuroscientists who say that the self or the soul inheres in neural activity that develops gradually in the brain an embryo that can be {130}  seen in the brains animals and that can break down piecemeal with aging and disease (We will return to this issue in Chapter 13.) Frank Robert 259 276 303 Franklin Benjamin 168 Frazer James George 230 Freedman Jonathan 311 Freeman Derek 56 115 free–rider problem. Thornhill R & Palmer C T 2001 Rape and evolution: A reply to our critics (Preface to the paperback ed.) A natural history rape: Biological bases sexual coercion (paperback ed.) Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Tierney P 2000 Darkness in El Dorado: How scientists and journalists devastated the Amazon New York: Norton Tinbergen N 1952 Derived activities: Their causation biological significance origin and emancipation during evolution Quarterly Review Biology 27 1–32 Tomasello M 1999 The cultural origins human cognition Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Tong R 1998 Feminist thought: A more comprehensive introduction (2nd ed.) Boulder Colo.: West–view Press. Though no one can prove that Neel and Chagnon did not inadvertently introduce the disease in other places by their very presence the odds are strongly against it The Yanomamö who are spread out over tens thousands square miles had many more contacts with other Europeans than they did with Chagnon or Neel because thousands missionaries traders miners and adventurers move through the area Indeed Chagnon himself had documented that a Catholic Salesian missionary was the likely source an earlier outbreak Together with Chagnon's criticism the mission for providing the Yanomamö with shotguns this earned him the missionaries’ undying enmity Not coincidentally most Tierney's Yanomamö informants were associated with the mission. How could language exert this stranglehold? It would if words and phrases were the medium thought itself an idea that falls naturally out the Blank Slate If there is nothing in the intellect that was not first in the senses then words picked up by the ears are the obvious source any abstract thought that cannot be reduced to sights smells or other sounds Watson tried to explain thinking as microscopic movements the mouth and throat; Skinner hoped his 1957 book Verbal Behavior which explained language as a repertoire rewarded responses would bridge the gap between pigeons and people. Finally think about the humanity the picture that the gender-feminist theory has painted As the equity feminist Wendy McElroy points out the theory holds that “even the most loving and gentle husband father and son is a beneficiary the rape women they love No ideology that makes such vicious accusations against men as a class can heal any wounds It can only provoke hostility in return.”86  {364}  ~ BROWNMILLER ASKED A revealing rhetorical question: Clemenceau Georges 287 Clinton Bill 179 211 312 353 386 Clinton Hillary 179–80.       concept 9–10 31–34       dualism and 8–9 10 223–27 62. quoted in J Leo “Parenting without a care,” US News and World Report September 21,1998 63. S Begley “The parent trap,” Newsweek September 7,1998 p 54 64. S Begley “The parent trap,” Newsweek September 7,1998 p 54 65. J Kagan “A parent's influence is peerless,” Boston Globe September 13,1998 p E3 66. Harris 1998b; Harris 2000a; Harris 2000b; Loehlin 2001; Rowe 2001 67. See also Miller 1997 68. Austad 2000; Finch & Kirkwood 2000 69. Hartman Garvik & Hartwell 2001; Waddington 1957. Yet another sees language as a system communication that enables humans to exchange verbal or symbolic utterances This stresses the social functions language and the fact that humans use it to express themselves and to manipulate objects in their environment Functional theories grammar explain grammatical structures by their communicative functions and understand the grammatical structures language to be the result an adaptive process by which grammar was "tailored" to serve the communicative needs. If you don't believe this consider the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans which has about 18,000 genes By the logic the genome editorialists it should be twice as free be twice as diverse and have twice as much potential as a human being In fact it is a microscopic worm composed 959 cells grown by a rigid genetic program with a nervous system consisting exactly 302 neurons in a fixed wiring diagram As far as behavior is concerned it eats mates approaches and avoids certain smells and that's about it This alone should make it obvious that our freedom and diversity behavior come from having a complex biological makeup not a simple one. One can extend the range the human aesthetic even further The Lascaux cave paintings crafted in the late old Stone Age continue to dazzle viewers in the age the Internet The faces Nefertiti and Botticelli's Venus could appear on the cover a twenty-first-century fashion magazine The plot the hero myth found in countless traditional cultures was transplanted effectively into the Star Wars saga Western museum collectors plundered the prehistoric treasures Africa Asia and the Americas not to add to the ethnographic record but because their patrons found the works beautiful to. Deutsch M & Gerard G B 1955 A study normative and informational social influence upon individual judgment Journal Abnormal and Social Psychology 51 629–636 Devlin K 2000 The math gene: How mathematical thinking evolved and why numbers are like gossip New York: Basic Books Diamond J 1992 The third chimpanzee: The evolution and future the human animal New York: HarperCollins Diamond J 1997 Guns germs and steel: The fates human societies New York: Norton Diamond J 1998 Why is sex fun? The evolution human sexuality New York: Basic Books Diamond M & Sigmundson K 1997 Sex reassignment at birth: Long–term review and clinical implications Archives Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 252 298–304. None this means that nonrelatives are ruthlessly competitive toward one another only that they are not as spontaneously cooperative as kin And ironically for all this talk solidarity and sympathy and common blood we shall soon see that families are not such harmonious units either ~ Godfather The 182 Godwin William 11 287 288 Gfman Erving 264 Goldberg Tiffany E 178 Goldblum. A blank sheet paper has no blotches and so the newest and most beautiful words can be written on it the newest and most beautiful pictures can be painted on it — Mao Zedong46 And we find it in a saying a political movement that killed a quarter its countrymen: Only the newborn baby is spotless — Khmer Rouge slogan47 Unless people treat other members society the way they treat their own children the answer is a non sequitur: people could care deeply about their children but feel differently about the millions other people who make up society The very framing the question and answer assumes that humans are competitive or sympathetic across the board rather than having different emotions toward people with whom they have different genetic relationships. The Blank Slate is not some ideal that we should all hope and pray is true No it is an anti-life anti-human theoretical abstraction that denies our common humanity our inherent interests and our individual preferences Though it has pretensions celebrating our potential it does the opposite because our potential comes from the combinatorial interplay wonderfully complex faculties not from the passive blankness an empty tablet. ~ THERE ARE MANY reasons to believe that violence in humans is not literally a sickness or poisoning but part our design Before presenting them let me allay two fears. {315}  The first fear is that examining the roots violence in human nature consists reducing violence to the bad genes violent individuals with the unsavory implication that ethnic groups with higher rates violence must have more. 2. dickinson 1976 3. Vonnegut 1968/1998 4. Orwell 1949/1983 p 205 5. For example Gould 1981; Lewontin Rose & Kamin 1984 pp ix–x  {460}  6. Orwell 1949/1983 p 217 7. Orwell 1949/1983 p 220 8. Orwell 1949/1983 p 220 9. Orwell 1949/1983 p 222 10. Twain 1884/1983 pp 293–295 11. Twain 1884/1983 p 295 12. Twain 1884/1983 pp 330–331. • a mental database and logic which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones It is based on assertions about what's what what's where or who did what to whom when where and why The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as and or not all some necessary possible and cause.8 • Language which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic It is based on a mental dictionary memorized words and a mental grammar combinatorial rules The rules organize vowels and consonants into words words into bigger words and phrases and phrases into sentences in such a way that the meaning the combination can be computed from the meanings the parts and the way they are arranged.9 20. brown 1985 p 595 21. Jussim & Eccles 1995; Smith Jussim & Eccles 1999 22. Flynn 1999; Loury 2002; Valian 1998 23. Galileo 1632/1967 p 105 24. Whorf 1956 25. Geertz 1973 p 45 26. Quotations from Lehman 1992 27. Barthes 1972 p 135 28. Pinker 1994 chap 3 29. Pinker 1984a 30. Lakf& Johnson 1980 31. Jackendf 1996 32. Baddeley 1986. Crews E 2001 Saving us from Darwin New York Review Books October 4 and October 18 Crick F 1994 The astonishing hypothesis: The scientific search for the soul New York: Simon & Schuster Crick F & Koch C 1995 Are we aware neural activity in primary visual cortex? Nature 375 121–123 Crittenden D 1999 What our mothers didn't tell us: Why happiness eludes the modern woman New York: Simon & Schuster Cronin H 1992 The ant and the peacock New York: Cambridge University Press Cronk L 1999 That complex whole: Culture and the evolution human behavior Boulder Colo.: Westview Press Cronk L Chagnon N & Irons W (Eds.) 2000 Adaptation and human behavior Hawthorne N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter. In this chapter I will lay out an alternative to the belief that culture is like a lottery Culture can be seen instead as a part the human phenotype: the distinctive design that allows us to survive prosper and perpetuate our lineages Humans are a knowledge-using cooperative species and culture emerges naturally from that lifestyle To preview: The phenomena we call “culture” arise as people pool and accumulate their discoveries and as they institute conventions to coordinate their labors and adjudicate their conflicts When groups people separated by time and geography accumulate different discoveries and conventions we use the plural and call them cultures Different cultures then don't come from different kinds genes — Boas and his heirs were right about that — but they don't live in a separate world or stamp a shape onto formless minds either. In Canada: Please write to Penguin Books Canada Ltd 10 Atom Avenue Suite 300 Toronto Ontario M4V 3B2 In Australia: Please write to Penguin Books Australia Ltd P.O Box 257 Ringwood Victoria 3134 In New Zealand: Please write to Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd Private Bag 102902 North Shore Mail Centre Auckland 10 In India: Please write to Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd 11 Panchsheel Shopping Centre Panchsheel Park New Delhi 110 017 In the Netherlands: Please write to Penguin Books Netherlands bv Postbus 3507 NL-1001 AH Amsterdam In Germany: Please write to Penguin Books Deutschland GmbH Metzlerstra4 Frankfurt. Chomsky Noam 35 36 37–38 55 70 71 146–47 246–47 255 300–301 76. axelrod 1984; Brown 1991; Ridley 1997; Wright 2000 77. Brown 1991   Chapter 4: Culture Vultures   1. Borges 1964 p 30 2. Pinker 1984a 3. Boyer 1994; Hirschfeld & Gelman 1994; Norenzayan & Atran in press; Schaller & Crandall in press; Sperber 1994; Talmy 2000; Tooby & Cosmides 1992 4. Adams et al 2000 5. Tomasello 1999 6. Baron-Cohen 1995; Karmilf-Smith et al 1995 7. Rapin,2001. By introducing a distinction between diachronic and synchronic analyses language he laid the foundation the modern discipline linguistics Saussure also introduced several basic dimensions linguistic analysis that are still fundamental in many contemporary linguistic theories such as the distinctions between syntagm and paradigm and the Langue-parole distinction distinguishing language as an abstract system (langue) from language as a concrete manifestation this system (parole).[43] Nonetheless every society must operate with a theory human nature and our intellectual mainstream is committed to another one The theory is seldom articulated or overtly embraced but it lies at the heart a vast number beliefs and policies Bertrand Russell wrote “Every man wherever he goes is encompassed by a cloud comforting convictions which move with him like flies on a summer day.” For intellectuals today many those convictions are about psychology and social relations I will refer to those convictions as the Blank Slate: the idea that the human mind has no inherent structure and can be inscribed at will by society or ourselves. The FINAL THEME I wish to reprise is that the human tragedy lies in the partial conflicts of interest that are inherent to all human relationships I suppose I could illustrate it with just about any great work of fiction An immortal literary text expresses “all the principal constants of conflict in the condition of man,” wrote George Steiner about Antigone; “Ordinary people experiencing friction on the page is what warms our hands and hearts as we write,” observed John Updike But one novel caught my eye by flaunting the idea in its title: Isaac Bashevis Singer's Enemies A Love  {432}  3.  . /persci/high/gallery 4.  . /persci/high/gallery 5. From the computer scientist Oliver Selfridge; reproduced in Neisser 1967 6. Brown 1991 7. Brown 1985; Lee Jussim & McCauley 1995 8. “Phony science wars” (Review Ian Hacking's The social construction what?) Atlantic Monthly November 1999 9. Hacking 1999 10. Searle 1995. This book is for people who wonder where the taboo against human nature came from and who are willing to explore whether the challenges to the taboo are truly dangerous or just unfamiliar It is for those who are curious about the emerging portrait our species and curious about the legitimate criticisms that portrait It is for those who suspect that the taboo against human nature has left us playing without a full deck as we deal with the pressing issues confronting us And it is for those who recognize that the sciences  {xii}  mind brain genes and evolution are permanently changing our view ourselves and wonder whether the values we hold precious will wither survive or (as I argue) be enhanced ~ 58. j Alper “The pipeline is leaking women all the way along,” Science 260 April 16,1993; J Mervis “Efforts to boost diversity face persistent problems,” Science 284 June 11,1999; J Mervis “Diversity: Easier said than done,” Science 289 March 16,2000; J Mervis “NSF searches for right way to help women,” Science 289 July 21,2000; J Mervis “Gender equity: NSF program targets institutional change,” Science 291 J 59. J Mervis “Efforts to boost diversity face persistent problems,” Science 284 J p 1757 60. P Healy “Faculty shortage: Women in sciences,” Boston Globe January 31,2001. The LAYPERSON'S INTUITIVE psychology or “theory mind” is one the brain's most striking abilities We do not treat other people as wind-up dolls but think them as being animated by minds: nonphysical entities we cannot see or touch but that are as real to us as bodies and objects Aside from  {224}  allowing us to predict people's behavior from their beliefs and desires our theory mind is tied to our ability to empathize and to our conception life and death The difference between a dead body and a living one is that a dead body no longer contains the vital force we call a mind Our theory mind is the source the concept the soul The ghost in the machine is deeply rooted in our way thinking about people. Quantum mechanics 239 Quartz Stephen 84 Quayle Dan 394 races:       possibility genetic differences among 6 15–18 67–69 107 143–44 Which parts the brain actually use this auto-installation technique is another matter The visual system does not appear to need the technique to grow topographically organized wiring; a rough topographic map develops under the direct control the genes Some neuroscientists believe that the fire-together-wire-together technique may still be used to make the maps more precise or to segregate the inputs from the two That too has been challenged but let us assume it is correct and see what. 23. fischf 1999; Freedman 1984; Freedman 1996; Freedman 2002; Renfrew 1997 24. Charlton 1997 25. J Q Wilson “Hostility in America,” New Republic August 25,1997 pp 38–41 26. Nisbett& Cohen 1996 27. E Marshal “The shots heard ‘round the world,” Science 289 2000 pp 570–574 28. Wakefield 1992 29. M Enserink “Searching for the mark Cain,” Science 289 2000 pp 575–579; quotation from p 579 30. Clark 1970 p 220 31. Daly & Wilson 1988.       multiple 219 Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war as is of every man against every man In such condition there is no place for industry because the fruit thereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; no navigation nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea; no commodious building; no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of the earth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and which is worst of all continual fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man solitary poor nasty brutish. On this view one function sensory thalamus or cortex is to perform certain stereotypical operations on input regardless modality [vision hearing or touch]; the specific type sensory input course provides the substrate information that is transmitted and processed If the normal organization central auditory structures is not altered or at least not altered significantly by visual input then we might expect some operations similar to those we observe on visual inputs in operated ferrets to be carried out as well in the auditory pathway in normal ferrets In other words the animals with visual inputs induced into the auditory pathway provide a different window on some the same operations that should occur normally in auditory thalamus and “steven Pinker has written an extremely good book — clear well argued fair learned tough witty humane stimulating I only hope that people study it carefully before rising up ideologically against him If they do they will see that the idea an innately flawed but wonderfully rich human nature is a force for good not evil — Colin McGinn The Washington Post  

Haidt Jonathan 270 272 273 Haldane J B S 153 Halpern Diane 121 342 Hamilton Alexander. ~ VISUAL PERCEPTION is the most piquant form knowledge the world but relativists are less concerned with how we see objects than with how we categorize them: how we sort our experiences into conceptual categories like birds tools and people The seemingly innocuous suggestion that the categories the mind correspond to something in reality became a contentious idea in the twentieth century because some categories — stereotypes race gender ethnicity and sexual orientation — can be harmful when they are used to discriminate or oppress. Not so fast Behavioral genetics allows us to distinguish two very different ways in which our environments might affect The shared environment is what impinges on us and our siblings alike: our parents our home life and our neighborhood (as compared with other parents and neighborhoods in the sample) The nonshared or unique environment is everything else: anything that impinges on one sibling but not another including parental favoritism (Mom always liked you best) the presence the other siblings unique  {379}  experiences like falling f a bicycle or being infected by a virus and for that matter anything that happens to us over the course our lives that does not necessarily happen to our siblings. “a brilliant and forceful summary A well-informed and well-written account [human] limitations [written with] a graceful interleaving scientific and literary sources [This] fine book helps with a task that we all must begin to take seriously Can it be that we have finally grown up?” — Melvin Konner The American Prospect   “This is a brilliant book It is beautifully written and addresses pround issues with courage and clarity There is nothing else like it and it is going to have an impact that extends well beyond the scientific academy.” — Paul Bloom Trends in Cognitive Sciences   United States. 13. gilligan 1982 14. Jaffe & Hyde 2000; Sommers 1994 chap 7; Walker 1984 15. Belenkyetal 1986 16. Denfeld 1995; Kaminer 1990; Lehrman 1997; McElroy 1996; Paglia 1992; Patai 1998; Patai & Koertge 1994; Sommers 1994; Taylor 1992; Young 1999 17. Sommers 1994 18. Denfeld 1995; Lehrman 1997; Roiphe 1993; Walker 1995 19. S Boxer “One casualty the women's movement: Feminism,” New York Times Decem 20. C Paglia “Crying wolf,” Salon February 7,2001 21. Patai 1998; Sommers 1994. If behavioral genetic studies show no lasting effects the home and  {386}  studies parenting practices are uninformative what about studies that compare radically different childhood milieus? The results again are bracing Decades studies have shown that all things being equal children turn out pretty much the same way whether their mothers work or stay at home whether they are placed in daycare or not whether they have siblings or are only children whether their parents have a conventional or an open whether they grow up in an Ozzie-and-Harriet home or a hippie commune whether their conceptions were planned were accidental or took place in a test tube and whether they have two parents the same sex. Margaret Mead and Samoa (Freeman) 115 Marr David 70 405 Martindale. 40. sharpe 1994 41. Cosmides & Tooby 1996; Gigerenzer 1991; Gigerenzer 1997; Pinker 1997 chap 5 42. Hfrage et al 2000; Tversky & Kahneman 1973 43. Slovic Fisch & Lichtenstein 1982 44. Tooby & DeVore 1987 45. Fiske 1992 46. Cosmides & Tooby 1992 47. Sowell 1980 48. SoweU 1980; Sowell 1996 49. Sowell 1994; Sowell 1996 50. R Radford (writing in 1945) quoted in Sowell. Fodor Jerry 35 80 folk psychology see theory mind Food and Drug Act (1958) 278 Forster E M 296 Foucault Michel 415 416 Fox–Genovese Elizabeth 342 Discrimination — in the sense using a statistically predictive trait an individual's group to make a decision about the individual — is not always  {148}  immoral or at least we don't always treat it as immoral To predict someone's behavior perfectly we would need an X-ray machine for the soul Even predicting someone's behavior with the tools we do have — such as tests interviews background checks and recommendations — would require unlimited resources if we were to use them to the fullest Decisions that have to be made with finite time and resources and which have high costs for certain kinds errors must use some trait as a basis for judging a person And that necessarily judges the person according to a stereotype. A surprising number intellectuals particularly on the left do deny that there is such a thing as inborn talent especially intelligence Stephen Jay Gould's 1981 bestseller The Mismeasure Man was written to debunk “the abstraction intelligence as a single entity its location within the brain its quantification as one number for each individual and the use these numbers to rank people in a single series worthiness invariably to find that oppressed and disadvantaged groups — races classes or sexes — are innately inferior and deserve their status.”18 The philosopher Hilary Putnam argued that the concept intelligence is part a social theory called “elitism” that is specific to capitalist societies: Redmond E 1994 Tribal and chiefly warfare in South America Ann Arbor: University Michigan Museum Reed T E & Jensen A R 1992 Conduction velocity in a brain nerve pathway normal adults correlates with intelligence level Intelligence 17 191–203 Reeve H K 2000 Review Sober & Wilson's “Unto others.” Evolution and Human Behavior 21 65–72 Reiner W G 2000 Cloacal exstrophy Paper presented at the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society Boston Reiss D Neiderhiser J M Hetherington E M & Plomin R 2000 The relationship code: Deciphering genetic and social influences on adolescent development Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Renfrew J W 1997 Aggression and its causes: A biopsychosocial approach New York: Oxford University Press. Pryor was not course denying the inequities that continue to put disproportionate numbers African Americans in prison He was only contrasting the common sense ordinary people with the romanticism intellectuals — and perhaps exposing their condescending attitude that poor people can't be expected to refrain from murder and that they should not be alarmed by the murderers in. 36. harris 1998a chaps 2 3; Maccoby & Martin 1983 37. Harris 1998a pp 300–311 38. Bruer 1999 p 5 39. Chabris 1999 40. T B Brazelton “To curb teenage smoking nurture children in their earliest years,” Boston Globe May 21,1998 41. Bruer 1999 42. Collins et al 2000; Vandell 2000 43. Harris 1995; Harris 1998b; Harris 2000b; Loehlin 2001; Rowe 2001 44. Plomin DeFries & Fulker 1988; Reiss et al 2000; Turkheimer & Waldron 2000.       genetics and 49 90–94 98       hemispheres 43 99       inhibition. The Blank Slate has also served as a sacred scripture for political and ethical beliefs According to the doctrine any differences we see among races ethnic groups sexes and individuals come not from differences in their innate constitution but from differences in their experiences Change the experiences — by reforming parenting education the media and social rewards — and you can change the person Underachievement poverty and antisocial behavior can be ameliorated; indeed it is irresponsible not to do so And discrimination on the basis purportedly inborn traits a sex or ethnic group is simply irrational ~ Gould Stephen Jay 109 111 114 122 124–25 127 132 133 149 162–63 Gowaty Patricia 342 If the reader is now convinced that either the genetic or environmental explanation has won out to the exclusion the other we have not done a sufficiently good job presenting one side or the other It seems highly likely to us that both genes and environment have something to do with this issue What might the mix be? We are resolutely agnostic on that issue; as far as we can determine the evidence does not yet justify an estimate This is not going to be one those books that says everything is genetic: it isn't The environment is just as important as the genes The things children experience while they are growing up are just as important as the things they are. African Americans 17 107 108 217 263 298 328–29 African Queen The 163 Against Our Will (Brownmiller) 361–62 People DO MORE for their fellows than return favors and punish cheaters They ten perform generous acts without the slightest hope for payback ranging from leaving a tip in a restaurant they will never visit again to throwing themselves on a live grenade to save their brothers in arms Trivers together with the economists Robert Frank and Jack Hirshleifer has pointed out that pure magnanimity can evolve in an environment people seeking to discriminate fair-weather friends from loyal Signs heartfelt loyalty and generosity serve as guarantors one's promises reducing a partner's worry that you will default on them The best way to convince a skeptic that you are trustworthy and generous is to be trustworthy and generous. Benjamin J Li L Patterson C Greenberg B D Murphy D L & Hamer D H 1996 Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures novelty Genetics 12 81–84 Berent I Pinker S & Shimron J 1999 Default nominal inflection in Hebrew: Evidence for mental variables Cognition 72 1–44 Berlin I 1996 The sense reality: Studies in ideas and their history New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux Berra T M 1990 Evolution and the myth creationism Stanford Calif.: Stanford University Press Besancon A 1981 The intellectual origins Leninism Oxford: Basil Blackwell Besancon A 1998 Forgotten communism Commentary 24–27. Nor does innate organization stop at apprehending the physical structure of the world It also colors our visual experience with universal emotions and aesthetic pleasures Young children prefer calendar landscapes to pictures of deserts and forests and babies as young as three months old gaze longer at a pretty face than at a plain Babies prefer consonant musical intervals over dissonant ones and two-year-olds embark on a lifetime of composing and appreciating narrative fiction when they engage in pretend Linguists use the term "varieties" to refer to the different ways speaking a language This term includes geographically or socioculturally defined dialects as well as the jargons or styles subcultures Linguistic anthropologists and sociologists language define communicative style as the ways that language is used and understood within a particular culture.[105] But with other aspects of our mental life particularly in the social realm the function of a faculty is not so easy to guess Natural selection favors organisms that are good at reproducing in some environment When the environment consists of rocks grass and snakes it's fairly obvious which strategies work and which ones don't But when the relevant environment consists of other members of the species evolving their own strategies it is not so obvious In the game of evolution is it better to be monogamous or polygamous? Gentle or aggressive? Cooperative or selfish? Indulgent with children or stern with them? Optimistic pragmatic or pessimistic? Thornhill Randy viii 161 176 359–69 thought language and 207–11 “Thousand and One Nights The “ 419 Thucydides 322 Tierney Patrick 115–19 If we are to believe the pessimists the decline has been going on for some time In 1948 T S Eliot wrote “We can assert with some confidence that our own period is one decline; that the standards culture are lower than they were fifty years ago; and that the evidences this decline are visible in every department human activity.”15  {401}  But the picture does not embrace just any theory or discovery Conceivably scientists might discover that there is insufficient information in the genome to specify any innate circuitry or no known mechanism by which it could be wired into the brain Or perhaps they will discover that brains are made out general-purpose stuff that can soak up just about any pattern in the sensory input and organize itself to accomplish just about any goal The former discovery would make innate organization impossible; the latter would make it unnecessary Those discoveries would call into question the very concept human nature Unlike the moral and political objections to the concept human nature (objections that I discuss in the rest this book) these would be scientific objections If such discoveries are on the horizon I had better look at them carefully. It is by virtue his spiritual soul that the whole person possesses such a dignity even in his body If the human body take its origin  {187}  from pre-existent living matter the spiritual soul is immediately created by God Consequently theories evolution which in accordance with the philosophies inspiring them consider the spirit as emerging from the forces living matter or as a mere epiphenomenon this matter are incompatible with the truth about man Nor are they able to ground the dignity the person. Montagu A 1973b The new litany “innate depravity,” or original sin revisited In Man and aggression New York: Oxford University Press Moore G E 1903/1996 Principia ethica New York: Cambridge University Press Mount F 1992 The subversive family: An alternative history love and New York: Free Press Mousseau T A & Rf D A 1987 Natural selection and the heritability fitness components Heredity 59 181–197 Muravchik J 2002 Heaven on Earth: The rise and fall socialism San Francisco: Encounter Books Murdoch I 1993 Metaphysics as a guide to morals London: Allen Lane Murphy J P M 1999 Hitler was not an atheist Free Inquiry Spring 9 Nagel T 1970 The possibility altruism Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press. This chapter is about the intellectual connections between the sciences human nature and the political rift between right-wing and left-wing political  {284}  philosophies The connection is not a secret As philosophers have long noted the two sides are not just political belief systems but empirical ones rooted in different conceptions human nature Small wonder that the sciences human nature have been so explosive Evolutionary psychology behavioral genetics and some parts cognitive neuroscience are widely seen as falling on the political right which in a modern university is about the worst thing you can say about something No one can make sense the controversies surrounding mind brain genes and evolution without understanding their alignment with ancient political fault lines E O Wilson learned this. 28. marx &Engels 1844/1988 29. Quoted in Singer 1999 p 4 30. Bullock 1991; Chirot 1994; Conquest 2000; Courtois et al 1999; Glover 1999 31. Quoted in J Getlin “Natural wonder: At heart Edward Wilson's an ant man,” Los Angeles Times; Octo p El 32. Federalist Papers No 51 Rossiter 1961 p 322 33. Bailyn 1967/1992; Maier 1997 34. Lutz 1984 35. McGinnis 1996; McGinnis 1997 36. Federalist Papers No 10 Rossiter 1961 p 78 37. Quoted in McGinnis. Huck met up with the culture honor on two occasions in quick succession The first was when he stowed away on a barge manned by a “rough-looking lot” hard-drinking men After one them was about to belt out the fifteenth verse a raunchy song an altercation relatively trivial origin broke out and two men squared f. Frank R H Gilovich T & Regan D 1993 The evolution one–shot cooperation: An experiment Ethology and Sociobiology 14 247–256 Frazer J G 1890/1996 The golden bough New York: Simon & Schuster Freedman J L 1984 Effect television violence on aggressiveness Psychological Bulletin 96 227–246 Freedman J L 1996 Violence in the mass media and violence in society: The link is unproven Harvard Mental Health Letter 12 4–6 Freedman J L 2002 Media violence and aggression: No evidence for a connection Toronto: University Toronto Press Freeman D 1983 Margaret Mead and Samoa: The making and unmaking an anthropological myth Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press. Many these things can have harmful consequences course and no one would want them trivialized The question is whether they are best handled by the psychology moralization (with its search for villains elevation accusers and mobilization authority to mete out punishment) or in terms costs and benefits prudence and risk or good and bad taste Pollution for example is ten treated as a crime defiling the sacred as in the song by the rock group Traffic: “Why don't we try to save this land and make a promise not to hurt again this holy ground.” This can be contrasted with the attitude economists like Robert Frank who (alluding to the costs cleanups) said “There is an optimal amount pollution in the environment just as there is an optimal amount dirt in your house.” When people have different ideas about which these four modes interacting applies to a current relationship the result can range from blank incomprehension to acute discomfort or outright hostility Think about a dinner guest fering to pay the host for her meal a person barking an order to a friend or an employee helping himself to a shrimp f the boss's plate Misunderstandings in which one person thinks a transaction in terms Equality Matching and another thinks in terms Market Pricing are even more pervasive and can be even more dangerous They tap into very different psychologies one them intuitive and universal the other rarefied and learned and clashes between them have been common in economic history. Our theory human nature is the wellspring much in our lives We consult it when we want to persuade or threaten inform or deceive It advises us on how to nurture our s bring up our children and control our own behavior Its assumptions about learning drive our educational policy; its assumptions about motivation drive our policies on economics law and crime And because it delineates what people can achieve easily what they can achieve only with sacrifice or pain and what they cannot achieve at all it affects our values: what we believe we can reasonably strive for as individuals and as a society Rival theories human nature are entwined in different ways life and different political systems and have been a source much conflict over the course history. People are imaginative animals who constantly recombine events in their mind's eye That ability is one the engines human intelligence allowing  {406}  us to envision new technologies (such as snaring an animal or purifying a plant extract) and new social skills (such as exchanging promises or finding common enemies).33 Narrative fiction engages this ability to explore hypothetical worlds whether for edification — expanding the number scenarios whose outcomes can be predicted — or for pleasure — vicariously experiencing love adulation exploration or Hence Horace's the purpose literature: to instruct and to delight. The “Wallace” that Eiseley is referring to is Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913) the co-discoverer with Darwin natural selection Wallace parted company from Darwin by claiming that the human mind could not be explained by evolution and must have been designed by a superior intelligence He certainly did believe that the mind man could escape “the blind control a deterministic world.” Wallace became a spiritualist and spent the later years his career searching for a way to communicate with the souls. Wright Robert 133–34 167 168 245 320 Yanomamö 115–19 314 323 334 431 Yeats William Butler 167 The robot is observing a person opening a glass jar The person approaches the robot and places the jar on a table near the robot The person rubs his hands together and then sets himself to removing the lid from the jar He grasps the glass jar in one hand and the lid in the other and begins to unscrew the lid by turning it counter-clockwise While he is opening the jar he pauses to wipe his brow and glances at the robot to see what it is doing He then resumes opening the jar The robot then attempts to imitate the action [But] which parts the action to be imitated are important (such as turning the lid counter-clockwise) and which aren't (such as wiping your brow)? How can the robot abstract the knowledge gained from this experience and apply it to a similar situation?4 Mccrae R R Costa P T Ostendorf E Angleitner A Hrebickova M Avia M D Sanz J Sanchez–Bernardos M L Kusdil M E Woodfield R Saunders P R & Smith P B 2000 Nature over nurture: Temperament personality and life span development Journal Personality and Social Psychology 78 173–186 McElroy W 1996 Sexual correctness: The gender–feminist attack on women Jefferson N.C.: McFar–land McGinn C 1993 Problems in philosophy: The limits inquiry Cambridge Mass.: Blackwell McGinn C 1997 Evil ethics and fiction New York: Oxford University Press McGinn C 1999 The mysterious flame: Conscious minds in a material world New York: Basic Books McGinnis J The original constitution and our origins Harvard Journal Law and Public Policy 19 251–261. To show that violence is caused by special themes American culture a bare minimum evidence would be a correlation in which the cultures that have those themes also tend to be more violent Even that correlation if it existed would not prove that the cultural themes cause the violence rather than the other way around But there may be no such correlation in the. Equal Rights Amendment 340 equity feminism 341 343 354 363 369 Essay Concerning Human Understanding An (Locke) 5–6 essentialism. It's no mystery why organisms sometimes harm one another Evolution has no conscience and if one creature hurts another to benefit itself such as by eating parasitizing intimidating or cuckolding it its descendants will come to predominate complete with those nasty habits All this is familiar from the vernacular sense “Darwinian” as a synonym for “ruthless” and from Tennyson's depiction nature as red in tooth and claw If that were all there was to the evolution the human condition we would have to agree with the rock song: Life sucks then. Chalupa L M 2000 A comparative perspective on the formation retinal connections in the mammalian brain In M.S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Chandler D P 1999 Brother number one: A political biography Pol Pot Boulder Colo.: Westview Press Charlesworth B 1987 The heritability fitness In J W Bradbury & M B Andersson (Eds.) Sexual selection: Testing the hypotheses New York: Wiley Charlton T 1997 The inception broadcast television: A naturalistic study television's effects in St Helena South Atlantic In T Charlton & K David (Eds.) Elusive links: Television video games and children's behavior Cheltenham U.K.: Park Published Papers Chase W G & Simon H A 1973 Perception in chess Cognitive Psychology 4,55–81. Reductionism 10 69–72 112 113–14 118 126–27 Cognitive scientists agree that the elementary processes that make up the instruction set the brain — storing and retrieving an association sequencing elements focusing attention — are implemented in the brain as networks densely interconnected neurons (brain cells) The question is whether a generic kind network after being shaped by the environment can explain all human psychology or whether the genome tailors different networks to the demands particular domains: language vision morality fear lust intuitive psychology and so on The connectionists course do not believe in a blank slate but they do believe in the closest mechanistic equivalent a general-purpose learning device. The second is the guild critics and cultural gatekeepers who have seen their influence dwindle The 1939 comedy The Man Who Came to Dinner is about a literary critic who achieved such celebrity that we can believe that the burghers a small Ohio town would coo and fawn over him It is hard to think a contemporary critic who could plausibly inspire such a character And the third course is the groves academe where the foibles the humanities departments have been fodder for satirical novels and the subject endless fretting and analyzing. And then there are the sexes Unlike ethnic groups and races in which any differences are biologically minor and haphazard the two sexes differ in at least one way that is major and systematic: they have different reproductive organs On evolutionary grounds one might expect men and women to differ somewhat in the neural systems that control how they use those organs — in their sexuality parental instincts and mating tactics By the same logic one would expect them not to differ as much in the neural systems that deal with  {145}  the challenges both sexes face such as those for general intelligence (as we will see in the chapter on gender) ~ Many projects aim to prevent or slow this loss by revitalizing endangered languages and promoting education and literacy in minority languages Across the world many countries have enacted specific legislation to protect and stabilize the language indigenous speech communities A minority linguists have argued that language loss is a natural process that should not be counteracted and that documenting endangered languages for posterity is sufficient.[131] Green R M 2001 The human embryo research debates: Bioethics in the vortex controversy New York: Oxford University Press Greenwald A 1988 Self–knowledge and self–deception In J S Lockard & D L Paulhaus (Eds.) Self–deception: An adaptive mechanism Englewood Cliffs N.J.: Prentice Hall Gu X & Spitzer N C 1995 Distinct aspects neuronal differentiation encoded by frequency spontaneous Ca2+ transients Nature 375 784–787 Gur R C & Gur R E In press Gender differences in neuropsychological functions In L J Dickstein & B L Kennedy (Eds.) Gender differences in the brain: Linking biology to psychiatry New York: Guilford Publications. Who The 209 295 Whole Language 222 Whorf Benjamin 207–8 Who Stole Feminism (Sommers) 341 “Who Will Bell the Cat?” (Aesop) 256 Wiesel Torsten. Feminism is widely seen as being opposed to the sciences human nature Many those scientists believe that the minds the two sexes differ at birth and feminists have pointed out that such beliefs have long been used to justify the unequal treatment women Women were thought to be designed for childrearing and home life and to be incapable the reason necessary for  {339}  politics and the pressions Men were believed to harbor irresistible urges that made them harass and rape women and that belief served to excuse the perpetrators and to license fathers and husbands to control women in the guise protecting them Therefore it might seem the theories that are most friendly to women are the Blank Slate — if nothing is innate differences between the sexes cannot be innate — and the Noble Savage — if we harbor no ignoble urges sexual exploitation can be eliminated by changing our institutions. Sen Amartya 237 272 Serrano Andres 414 Seville Statement 307–8 Hfer Eric 63 Hogan Patrick 417 Holmes Oliver Wendell. Mcginnis J O 1997 The human constitution and constitutive law: A prolegomenon Journal Contemporary Legal Issues 8,211–239 McGue M 1997 The democracy the genes Nature 388 417–418 McGuinness D 1997 Why our children can't read New York: Free Press McLearn G E Johansson B Berg S Pedersen N L Ahern E Petrill S A & Plomin R 1997 Substantial genetic influence on cognitive abilities in twins 80 or more years old Science 276 1560–1563 McLeod P Plunkett K & Rolls E T 1998 Introduction to connectionist modeling cognitive processes New York: Oxford University Press Mead M 1928 Coming age in Samoa: A psychological study primitive youth for Western Civilisation New York: Blue Ribbon Books. 56. gottfredson & Hirschi 1990; Harris 1998a chap 13 57. Harris 1998a chap 8 58. M Wertheim “Mindfield” (Review S Pinker's How the mind works) The Australian's Review Books 1998 59. O James “It's a free market on the nature nurture,” The Independent October 20,1998 60.  /DisplayPage ?ID=189 See also Anheuser-Busch's /ftad 61. J Leo “Parenting without a care,” US News and World Report September 21,1998. 34. for discussions the Marxist genocides the twentieth century and comparisons to the Nazi Holocaust see Besancon 1998; Bullock 1991; Chandler 1999; Chirot 1994; Conquest 2000; Courtois et al 1999; Getty 2000; Minogue 1999; Shatz 1999; Short 1999 35. For discussions the intellectual roots Marxism and comparisons with the intellectual roots Nazism see Berlin 1996; Besancon 1981; Besancon 1998; Bullock 1991; Chirot 1994; Glover 1999; Minogue 1985; Minogue 1999; Scott 1998; Sowell 1985 For discussions the Marxist theory human nature see Archibald 1989; Bauer 1952; Plamenatz 1963; Plamenatz 1975; Singer 1999; Stevenson & Haberman 1998; Venable 1945 36. See e.g Venable 1945 p 3 37. Marx 1847/1995. The laws are about what make us what we are (compared with our compatriots) and thus they are about the forces that impinge on us in childhood the stage life in which it is thought that our intellects and personalities are formed “Just as the twig is bent the tree's inclined,” wrote Alexander Pope “The child is father the man,” wrote Wordsworth echoing Milton's “The childhood shows the man as morning shows the day.” The Jesuits used to say “Give me the child for the first seven years and I'll give you the man,” and the motto was used as the tag line the documentary film series by Michael Apted that follows a cohort British children every seven years (Seven Up Fourteen Up and so on) In this chapter I will walk you through the laws and explore what they mean for nature nurture and none. Against this economic reduction as the explanatory principle underlying all human behavior we could counterpose the revolutionary practitioners and theorists like Mao Tse-tung on the power human consciousness in both interpreting and changing the world a power  {127}  based on an understanding the essential dialectical unity the biological and the social not as two distinct spheres or separable components action but as ontologically Evolution moves more slowly than history and much slower than the technology recent centuries; surely sociobiology surprisingly maligned in some scientific quarters performs a useful service in investigating what traits are innate and which are acquired What kind cultural stware can our evolved hard-wiring support? Fiction in its groping way is drawn to those moments discomfort when society asks more than its individual members can or wish to provide Ordinary people experiencing friction on the page is what warms our hands and hearts as we write To be human is to be in the tense condition a death-foreseeing consciously libidinous animal No other earthly creature suffers such a capacity for thought such a complexity envisioned but frustrated possibilities such a troubling ability to question the tribal and biological imperatives. • an intuitive version biology or natural history which we use to understand the living world Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.3 • An intuitive engineering which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose — an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.4 • An intuitive psychology which we use to understand other people Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause behavior. Ow that I have attempted to make the very idea human nature respectable it is time to say something about what it is and what difference it makes for our public and private lives The chapters in Part IV present some current ideas about the design specs the basic human faculties These are not just topics in a psychology curriculum but have implications for many arenas public discourse Ideas about the contents cognition — concepts words and images — shed light on the roots prejudice on the media and on the arts Ideas about the capacity for reason can enter into our policies education and applications technology Ideas about social relations are relevant to the family to sexuality to social organization and to crime Ideas about the moral sense inform the way we evaluate political movements and how we trade f one value against another. Crow J F 2002 Unequal by nature: A geneticist's perspective on human differences Daedalus Winter 81–88 Crowley J C & Katz L C 2000 Early development ocular dominance columns Science 290 1321–1324 Cummins D D 1996 Evidence for the innateness deontic reasoning Mind and Language 11 160–190 Curti M 1980 Human nature in American thought: A history Madison: University Wisconsin Press Curtiss S de Bode S & Shields S 2000 Language after hemispherectomy In J Gilkerson M Becker & N Hyams (Eds.) UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics (Vol 5 pp 91–112) Los Angeles: UCLA Department Linguistics Dabbs J M & Dabbs M G 2000 Heroes rogues and lovers: Testosterone and behavior New York: McGraw–Hill. Jones O 2001 Time–shifted rationality and the Law Law's Leverage: Behavioral economics meets behavioral biology Northwestern University Law Rev–1205  {474}  Jones O D 1997 Evolutionary analysis in law: An introduction and application to child abuse North Carolina Law Rev–1242 Jones O D 1999 Sex culture and the biology rape: Toward explanation and prevention California Law Review 87 827–942. Natural history intuitive 220 Natural History Rape A (Thornhill and Palmer) viii 161 359–69 naturalistic fallacy 150 162–63 164 I believe that the rape-is-not-about-sex doctrine will go down in history as an example extraordinary popular delusions and the madness crowds It is preposterous on the face it does not deserve its sanctity is contradicted by a mass evidence and is getting in the way the only morally relevant goal surrounding rape the effort to stamp. The goal this chapter is to clarify the relation between the biology human nature and current controversies on the sexes including the two most incendiary the gender gap and sexual assault With both these hot buttons I will argue against the conventional wisdom associated with certain people who claim to speak on behalf feminism That may create an illusion that the  {341}  arguments go against feminism in general or even against the interests women They don't in the least and I must begin by showing why ~ A nonblank slate means that a tradef between freedom and material equality is inherent to all political systems The major political philosophies can be defined by how they deal with the tradef The Social Darwinist right places no value on equality; the totalitarian left places no value on freedom The Rawlsian left sacrifices some freedom for equality; the libertarian right sacrifices some equality for freedom While reasonable people may disagree about the best tradef it is unreasonable to pretend there is no tradef And that in turn means that any discovery innate differences among individuals is not forbidden knowledge to be suppressed but information that might help us decide on these tradefs in an intelligent and humane manner ~ Hobbes believed that people could escape this hellish existence only by surrendering their autonomy to a sovereign person or assembly He called it a leviathan the Hebrew word for a monstrous sea creature subdued by Yahweh at the dawn creation.   B y the middle the second half the twentieth century the ideals the social scientists the first half had enjoyed a well-deserved victory Eugenics Social Darwinism colonial conquest Dickensian policies toward children overt expressions racism and sexism among the educated and ficial discrimination against women and minorities had been eradicated or at least were rapidly fading from mainstream Western life. Secondly DIFFIDENCE IN its original sense “distrust.” Hobbes had translated Thucydides’ History the Peloponnesian War and was struck by his observation that “what made war inevitable was the growth Athenian power and the fear which this caused in Sparta.” If you have neighbors they may covet what you have in which case you have become an obstacle to their desires Therefore you must be prepared to defend yourself Defense is an iffy matter even with technologies such as castle walls the Maginot Line or antiballistic missile defenses and it is even iffier without them The only option for self-protection may be to wipe out potentially hostile neighbors first in a preemptive strike As Yogi Berra advised “The best defense is a good fense and vice versa.” 81. brown 1991 82. Hirschfeld & Gelman 1994; Pinker 1997 chap 5 83. Baron-Cohen 1995; Gopnik Meltzf & Kuhl 1999; Hirschfeld & Gelman 1994; Leslie 1994; Spelke 1995; Spelke et al 1992 84. Baron-Cohen 1995; Fisher et al 1998; Frangiskakis et al 1996; Hamer & Copeland 1998; Lai et al 2001; Rossen et al 1996 85. Bouchard 1994; Plomin et al 2001 86. Caspi 2000; McCrae et al 2000 87. Bouchard 1994; Harris 1998a; Plomin et al 2001; Turkheimer 2000 88. See the references cited in this chapter PART II: FEAR AND LOATHING   The actual writings philosophers are always more complex than the theories they come to symbolize in the textbooks In reality the views Hobbes and Rousseau are not that far apart Rousseau like Hobbes believed (incorrectly) that savages were solitary without ties love or loyalty and without any industry or art (and he may have out-Hobbes'd Hobbes in claiming they did not even have language) Hobbes envisioned — indeed literally drew — his leviathan as an embodiment the collective will which was vested in it by a kind social contract; Rousseau's most famous work is called The Social Contract and in it he calls on people to subordinate their interests to a “general will.” Indeed the existence innate differences in ability makes Rawls's conception social justice especially acute and eternally relevant If we were blank slates and if a society ever did eliminate discrimination the poorest could be said to deserve their station because they must have chosen to do less with their standard-issue talents But if people differ in talents people might find themselves in poverty in a nonprejudiced society even if they applied themselves to the fullest That is an injustice that a Rawlsian would argue ought to be rectified and it would be overlooked if We didn't recognize that people differ in their abilities ~ An autobiographical comment in Tierney's preface is revealing: “I gradually changed from being an observer to being an advocate traditional objective journalism was no longer an option for me.”55Tierney believes that accounts Yanomamö violence might be used by invaders to depict them as primitive savages who should be removed or assimilated for their own good Defaming messengers like Chagnon is in this view an ennobling form social action and a step for the cultural survival indigenous peoples (despite the fact that Chagnon himself has repeatedly acted to protect the interests the Yanomamö). 29. national Center for Science Education ?branch=statement See also Berra 1990; Kitcher 1982; Miller 1999; Pennock 2000; Pennock 2001 30. Quoted in L Arnhart M J Behe & W A Dembski “Conservatives Darwin and design: An exchange,” First Things 107 November 2000 pp 23–31 31. Behe 1996 32. Behe 1996; Crews 2001; Dorit 1997; Miller 1999; Pennock 2000; Pennock 2001; Ruse 1998 33. R Bailey “Origin the specious,” Reason. Weiskrantz L (Ed.) 1988 Thought without language New York: Oxford University Press Weizenbaum J 1976 Computer power and human reason San Francisco: W H Freeman White S.H.I 996 The relationships developmental psychology to social policy In E Zigler S L Kagan &N Hall (Eds.) Children family and government: Preparing for the 21st century New York: Cambridge University Press Whorf B L 1956 Language thought and reality: Selected writings Benjamin Lee Whorf Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Wilkinson M J In press The Greek–Turkish–American triangle In M Abramovitz (Ed.) Turkey and the United States New York: Century Foundation Wilkinson R 2000 Mind the gap: Hierarchies health and human evolution London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. Haig D 1993 Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy Quarterly Review Biology 68 495–532 Halpern D 2000 Sex differences in cognitive abilities (3rd ed.) Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Halpern D F Gilbert R & Coren S 1996 PC or not PC? Contemporary challenges to unpopular research findings Journal Social Distress and the Homeless 5 251–271 Hamer D & Copeland P 1994 The science desire: The search for the gay gene and the biology behavior New York: Simon & Schuster Hamer D & Copeland P 1998 Living with our genes: Why they matter more than you think New York: Doubleday Hamilton W D 1964 The genetical evolution social behaviour (I and II) Journal Theoretical Biology 7 1–16 17–52. Jones is not advocating chemical castration (and neither am I) He is asking people to look at all the options for reducing rape and to evaluate them carefully and with an open mind Anyone who is incensed by the very idea mentioning rape and sex in the same breath should read the numbers again If a policy is rejected out hand that can reduce rape by a factor fifteen then many women will be raped who otherwise might not have been People may have to decide which they value more an ideology that claims to advance the interests the female gender or what actually happens in the world to. Eaves L J Eysenck H J & Martin N G 1989 Genes culture and personality: An empirical approach San Diego: Academic Press Edgerton R B 1992 Sick societies: Challenging the myth primitive harmony New York: Free Press Eibl–Eibesfeldt Human ethology Hawthorne N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter Ekman P 1987 A life's pursuit In T A Sebeok & J Umiker–Sebeok (Eds.) The semioiic web 86: An international yearbook Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter Ekman P 1998 Afterword: Universality emotional expression? A personal history the dispute In C Darwin The expression the emotions in man and animals: Definitive edition New York: Oxford University Press Ekman P & Davidson R J 1994 The nature emotion New York: Oxford University Press. Passmore J 1970 The perfectibility man New York: Scribner Patai D 1998 Heterophobia: Sexual harassment and the future feminism New York: Rowman & Littlefield Patai D & Koertge N 1994 Pressing feminism: Cautionary tales from the strange world women's studies New York: Basic Books Patai R & Patai J 1989 The myth the Jewish race (rev ed.) Detroit: Wayne State University Press Patterson O 1995 For whom the bell curves In S Fraser (Ed.) The Bell Curve wars: Race intelligence and the future America New York: Basic Books Patterson O 1997 The ordeal integration Washington D.C.: Civitas. 6. dawkins 1976/1989; Williams 1966 7. Boyd & Silk 1996; Ridley 1997; Trivers 1985 8. Sowell 1987 9. Sowell 1995b 10. From the preface to On the rocks: A political fantasy in two acts 11. Smith 1759/1976 pp 233–234 12. Burke 1790/1967 p 93 13. Quoted in E M Kennedy “Tribute to Senator Robert F Kennedy,” June 8 1968 14. Hayek 1976 pp 64 33 15. Quoted in Sowell. 19. for examples see Hummel & Biederman 1992; Marcus 2001a; Shastri 1999; Smolensky 1990 20. Deacon 1997; Elman et al 1996; Hard-castle & Buller 2000; Panskepp & Panskepp 2000; Quartz & Sejnowski 1997 21. Elman et al 1996 p 108 22. Quartz & Sejnowski 1997 pp 552 555 23. Maguire et al 2000 24. E K Miller 2000 25. Sadato et al 1996 26. Neville & Bavelier 2000; Petitto et al 2000 27. Pons et al 1991; Ramachandran & Blakeslee 1998. The existence inborn talents however does not call for Social Darwinism The anxiety that one must lead to the other is based on two fallacies The first is an all-or-none mentality that ten infects discussions the social implications genetics The likelihood that inborn differences are one contributor to social status does not mean that it is the only contributor The other ones include sheer luck inherited wealth race and class prejudice unequal opportunity (such as in schooling and connections) and cultural capital: habits and values that promote economic success Acknowledging that talent matters doesn't mean that prejudice and unequal opportunity do not matter. The DETERRENCE PARADOX also underlies the part the logic responsibility that makes us expand or contract it when we learn about a person's mental state Modern societies do not just pick whatever policy is most effective at deterring wrongdoers For example if one's only value was to reduce crime one could always make the punishments for it especially cruel as most societies did until recently One could convict people on the basis an accusation a guilty manner or a forced confession One could execute the entire family a criminal or his entire clan or village One could say to one's adversaries as Vito Corleone said to the heads the other crime families in The Godfather,"l'm a superstitious man And if some unlucky accident should befall my son if my son is struck by a bolt lightning I will blame some the people here.” Man is the only creature on earth that God has wanted for its own sake In other terms the human individual cannot be subordinated as a pure means or a pure instrument either to the species or to society; he has value per se He is a person With his intellect and his will he is capable forming a relationship communion solidarity and self-giving with his peers Man is called to enter into a relationship knowledge and love with God himself a relationship which will find its complete fulfillment beyond time in eternity Refusing TO GIVE up on parents some developmental psychologists have trained their sights on the only remaining possibility that gives parents a starring role The impotence the shared environment says only that what parents do to all their children is powerless to shape them But obviously parents don't treat their children alike Perhaps the individualized parenting that mothers and fathers adapt to each child does have the power to shape them It is the interaction between parents and children that affects them not a one-size-fits-all parenting At first this looks reasonable But when you think it through it does not restore a shaping role for parents or for parenting advice after And as in the case language without some innate mechanism for mental computation there would be no way to learn the parts a culture that do have to be learned It is no coincidence that the situations that provoke song among the Ifaluk include violating a taboo being lazy or disrespectful and refusing to share but do not include respecting a taboo being kind and deferential and standing on one's head The Ifaluk construe the first three as similar because they evoke the same affect program — they are perceived as affronts That makes it easier to learn that they call for the same reaction and makes it more likely that those three would be lumped together as the acceptable triggers for a single emotion. Noam Chomsky made the same point in an article entitled “Psychology and Ideology.” Though he disagreed with Herrnstein's argument about IQ (discussed in Chapter 6) he denied the popular charge that Herrnstein was a racist and distanced himself from fellow radical scientists who were denouncing the facts as dangerous: By using these speech organs humans can produce hundreds distinct sounds: some appear very ten in the world's languages whereas others are much more common in certain language families language areas or even specific to a single language.[57] Stevens W 1965 The necessary angel New York: Random House Stevenson L & Haberman D L 1998 Ten theories human nature New York: Oxford University Press Stoolmiller 2000 Implications the restricted range family environments for estimates her–itability and nonshared environment in behavior–genetic adoption studies Psychological Bulletin 125 392–407 Storey R 1996 Mimesis and the human animal Evanston 111.: Northwestern University Press Stromswold K 1998 Genetics spoken language disorders Human Biology 70 297–324 Stromswold K 2000 The cognitive neuroscience language acquisition In M S Gazzaniga (Ed.) The new cognitive neurosciences Cambridge Mass.:. As for the morality believing the not-sex theory there is none If we have to acknowledge that sexuality can be a source conflict and not just wholesome mutual pleasure we will have rediscovered a truth that observers the human condition have noted throughout history And if a man rapes for sex that does not mean that he “just can't help it” or that we have to excuse him any more than we have to excuse the man who shoots the owner a liquor store to raid the cash register or who bashes a driver over the head to steal his BMW The great contribution feminism to the morality rape is to put issues consent and coercion at center stage The ultimate motives the rapist are irrelevant. The idea that nature and nurture interact to shape some part the mind might turn out to be wrong but it is not wishy-washy or unexceptionable even in the twenty-first century thousands years after the issue was framed When it comes to explaining human thought and behavior the possibility that heredity plays any role at all still has the power to shock To acknowledge human nature many think is to endorse racism sexism war greed genocide nihilism reactionary politics and neglect children and the disadvantaged Any claim that the mind has an innate organization strikes people not as a hypothesis that might be incorrect but as a thought it is immoral. If however the mind is a system with many parts then an innate desire is just one component among others Some faculties may endow us with greed or lust or malice but others may endow us with sympathy foresight selfrespect a desire for respect from others and an ability to learn from our own experiences and those our neighbors These are physical circuits residing in the prefrontal cortex and other parts the brain not occult powers a poltergeist and they have a genetic basis and an evolutionary history no less than the primal urges It is only the Blank Slate and the Ghost in the Machine that make people think that drives are “biological” but that thinking and decision making are something else. “image IS NOTHING Thirst is everything,” screams a st-drink ad that tries to create a new image for its product by making fun st-drink ads that try to create images for their products Like words images are salient tokens our mental lives And like words images are said to have an insidious power over our consciousness presumably because they are inscribed directly onto a blank slate In postmodernist and relativist thinking images are held to shape our view reality or to be our view reality or to be reality itself This is especially true images representing celebrities politicians women and AHANAs And as with language the scientific study imagery shows that the fear is misplaced. In behaviorism an infant's talents and abilities didn't matter because there was no such thing as a talent or an ability Watson had banned them from psychology together with other contents the mind such as ideas beliefs desires and feelings They were subjective and unmeasurable he said and unfit for science which studies only objective and measurable things To a behaviorist the only legitimate topic for psychology is overt behavior and how it is controlled by the present and past environment (There is an old joke in psychology: What does a behaviorist say after making love? “It was good for you; how was it for me?”) Women are more attentive to their infants’ everyday cries (though both sexes respond equally to cries extreme distress) and are more solicitous toward their children in Girls play more at parenting and trying on social roles boys more at fighting chasing and manipulating objects And men and women differ in their patterns sexual jealousy their mate preferences and their incentives to philander. Some moral philosophers try to thread a boundary across this treacherous landscape by equating personhood with cognitive traits that humans happen to possess These include an ability to reflect upon oneself as a continuous locus consciousness to form and savor plans for the future to dread death and to express a choice not to At first glance the boundary is appealing because it puts humans on one side and animals and conceptuses on the other But it also implies that nothing is wrong with killing unwanted newborns the senile and the mentally handicapped who lack the qualifying traits Almost no one is willing to accept a criterion with those implications. Daly M & Wilson M 1999 The truth about Cinderella: A Darwinian view parental love New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press Daly M Wilson M & Vasdev S 2001 Income inequality and homicide rates in Canada and the United States Canadian Journal Criminology 43 219–236 Damasio.A R 1994 Descartes’ error: Emotion reason and the human brain New York: Putnam Damasio H 2000 The lesion method in cognitive neuroscience In F Boiler & J Grafman (Eds.) Handbook neuropsychology (2nd ed.) Vol 1 New York: Elsevier Damewood M D 2001 Ethical implications a new application preimplantation diagnosis Journal the American Medical Association 285 3143–3144  {467}  So if love and conscience can evolve where's the tragedy? Trivers noticed that the confluence genetic interests that gave rise to the social emotions is only partial Because we are not clones or even social insects (who can share up to three-quarters their genes) what ultimately is best for one person is not identical to what ultimately is best for another Thus every human relationship even the most devoted and intimate carries the seeds conflict In the movie AntZ an ant with the voice Woody Allen complains to his psychoanalyst: It's this whole gung-ho superorganism thing that I just can't get I try but I just don't get it What is it I'm supposed to do everything for the colony and what about. Witelson Sandra 342 Wittgenstein Ludwig 207 Wohler Friedrich 30 Wolfe Tom 131–33 407 414 women:       biblical. For trees it would be: san-bon no ki (三本の木) lit "3 classifier-for-long-objects tree" — three trees Morphology In linguistics the study the internal structure complex words and the processes by which words are formed is called morphology In most languages it is possible to construct complex words that are built several morphemes For instance the English word "unexpected" can be analyzed as being composed the three morphemes "un-" "expect" and "-ed".[79] • the human body contains a mechanism that causes the brains boys and the brains girls to diverge during The Y chromosome triggers the growth testes in a male fetus which secrete androgens the characteristically male hormones (including testosterone) Androgens have lasting effects on the brain during fetal development in the months after birth and during puberty and they have transient effects at other times Estrogens the characteristically female sex hormones also affect the brain throughout life Receptors for the sex hormones are found in the hypothalamus the hippocampus and the amygdala in the limbic system the brain as well as in the cerebral cortex. “nature is a hanging judge,” goes an old saying Many tragedies come from our physical and cognitive makeup Our bodies are extraordinarily improbable arrangements matter with many ways for things to go wrong and only a few ways for things to go right We are certain to die and smart enough to know it Our minds are adapted to a world that no longer exists prone to  {242}  misunderstandings correctable only by arduous education and condemned to perplexity about the deepest questions we can entertain. It made my heart ache you know to see all these beautiful black men in the joint Goddam; the warriors should be out there helping the masses I felt that way I was real naïve Six weeks I was up there and I talked to the brothers I talked to ‘em and [Looks around frightened] Thank God we got penitentiaries! I asked one “Why did you kill everybody in the house?” He says “They was home.” I met one dude kidnap-murdered four times And I thought three times that was your last right? I says “What happened?” [Answers in falsetto] “I can't get this shit right! But I'm getting paroled in two years.”  {263}  There may be good arguments against human cloning but the shudder test is not one them People have shuddered at all kinds morally irrelevant violations standards purity in their culture: touching an untouchable drinking from the same water fountain as a person color allowing Jewish blood to mix with Aryan blood tolerating sodomy between consenting men As recently as 1978 many people (including Kass) shuddered at the new technology in vitro fertilization or as it was then called “test-tube babies.” But now it is morally unexceptionable and for hundreds thousands people a source immeasurable happiness or life itself. Fire-Together-Wire-Together is a trick that solves a particular kind wiring problem: connecting a surface receptors to a maplike representation in the cortex The problem is found not just in the visual system but in other spatial senses such as touch That is because the problem tiling a patch primary visual cortex which receives information from the 2-D surface the retina is similar to the problem tiling a patch primary somatosensory cortex which receives information from the 2-D surface the skin Even the auditory system may use the trick because the inputs representing different sound frequencies (roughly pitches) originate in a 1-D membrane in the inner ear and the brain treats pitch in audition the way it treats space in vision. But here is why the East Pole-West Pole debate is different from the ones that preoccupied philosophers for millennia: neither side believes in the Blank Slate Everyone acknowledges that there can be no learning without innate circuitry to do the learning In their West Pole manifesto Rethinking Innateness  {36}  Bates and Elman and their coauthors cheerfully concede this point: “No learning rule can be entirely devoid theoretical content nor can the tabula ever be completely rasa”13 They explain: Mead Margaret 25 26 56 108 359 422 Mealey Linda 261 342 media:       images in 213–18 In Spain: Please write to Penguin Books S.A Bravo Murillo 19 1” B 28015 Madrid In Italy: Please write to Penguin Italia s.r.L Via Benedetto Croce 2 20094 Corsico Milano In France: Please write to Penguin France Le Carre Wilson 62 rue Benjamin BaiUaud 31500 Toulouse In Japan: Please write to Penguin Books Japan Ltd Kaneko Building 2-3-25 Koraku Bunkyo-Ku Tokyo 112 In South Africa: Please write to Penguin Books South Africa (Pty) Ltd Private Bag X14 Parkview 2122 Johannesburg   Our minds then are fitted with mechanisms designed to read the goals other people so we can copy their intended acts But why would we want to? Though we take it for granted that acquiring culture is a good thing the act acquiring it is ten spoken with scorn The longshoreman and philosopher Eric Hfer wrote “When people are free to do as they please they usually imitate each other.” And we have a menagerie metaphors that equate this quintessentially human ability with the behavior animals: along with monkey see monkey do we have aping parroting sheep lemmings copycats and a herd mentality. Ironically the early modernist painters were avid consumers perception research It may have been introduced to them by Gertrude Stein who studied psychology with William James at Harvard and conducted research on  {418}  visual attention under his The Bauhaus designers and artists too were appreciators perceptual psychology particularly the contemporary Gestalt But the consilience was lost as the two cultures drifted apart and only recently have they begun to come back together I predict that the application cognitive science and evolutionary psychology to the arts will become a growth area in criticism and scholarship. Sickle cell anemia 144 sign language 95–96 391 Silk Joan 342 Silver Ron 432 Simon Herbert 105 302 Simon Julian 237. The difference between a defensible moral position and an atavistic gut feeling is that with the former we can give reasons why our conviction is valid We can explain why torture and murder and rape are wrong or why we should oppose discrimination and injustice On the other hand no good reasons can be produced to show why homosexuality should be suppressed or why the races should be segregated And the good reasons for a moral position are not  {275}  pulled out thin air: they always have to do with what makes people better f or worse f and are grounded in the logic that we have to treat other people in the way that we demand they. 1. drake 1970; Koestler 1959 2. Galileo 1632/1967 pp 58–59   Chapter 8: The Fear Inequality   1. From The Rambler no 60 2. From the Analects 3. Charlesworth 1987; Lewontin 1982; Miller 2000b; Mousseau & Rf 1987; Tooby & Cosmides 1990  {448}  4. Tooby&Cosmides 1990 5. Lander etal 2001 6. Bodmer & Cavalli-Sforza 1970 7. Tooby & Cosmides 1990. Since the dialectic between organism and environment constantly changes over historical time with neither one directly causing the other organisms can alter that dialectic Thus Rose repeatedly counters the “determinists” with the declaration “We have the ability to construct our own futures albeit not in circumstances our own choosing”23 — presumably echoing Marx's statement that “men make their own history but they do not make it lust as they please; they make it under circumstances directly encountered given and transmitted from the past.” But Rose never explains who the “we” is if not highly structured neural circuits which must get that structure in part from genes and evolution We can call this doctrine the Pronoun in the Machine. The theories and findings evolutionary psychology have applications in many fields including economics environment health law management psychiatry politics and literature.[7][8] 55. van Essen & Deyoe 1995 56. Kosslyn 1994 57. Kennedy 1993; Kosslyn 1994 pp 334–335; Zimler & Keenan 1983; though see also Arditi Holtzman & Kosslyn 1988 58. Petitto et al 2000 59. Klima & Bellugi 1979; Padden & Perl-mutter 1987; Siple & Fischer 1990 60. Cramer & Sur 1995; Sharma Angelucci & Sur 2000; Sur 1988; Sur Angelucci & Sharma 1999 61. Sur 1988 pp 44 45 62. Bregman 1990; Bregman & Pinker 1978; Kubovy 1981 63. Hubel 1988. The moralistic fallacy like the naturalistic fallacy is well a fallacy as we learn from this Arlo and Janis cartoon:     46. singer 1999 p 6 47. Singer 1999 pp 8–9 48. Chomsky 1970 p 22 49. See Barsky 1997; Chomsky 1988a 50. Chomsky 1975 p 131 51. Trivers 1981 52. A Wooldridge “Bell Curve liberals,” New Republic Febru 53. Herrnstein & Murray 1994 chap 22 See also Murray's afterword in the 1996 paperback edition 54. Gigerenzer & Selten 2001; Jones 2001; Kahneman & Tversky 1984; Thaler 1994; Tversky & Kahneman 1974. Deconstructionism 198 208 209       see also postmodernism Deep Blue 33–34 Degler Carl 17 de Kenessey Stefania 417 Delaney Clause 278. These currents discontent are coming together in a new philosophy the arts one that is consilient with the sciences and respectful the minds  {417}  and senses human beings It is taking shape both in the community artists and in the community critics and scholars. The GREATEST MORAL appeal the doctrine the Blank Slate comes from a simple mathematical fact: zero equals zero This allows the Blank Slate to serve as a guarantor political equality Blank is blank so if we are all blank slates the reasoning goes we must all be equal But if the slate a newborn is not blank different babies could have different things inscribed on their slates Individuals sexes classes and races might differ innately in their talents abilities interests and inclinations And that it is thought could lead to. Mengele Josef 378 Menninger Karl 181 metaphor 11 209 273 313 317 Mill John Stuart 18 79 Miller Gefrey. Fodor J A 1981 The present status the innateness controversy In J A Fodor (Ed.) Representations Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Fodor J A 1983 The modularity mind Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Fodor J A 1994 The elm and the expert: Mentalese and its semantics Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Fodor J.A & Pylyshyn Z 1988 Connectionism and cognitive architecture: A critical analysis Cognition 28 3–71 Fox J A & Zawitz M W 2000 Homicide trends in the United States Washington D.C.: U.S Department Justice Available: . /bjs/homicide Fox R 1984 Kinship and : An anthropological perspective New York: Cambridge University Press. Neural plasticity 44–45 74 83–100 384–87       brain damage and 98–100        cortex vs subcortical structures 89 Skepticism about the soundness of people's mental faculties also determines whether one should respect ordinary people's tastes and opinions (even those we don't much like) or treat the people as dupes of an insidious commercial culture According to relativist doctrines like “false consciousness,” “inauthentic preferences,” and “interiorized authority,” people may be mistaken about their own desires If so it would undermine the assumptions behind democracy which gives ultimate authority to the preferences of the majority of a population and the assumptions behind market economies which treat people as the best judges of how they should allocate their own resources Perhaps not coincidentally it elevates the scholars and artists who analyze the use of language and images in society because only they can unmask the ways in which such media mislead and corrupt  {199}  For MOST its history neuroscience was faced with an embarrassment: the brain looked as if it were innately specified in every detail When it comes to the body we can see many the effects a person's life experience: it may be tanned or pale callused or st scrawny or plump or chiseled But no such marks could be found in the brain Now something has to be wrong with this picture People learn and learn massively: they learn their language their culture their know-how their database facts Also the hundred trillion connections in the brain cannot possibly be specified individually by a 750-megabyte genome The brain somehow must change in response to its input; the only question. Women are generally more selective when choosing mates especially under short-term mating conditions However under some circumstances short term mating can provide benefits to women as well such as fertility insurance trading up to better genes reducing risk inbreeding and insurance protection her fspring.[95]   Chapter 19 Children “THE NATURE-NURTURE DEBATE is over.” So begins a recent article with a title — “Three Laws Behavior Genetics and What They Mean” — as audacious as its opening sentence.1 The nature-nurture debate is course far from over when it comes to identifying the endowment shared by all human beings and understanding how it allows us to learn which is the main topic the preceding chapters But when it comes to the question what makes people within the mainstream a society different from one another — whether they are smarter or duller nicer or nastier bolder or shyer — the nature-nurture debate as it has been played out for millennia really is over or ought. Carnegie Andrew 16 Carroll Joseph 417 Cashdan Elizabeth 342 categorization 201–7 228–29 Centers for Disease Control 312 cerebral palsy 99 Cezanne. Kleinfeld J 1999 MIT tarnishes its reputation with gender junk science (Special report .edu/northern/mitstudy) Arlington Va.: Independent Women's Forum Klima E & Bellugi U 1979 The signs language Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press Knauft B 1987 Reconsidering violence in simple human societies Current Anthropology 28 457–500 Koestler A 1959 The sleepwalkers: A history man's changing vision the universe London: Penguin Komar B Melamid A & Wypijewski J 1997 Painting by numbers: Komar and Melamid's scientific guide to art New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux Kors A C & Silverglate H A 1998 The shadow university: The betrayal liberty on America's campuses New York:. Commentary 130 communes 246 257–58 communism see Marxism communism primitive 255 Even the humblest act cultural learning — imitating the behavior a  {61}  parent or a peer — is more complicated than it looks To appreciate what goes on in our minds when we effortlessly learn from other people we have to imagine what it would be like to have some other kind mind Fortunately cognitive scientists have imagined it for us by plumbing the minds robots animals and people whose minds are impaired The artificial intelligence researcher Rodney Brooks who wants to build a robot capable learning by imitation immediately faced this problem when he considered using techniques for learning that are common in computer science: The question is not whether human nature will increasingly be explained by the sciences mind brain genes and evolution but what we are going to do with the knowledge What in fact are the implications for our ideals equality progress responsibility and the worth the person? The opponents the sciences human nature from the left and the right are correct about one thing: these are vital questions But that is all the more reason that they be confronted not with fear and loathing but with reason That is the goal the next part. ~ ALL THE faculties that go into the piece work called man language may be the most awe-inspiring “Remember that you are a human being with a soul and the divine gift articulate speech,” Henry Higgins implored Eliza Doolittle Galileo's alter ego humbled by the arts and inventions his day commented on language in its written form: What's going on? That voices the contemporary left and the contemporary right are both embracing evolutionary psychology after decades reviling it shows two things One is that biological facts are beginning to box in plausible political philosophies The belief on the left that human nature can be changed at will and the belief on the right that morality rests on God's endowing us with an immaterial soul are becoming rearguard struggles against the juggernaut science A popular bumper sticker in the 1990s urged question authority Another bumper sticker replied question gravity All political philosophies have to decide when their arguments are turning into the questioning gravity. ~ WHEN A 1999 CYCLONE in India left millions people in danger starvation some activists denounced relief societies for distributing a nutritious grain meal because it contained genetically modified varieties corn and soybeans (varieties that had been eaten without apparent harm in the United States) These activists are also opposed to “golden rice,” a genetically modified variety that could prevent blindness in millions children in the developing world and alleviate vitamin A deficiency in a quarter a billion Other activists have vandalized research facilities at which the safety genetically modified foods is tested and new varieties are developed For these people even the possibility that such foods could be safe is unacceptable. Newman Barnett 413 Newton Huey 111  {503}  Newton Sir Isaac 30 New Yorker 46 116 179 New York Review. Many moral philosophers would say that there is nothing wrong with these acts because private acts among consenting adults that do not harm other sentient beings are not immoral Some might criticize the acts using a more subtle argument having to do with commitments to policies but the infractions would still be deemed minor compared with the truly heinous acts which people are capable But for everyone else such argumentation is beside the point People have gut feelings that give them emphatic moral convictions and they struggle to rationalize the convictions after the fact.3 These convictions may have little to do with moral judgments that one could justify to others in terms their effects on happiness or suffering They arise instead from the neurobiological and evolutionary design the organs we call moral emotions ~ People also confuse morality with purity even in the secular West Remember from Chapter 1 that many words for cleanliness and dirt are also words for virtue and sin pure unblemished tainted and so on) Haidt's subjects seem to have conflated contamination with sin when they condemned eating a dog having sex with a dead chicken and enjoying consensual incest (which reflects our instinctive repulsion toward sex with siblings an emotion that evolved to deter inbreeding). 31. wilson 1984 32. Etcf 1999; Symons 1995; Thornhill 1998 33. Tooby&DeVore,1987 34. Abbott 2001; Pinker 1997 35. Dissanayake 1998 36. Dissanayake 1992 37. Frank 1999; Veblen 1899/1994 38. Zahavi & Zahavi 1997 39. Miller 2000a p 270 40. Bell 1992; Wolfe 1975; Wolfe 1981 41. Bourdieu 1984 42. From his 1757 essay “ the standard taste,” quoted in Dutton. Human Genome Project xi 74 75–78. Supreme Court U.S 129 291 Sur Mriganka 85 95 Switzerland 311 symbiosis 242 ~ Nor does acknowledging human nature have the political implications so many fear It does not for example require one to abandon feminism or to accept current levels inequality or violence or to treat morality as a fiction For the most part I will try not to advocate particular policies or to advance the agenda the political left or right I believe that controversies about policy almost always involve tradefs between competing values and that science is equipped to identify the tradefs but not to resolve them Many these tradefs I will show arise from features human nature and by clarifying them I hope to make our collective choices whatever they are better informed If I am an advocate it is for discoveries about human nature that have been ignored or suppressed in modern discussions human affairs. Mao Zedong 11 65 126–27 156 158 Mapplethorpe Robert 414 March Folly The: From Troy to Vietnam (Tuchman) 324 Marcos Ferdinand 56 Marcus. An ethos reciprocity can pilot not just one-on-one exchanges but contributions to the public good such as hunting animals that are too large for the hunter to eat himself building a lighthouse that keeps everyone's ships f the rocks or banding together to invade neighbors or to repel their invasions The inherent problem with public goods is captured in Aesop's fable “Who Will Bell the Cat?” The mice in a household agree they would be better f if the cat had a bell around its neck to warn them its approach but no mouse will risk life and limb to attach the bell A willingness to bell the cat — that is to contribute to the public good — can nonetheless evolve if it is accompanied by a willingness to reward those who shoulder the burden or to punish the cheaters. Lesch K.–P Bengel D Heils A Sabol S Z Greenberg B D Petri S Benjamin J Muller C R Hamer D H & Murphy D L 1996 Association anxiety–related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region Science 274 1527–1531 Leslie A M 1994 ToMM ToBY and agency: Core architecture and domain specificity In L A Hirschfeld & S A Gelman (Eds.) Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture New York: Cambridge University Press Leslie A M 1995 Pretending and believing: Issues in the theory ToMM Cognition 50 193–220 LeVay S 1993 The sexual brain Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Levins R & Lewontin R C 1985 The dialectical biologist Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press. 48. a Ferguson “The end nature and the next man” (Review F Fukuyama's The great disruption) Weekly Standard 1999 49. See Dennett 1995 p 263 for a similar report 50. E Smith “Look who's stalking,” New York February 14,2000 51. Alcock 1998 52. For example the articles entitled “Eugenics revisited” (Horgan 1993) “The new Social Darwinists” (Horgan 1995) and “Is a new eugenics afoot?” (Allen 2001) 53. New Republic April 27,1998 p 33 54. New York Times Febru Week in Review. In today's world course the gap favors men Some the gap is caused by discrimination Employers may underestimate the skills women or assume that an all-male workplace is more efficient or worry that their male employees will resent female supervisors or fear resistance from prejudiced customers and clients But the evidence suggests that not all sex differences in the pressions are caused by these It is unlikely for example that among academics the mathematicians are unusually biased against women the developmental psycholinguists are unusually biased against men and the evolutionary psychologists are unusually. It Takes a Village (Clinton) 394 Jackson Andrew 328 James Oliver 393 James William 19 56 203 417–18. Artificial intelligence 33–34 61 105 106 arts 216–17 400–420       brain. • if people are shaped by their social environments then growing up bourgeois can leave a permanent psychological stain (“Only the newborn baby is spotless”) The descendants landlords and “rich peasants” in postrevolutionary regimes bore a permanent stigma and were persecuted as readily as if bourgeois parentage were a genetic trait Worse since parentage is invisible but discoverable by third parties the practice outing people with a “bad background” became a weapon social competition That led to the atmosphere denunciation and paranoia that made life in these regimes an Orwellian nightmare. 41. ridley 1997 See also Lewontin 1990 42. Rose & Rose 2000 43. Fiske 1992 44. Axelrod 1984; Dawkins 1976/1989; Ridley 1997; Trivers 1971 45. Cosmides & Tooby 1992; Frank Gilovich & Regan 1993; Gigerenzer & Hug 1992; Kanwisher & Moscovitch 2000; Mealey Daood & Krage 1996 46. Yinon & Dovrat 1987 47. Gaulin & McBurney 2001 pp 329–338; Haidt in press; Trivers 1971 pp 49–54 48. Fehr & Gachter 2000; Gintis 2000; Price Cosmides & Tooby 2002 49. Ridley. Symbolic speech synonyms taboos tabooed foods tabooed utterances taxonomy territoriality time time cyclicity tools tool dependency tool making tools for cutting tools to make tools tools patterned culturally tools permanent tools for pounding trade triangular awareness (assessing relationships among the self and two other people) true and false distinguished turn-taking two (numeral) tying material (i.e something like string) units time verbs violence some forms proscribed Lykken D T McGue M Tellegen A & Bouchard T J Jr 1992 Emergenesis: Genetic traits that may not run in families American Psycholog–1577  {477}  Lytton H 1990 Child effects–Still unwelcome? Response to Dogge and VVa Psychology 26 705–709 Lytton H & Romney D M 1991 Parents’ differential socialization boys and garic A analysis Psychological Bulletin 109 267–296 Maccoby E.E & Jacklin C.N 1987 The psychology sex differences Stanford CaliЈ_– I University Press. The concept serves to explain how natural selection can perpetuate altruism If there is an "altruism gene" (or complex genes) that influences an organism's behavior to be helpful and protective relatives and their fspring this behavior also increases the proportion the altruism gene in the population because relatives are likely to share genes with the altruist due to common descent Altruists may also have some way to recognize altruistic behavior in unrelated individuals and be inclined to support them As Dawkins points out in The Selfish Gene (Chapter 6) and The Extended Phenotype,[106] this must be distinguished from the green-beard effect ~ IN THE PAST four chapters I have shown why new ideas from the sciences human nature do not undermine humane values On the contrary they present opportunities to sharpen our ethical reasoning and put those values on a firmer foundation In a nutshell: • It is a bad idea to say that discrimination is wrong only because the traits all people are indistinguishable • It is a bad idea to say that violence and exploitation are wrong only because people are not naturally inclined to them • It is a bad idea to say that people are responsible for their actions only because the causes those actions are mysterious. The STATEMENT THAT “violence is learned behavior” is a mantra repeated by right-thinking people to show that they believe that violence should be reduced It is not based on any sound research The sad fact is that despite the repeated assurances that “we know the conditions that breed violence,” we barely have a clue Wild swings in crime rates — up in the 1960s and late 1980s down in the late 1990s — continue to defy any simple explanation And the usual suspects for understanding violence are completely unproven and sometimes patently false This is most blatant in the case factors like “nutrition” and “disease” that are glibly thrown into lists the social ills that allegedly bring on violence There is no evidence to put it mildly that violence is caused by a vitamin deficiency or a bacterial infection But the other putative causes suffer from a lack evidence. 38. marx & Engels 1846/1963 part I 39. Marx 1859/1979 preface 40. Marx 1845/1989; Marx & Engels 1846/1963 41. Marx 1867/1993 vol l,p 10 42. Marx & Engels 1844/1988 43. Glover 1999 p 254 44. Minogue 1999 45. Glover 1999 p 275 46. Glover 1999 pp 297–298 47. Courtois et al 1999 p 620 48. See the references cited in notes. Jensen A R 1972 Genetics and education New York: Harper and Row Jensen A R 1982 The debunking scientific fossils and straw persons: Review “The mismeasure man.” Contemporary Education Review 1 121–135 Jensen A R 1998 The g factor: The science mental ability Westport Conn.: Praeger Jespersen O 1938/1982 Growth and structure the English language Chicago: University Chicago Press Johnson G R Ratwik S H & Sawyer T J 1987 The evocative significance kin terms in patriotic speech In V Reynolds V Falger & I Vine (Eds.) The sociobiology ethnocentrism London: Croon Helm Jones O 2000 Reconsidering rape National Law Journal February. Iris Murdoch haunted by the origins the moral sense comments on its endurance in fiction: We make in many respects though not in all the same kinds moral judgments as the Greeks did and we recognize good or decent people in times and literatures remote from our own Patroclus Antigone Cordelia Mr Knightley Alyosha Patroclus’ invariable kindness Cordelia's truthfulness Alyosha telling his father not to be afraid hell It is just as important that Patroclus should be kind to the captive  {419}  women as that Emma should be kind to Miss Bates and we feel this importance in an immediate and natural way in both cases in spite the fact that nearly three thousand years divide the writers And this when one reflects on it is a remarkable testimony to the existence a single durable human As for sneering at the bourgeoisie it is a sophomoric grab at status with no claim to moral or political virtue The fact is that the values the middle class — personal responsibility devotion to family and neighborhood avoidance macho violence respect for liberal democracy — are good things not bad things Most the world wants to join the bourgeoisie and most artists are members in good standing who adopted a few bohemian affectations Given the history the twentieth century the reluctance the bourgeoisie to join mass Utopian uprisings can hardly be held against them And if they want to hang a painting a red barn or a weeping clown above their couch it's none our damn business.       honor and 326–29       morality and 318–22       prevention 330–32       as public health problem 312 Violence Initiative 314       conservative critique 128–29 299       cooperation in 58 64 167 242–44 255–259 Nonetheless understanding the difference between our best science and our ancient ways thinking can only make our individual and collective decisions better informed It can help scientists and journalists explain a new technology in the face the most common misunderstandings And it can help all us understand the technology so that we can accept or reject it on grounds that we can justify to ourselves and to others ~ And so he continues advertising the virility sobriety and logic English — and ends the chapter: “As the language is so also is the nation.”       cross–cultural differences in 166–69 271–75       emotions and 271–72 279       religion and 186–90   ~ The only way to win a Prisoner's Dilemma is to change the rules or find a way out the game The World War I soldiers changed the rules in a way that has been much discussed in evolutionary psychology: play it repeatedly and apply a strategy reciprocity remembering the other player's last action and repaying him in But in many antagonistic encounters that is not an option because when the other player defects he can destroy you — or in the case the Cuban Missile Crisis destroy the world In that case the players had to recognize they were in a futile game and mutually decide to get out it Glover draws an important conclusion about how the cognitive component human nature might allow us to reduce violence even when it appears to be a rational strategy at. A fourth is recursion: the ability to embed one thought inside another so that we can entertain not only the thought that Elvis lives but the thought that the National Enquirer reported that Elvis lives that some people believe the National Enquirer report that Elvis lives that it is amazing that some people believe the National Enquirer report that Elvis lives and so on Connectionist networks would superimpose these propositions and thereby confuse their various subjects and predicates. A number features many which were described by Charles Hockett and called design features[21] set human language apart from other known systems communication such as those used by non-human animals Inherit the Wind 130 Inquisition 137 insanity defense 183–84 intellectual property 238 intelligence 33 44 106–7. The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves f and emotion begins These include a system for assessing danger coupled with the emotion called fear a system for assessing contamination coupled with the emotion called disgust and a moral sense which is complex enough to deserve a chapter. Religious right 128–33 163–64 175 250 286 287 Republic (Plato) 285 Non-Zero-Sum games arise not just from people's ability to help one another but from their ability to refrain from hurting one another In many disputes both sides come out ahead by dividing up the savings made available from not having to fight That provides an incentive to develop technologies conflict resolution such as mediation face-saving measures measured restitution and retribution and legal codes The primatologist Frans de Waal has argued that the rudiments conflict resolution may be found in many species The human forms are ubiquitous across cultures as universal as the conflicts interest they are designed to But a funny thing happened to language in intellectual life Rather than being appreciated for its ability to communicate thought it was condemned for its power to constrain thought Famous quotations from two philosophers capture the anxiety “We have to cease to think if we refuse to do it in the prisonhouse language,” wrote Friedrich Nietzsche “The limits my language mean the limits my world,” wrote Ludwig Wittgenstein. Estrich Susan 353 357 estrogen 346 348 ethnic groups:       genetic differences among 143–44       neologisms for 211–13       stereotypes about 201–7 Daly Martin 135 164–65 182 254 304 313 319 325 327 Damasio Antonio 99–100       damage to 42–45 98–100 265       development 83–100 227 386–87 396–97 This argument parallels a long-running debate about the most blatant example a psychological explanation that nullifies responsibility the insanity Many legal systems in the English-speaking world follow the nineteenth-century M'Naughten rule: Why is the notion free will so closely tied to the notion responsibility and why is biology thought to threaten both? Here is the logic We blame people for an evil act or bad decision only when they intended the consequences and could have chosen otherwise We don't convict a hunter who shoots a friend he has mistaken for a deer or the chauffeur who drove John F Kennedy into the line fire because they could not foresee and did not intend the outcome their actions We show mercy to the victim torture who betrays a comrade to a delirious patient who lashes out at a nurse or to a madman who strikes someone he believes to be a ferocious animal because we feel they are not in command their faculties We don't put a small child on trial if he causes a death nor do we try an animal or an inanimate object because we believe them to be constitutionally incapable making an informed choice. Some the most influential contemporary thinkers about biology and human nature have drawn the same distinction Ernst Mayr one the founders the modern theory evolution wisely anticipated nearly four decades debate when he. Equity feminism is a moral doctrine about equal treatment that makes no commitments regarding open empirical issues in psychology or biology Gender feminism is an empirical doctrine committed to three claims about human nature The first is that the differences between men and women have nothing to do with biology but are socially constructed in their entirety The second is that humans possess a single social motive — power — and that social life can be understood only in terms how it is exercised The third is that human interactions arise not from the motives people dealing with each other as individuals but from the motives groups dealing with other groups — in this case the male gender dominating the female gender. Kohn Alfie 309 Komar Vitaly 408–9 Koss Mary 369 370 Kosslyn Stephen 215 Kristol Irving 130–31 The most obvious prediction the theory parent-fspring conflict is that parents and siblings should all have different perceptions how the parents treated the siblings Indeed studies the grown members families show that most parents claim they treated their children equitably while a  {250}  majority siblings claim they did not get their fair Researchers call it the Smothers Brothers effect after the comedy pair whose duller member had the signature line “Mom always liked you best.” Most proundly children do not allow their personalities to be shaped by their parents’ nagging blandishments or attempts to serve as role As we shall see in the chapter on children the effect being raised by a given pair parents within a culture is surprisingly small: children who grow up in the same home end up no more alike in personality than children who were separated at birth; adopted siblings grow up to be no more similar than strangers The findings flatly contradict the predictions every theory in the history psychology but one Trivers alone had predicted: Good reductionism (also called hierarchical reductionism) consists not replacing one field knowledge with another but connecting or unifying them The building blocks used by one field are put under a microscope by another The black boxes get opened; the promissory notes get cashed A geographer might explain why the coastline Africa fits into the coastline the Americas by saying that the landmasses were once adjacent but sat on different plates which drifted apart The question why the plates move gets passed on to the geologists who appeal to an upwelling magma that pushes them apart As for how the magma got so hot they call in the physicists to explain the reactions in the Earth's core and mantle None the scientists is dispensable An isolated geographer would have to invoke magic to move the continents and an isolated physicist could not have predicted the shape South America. Perhaps what misled those eighteen federal agencies into thinking they were getting their 25 million dollars worth was the positive way the researchers phrased their findings: goodrelationships with parents exert a protective effect Expressed in a different (but equally accurate) way the results sound less interesting: adolescents who don't get along well with their parents are more likely to use drugs or engage in risky sex The results sound still less interesting expressed this way: adolescents who use drugs or engage in risky sex don't get along well. Divale W.T 57 Dooling Richard 176 Dostoevsky Fyodor 41 307 Double–Blind Dictator game 257 Douglas William O 181 265 Dred Scott decision 292 drug policies 331–32 Whatever their exact interpretation turns out to be the findings behavioral genetics are highly damaging to the Blank Slate and its companion doctrines The slate cannot be blank if different genes can make it more or less smart articulate adventurous shy happy conscientious neurotic open introverted giggly spatially challenged or likely to dip buttered toast in cfee For genes to affect the mind in all these ways the mind must have many parts and features for the genes to affect Similarly if the mutation or deletion a gene can target a cognitive ability as specific as spatial construction or a personality trait as specific as sensation-seeking that trait may be a distinct component a complex psyche. This argument against the Blank Slate was stated pithily by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) in a reply to Locke Leibniz repeated the empiricist motto “There is nothing in the intellect that was not first in the senses,” then added “except the intellect itself.”8 Something in the mind must be innate if it is only the mechanisms that do the learning Something has to see a world of objects rather than a kaleidoscope of shimmering pixels Something has to infer the content of a sentence rather than parrot back the exact wording  {35}  Something has to interpret other people's behavior as their attempts to achieve goals rather than as trajectories of jerking arms. Akerl G A 1984 An economic theorist's book tales: Essays that entertain the consequences new assumptions in economic theory New York: Cambridge University Press Alcock J 1998 Unpunctuated equilibrium in the Natural History essays Stephen Jay Gould Evolution and Human Behavior 19 321–336 Alcock J 2001 The triumph sociobiology New York: Oxford University Press Alexander R D 1987 The biology moral systems Hawthorne N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter Allen E Beckwith B Beckwith J Chorover S Culver D Duncan M Gould S J Hubbard R Inouye H Leeds A Lewontin R Madansky C Miller L Pyeritz R Rosenthal M & Schreier H 1975 Against “sociobiology.” New York Review Books 22 43–44. Defensive scientists sometimes try to deflect the charge determinism by pointing out that behavior is never perfectly predictable but always probabilistic even in the dreams the hardest-headed materialists (In the heyday Skinner's behaviorism his students formulated the Harvard Law Animal Behavior: “Under controlled experimental conditions temperature time lighting feeding and training the organism will behave as it damned well pleases.”) Even identical twins reared together who share all their genes and most their environment are not identical in personality and behavior just highly similar Perhaps the brain amplifies random events at the molecular or quantum level Perhaps brains are nonlinear dynamical systems subject to unpredictable chaos Or perhaps the intertwined influences genes and environment are so complicated that no mortal will ever trace them out with enough precision to predict behavior exactly. 8. patai & Patai 1989 9. Sowell 1994; Sowell 1995a 10. Patterson 1995; Patterson 2000 11. Cappon 1959 pp 387–392 12. Seventh Lincoln-Douglas debate October 15,1858 13. Mayr 1963 p 649 For a more recent statement this argument from an evolutionary geneticist see Crow 2002 14. Chomsky 1973 pp 362–363 See also Segerstrale 2000 15. For further discussion see Tribe 1971 16. Los Angeles Times poll Decem 17. Nozick 1974.       sex ratios and 343       see also evolution Navajo language 37 Nazism 153–58 180–81 272–73 Neel James 115–19 This leaves one wall standing in the landscape knowledge the one that twentieth-century social scientists guarded so jealously It divides matter from mind the material from the spiritual the physical from the mental biology from culture nature from society and the sciences from the social sciences humanities and arts The division was built into each the doctrines the ficial theory: the blank slate given by biology versus the contents inscribed by experience and culture the nobility the savage in the state nature versus the corruption social institutions the machine following inescapable laws versus the ghost that is free to choose and to improve the human condition. Some speech sounds both vowels and consonants involve release air flow through the nasal cavity and these are called nasals or nasalized sounds Other sounds are defined by the way the tongue moves within the mouth: such as the l-sounds (called laterals because the air flows along both sides the tongue) and the r-sounds (called rhotics) that are characterized by how the tongue is positioned relative to the air stream.[54] Boehm Christopher 298  {493}  Bogart Humphrey 163 bonobos 45 Borges Jorge Luis 59 Bork Robert 130 Born to Rebel (Sulloway). Wilson Margo 164–65 182 254 304 313 319 325 327 342 Wilson Woodrow 201 “Wisdom Repugnance The” (Kass) 274 Several species animals have proved to be able to acquire forms communication through social learning: for instance a bonobo named Kanzi learned to express itself using a set symbolic lexigrams Similarly many species birds and whales learn their songs by imitating other members their species However while some animals may acquire large numbers words and symbols,[note 1] none have been able to learn as many different signs as are generally known by an average 4 year old human nor have any acquired anything resembling the complex grammar human language.[26] Capitalism 161 246–47 290–91 297 302–4 393 capital punishment 181–82 331. Winston CHURCHILL'S SUMMARY our species could be dismissed as the pessimism a man who fought history's most awful war and was present at the birth a cold war that could have destroyed humanity altogether In fact it has sadly stood the test time Though the cold war is a memory and hot wars between major nations are rare we still do not have peace in the world Even before the infamous year 2001 with its horrific terrorist attacks on the United States and subsequent war in Afghanistan the World Conflict List catalogued sixty-eight areas systematic violence from Albania and Algeria through Zambia and Zimbabwe.2 55. akerl 1984; Daly & Wilson 1994; Jones 2001; Rogers 1994 56. Frank 1999; Frank 1985 57. Bowles & Gintis 1998; Bowles & Gintis 1999 58. Gintis 2000 59. Wilkinson 2000 60. Daly & Wilson 1988; Daly Wilson & Vasdev 2001; Wilson & Daly 1997 Chapter 17: Violence 1. Quoted by R Cooper in “The long peace,” Prospect April 1999 2. National Defense Council Foundation Alexandria Va .org . Wendy Wolf at Viking Penguin and Stefan McGrath at Penguin Books provided excellent advice and welcome good cheer I thank them and my agents John Brockman and Katinka Matson for their efforts on behalf the book I am delighted that Katya Rice agreed to copy-edit this book our fifth collaboration My heartfelt appreciation goes to my family the Pinkers Boodmans and Subbiah-Adamses for their love and support Special thanks to my wife Ilavenil Subbiah for her wise advice and loving encouragement This book is dedicated to four people who have been dear friends and pround influences: Donald Symons Judith Rich Harris Leda Cosmides and. The ultimate irony the Standard Social Science Model is that it failed to accomplish the very goal that brought it into being: explaining the different fortunes human societies without invoking race The best explanation today is thoroughly cultural but it depends on seeing a culture as a product human desires rather than as a shaper them History and culture then can be grounded in psychology which can be grounded in computation neuroscience genetics and evolution But this kind talk sets f alarms in the minds many nonscientists They fear that consilience is a smokescreen for a hostile takeover the humanities arts and social sciences by philistines in white coats The richness their subject matter would be dumbed down into a generic palaver about neurons genes and evolutionary urges This scenario is ten called “reductionism,” and I will conclude the chapter by showing why consilience does not call. Our future may lie beyond our vision but it is not completely beyond our control It is the shaping impulse America that neither fate nor nature nor the irresistible tides history but the work our own hands matched to reason and principle will determine our destiny There is pride in that even arrogance but there is also experience and truth In any event it is the only way. • sex differences are not an arbitrary feature Western culture like the decision to drive on the left or on the right In all human cultures men and women are seen as having different natures All cultures divide their labor by sex with more responsibility for childrearing by women and more control the public and political realms by men (The division labor emerged even in a culture where everyone had been committed to stamping it out the Israeli kibbutz.) In all cultures men are more aggressive more prone to stealing more prone to lethal violence (including war) and more likely to woo seduce and trade favors for sex And in all cultures one finds rape as well as proscriptions against Chapter 3: The Last Wall to Fall   1. Wilson 1998 The idea was first developed by John Tooby and Leda Cosmides 1992 2. Anderson 1995; Crevier 1993; Gardner 1985; Pinker 1997 3. Fodor 1994; Haugeland 1981; Newell 1980; Pinker 1997 chap 2 4. Brutus 1 by Selmer Bringsjord S Bringsjord “Chess is too easy,” Technology Review March/April 1998 pp 23–28 5. EMI (Experiments in Musical Intelligence) by David Cope G Johnson “The artist's angst is all in your head,” New York Times November 16,1997. 4. hunt 1999; Jensen 1972; Kors & Silverglate 1998; J P Rushton “The new enemies evolutionary science,” Liberty March 1998 pp 31–35; “Psychologist Hans Eysenck Freudian critic dead at 81,” Associated Press September 8 1997   PART I: THE BLANK SLATE THE NOBLE SAVAGE AND THE GHOST IN THE MACHINE   1. Macnamara 1999; Passmore 1970; Stevenson & Haberman 1998; Ward 1998 2. Genesis 1:26 3. Genesis 3:16 4. This is according to interpretations postdating the Bible which did not clearly distinguish mind. 46. hardcastle & Buller 2000; Panksepp & Panksepp 2000 47. Gu & Spitzer 1995 48. Catalano & Shatz 1998; Crair Gillespie & Stryker 1998; Katz & Shatz 1996 49. Catalano & Shatz 1998; Crair Gillespie & Stryker 1998; Katz & Shatz 1996; Stryker 1994 50. Catalano & Shatz 1998; Stryker 1994 51. Wang etal 1998 52. Brown 1985; Hamer & Copeland 1994 53. J R Skoyles June 7,1999 on an email discussion list for evolutionary psychology 54. Recanzone. Analogy 105 106       see also metaphor Anderson Elijah 328 Anderson John 80 Anderson Steven 99 androgens 347 348       see also testosterone Animal Liberation (Singer) 320 Parental investment is a limited resource A day has only twenty-four hours short-term memory can hold only four chunks information and as many a frazzled mother has pointed out “I only have two hands!” At one end the lifespan children learn that a mother cannot pump out an unlimited stream milk; at the other they learn that parents do not leave behind infinite inheritances.       crime and 47 50–51 176 178       emergenic traits and 152–53 Criticism evolutionary psychology involves questions testability cognitive and evolutionary assumptions (such as modular functioning the brain and large uncertainty about the ancestral environment) importance non-genetic and non-adaptive explanations as well as political and ethical issues due to interpretations research results.[9][10] Barry Dave 383 425 Barthes Roland 208 Bates Elizabeth 35–36 Bauhaus 418 Bazelon David 181 Beatles. Consilience (Wilson) 108 134 Constitution U.S 297–98 cooperation 53 242–43 255–59 Coren Stanley 121 These girls say “Well I should be able to get drunk at a fraternity party and go upstairs to a guy's room without anything happening.” And I say “Oh really? And when you drive your car to New York City do you leave your keys on the hood?” My point is that if your car is stolen after you do something like that yes the police should pursue the thief and he should be punished But at the same time the police — and I — have the right to say to you “You stupid idiot what the hell were you thinking?”102 Similarly McElroy points out the illogic arguments like Koss's that women should not be given practical advice that “infringes more on women's liberties than men's":   REFERENCES 461     INDEX 491   <<  {xvii}  >> THE. The process “standing back and going up a further level” might be necessary to overcome the emotional impediments to peace as well as the intellectual ones Diplomatic peacemakers try to hurry along the epiphanies that prompt adversaries to extricate themselves from a deadly game They try to blunt competition by carefully fashioning compromises over the disputed resources They try to defuse Hobbesian traps via “confidence-building measures” such as making military activities transparent and bringing in third parties as guarantors And they try to bring the two sides into each other's moral circles by facilitating trade cultural exchanges and people-to-people activities. ~ SOME THESE protests were signs the times and faded with the decline radical chic But the reaction to two books on evolution continued for decades and became part the intellectual mainstream. Ekman Paul 39 107–8 Elbow Room (Dennett) 176–77 Eliot T S 301 400 elitism 149 301. In chronically feuding and warring societies an essential manly virtue is the capacity for violence; head-hunting and coup counting may then become prestigious and the commission a homicide may even be an obligatory rite passage To turn the other cheek is not saintly but stupid Or contemptibly Shweder R A 1990 Cultural psychology: What is it? In J W Stigler R A Shweder & G H Herdt (Eds.) Cultural psychology: Essays on comparative human development New York: Cambridge University Press Shweder R A 1994 “You're not sick you're just in love”: Emotion as an interpretive system In P Ekman & R J Davidson (Eds.) The nature emotion New York: Oxford University Press Shweder R A Much N C Mahapatra M & Park L 1997 The “big three” morality (autonomy community and divinity) and the “big three” explanations suffering In A Brandt & P Rozin (Eds.),Morality and health New York: Routledge Siegal M Varley R & Want S C 2001 Mind over grammar: Reasoning in aphasia and development Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 296–301. Subtle indeed is the argument that explains free will in terms its synonym “volition” (with or without “elements difference,” whatever that means) and attributes it to the equally mysterious “evolution consciousness.” Basically Rose and Gould are struggling to make sense the dichotomy they invented between a naturally selected genetically organized brain on one side and a desire for peace justice and equality on the other In Part III we will see that the dichotomy is a. And he laid down a law for the social sciences that would be cited ten in the century to come: “The determining cause a social fact should be sought among the social facts preceding it and not among the states individual consciousness.”31 Most biologists who are pondering the puzzle don't conclude that humans are less complex than we thought Instead they conclude that the number genes in a genome has little to do with the complexity the organism.7 A single gene does not correspond to a single component in such a way that an organism with 20,000 genes has 20,000 components an organism with 30,000 genes has 30,000 components and so on Genes specify proteins and some the proteins do become the meat and juices an organism But other proteins turn genes on or f speed up or slow down their activity or cut and splice other proteins into new combinations James Watson points out that we should recalibrate our intuitions about what a given number genes can do: “Imagine watching a play with thirty thousand actors You'd get pretty conrused.” This book is primarily about human nature — an endowment cognitive and emotional faculties that is universal to healthy members Homo sapiens Samuel Johnson wrote “We are all prompted by the same motives all deceived by the same fallacies all animated by hope obstructed by danger entangled by desire and seduced by pleasure.”1 The abundant evidence that we share a human nature does not mean that the differences among individuals races or sexes are also in our nature Confucius could have been right when he wrote “Men's natures are alike; it is their habits that carry them far apart.”2 Nonetheless Hobbes and Rousseau limned contrasting pictures the state nature that have inspired thinkers in the centuries since No one can fail to recognize the influence the doctrine the Noble Savage in contemporary consciousness We see it in the current respect for all things natural (natural foods natural medicines natural childbirth) and the distrust the man-made the unfashionability authoritarian styles childrearing and education and the understanding social problems as repairable defects in our institutions rather than as tragedies inherent to the human condition ~ THE OTHER SACRED doctrine that ten accompanies the Blank Slate is usually attributed to the scientist mathematician and philosopher Rene Descartes (1596–1650): Course just because many sex differences are rooted in biology does not mean that one sex is superior that the differences will emerge for all  {351}  people in all circumstances that discrimination against a person based on sex is justified or that people should be coerced into doing things typical their sex But neither are the differences without consequences ~ BY NOW MANY people are happy to say what was unsayable in polite company a few years ago: that males and females do not have interchangeable minds Even the comic pages have commented on the shift in the debate as we see in this dialogue between the free-associating junkfood-loving Zippy and the cartoonist's alter ego Griffy:     Acquisition 38 39 53 60 62–63 70–7 391 brain and 99 change. Breland Keller 20 Breland Marian 20 Brennan William 181 Britain 16 68 71 144 296 Broca Paul 44 Brooks Rodney 61 The enormous moral costs equating a person with a conceptus and the cognitive gymnastics required to maintain that belief in the face modern biology can sometimes lead to an agonizing reconsideration deeply held beliefs In 2001 Senator Orrin Hatch Utah broke with his longtime allies in the anti-abortion movement and came out in favor stem-cell research after studying the science reproduction and meditating on his Mormon faith “I have searched my conscience,” he said “I just cannot equate a child living in the womb with moving toes and fingers and a beating heart with an embryo in a freezer.”23 Anyone who teaches the psychology categorization has been hit with this question from a puzzled student: “You're telling us that putting things into categories is rational and makes us smart But we've always been taught that putting people into categories is irrational and makes us sexist and racist If categorization is so great when we think about ducks and chairs why is it so terrible when we think about genders and ethnic groups?” As with many ingenuous questions from students this one uncovers a shortcoming in the literature not a flaw in their understanding. Acknowledging human nature does not mean overturning our personal world views and I would have nothing to suggest as a replacement if it did It means only taking intellectual life out its parallel universe and reuniting it with science and when it is borne out by science with common sense The alternative is to make intellectual life increasingly irrelevant to human affairs to turn intellectuals into hypocrites and to turn everyone else into anti-intellectuals. A handy summary the three laws is this: Genes 50 percent Shared Environment 0 percent Unique Environment 50 percent (or if you want to be charitable Genes 40–50 percent Shared Environment 0–10 percent Unique  {381}  Environment 50 percent) A simple way remembering what we are trying to explain is this: identical twins are 50 percent similar whether they grow up together or apart Keep this in mind and watch what happens to your favorite ideas about the effects upbringing in childhood ~ All languages contain the semantic structure predication: a structure that predicates a property state or action Traditionally semantics has been understood to be the study how speakers and interpreters assign truth values to statements so that meaning is understood to be the process by which a predicate can be said to be true or false about an entity e.g "[x [is y]]" or "[x [does y]]" Recently this model semantics has been complemented with more dynamic models meaning that incorporate shared knowledge about the context in which a sign is interpreted into the production meaning Such models meaning are explored in the field pragmatics.[61]       in behavioral genetics 378–87       conflict in 247–51       love in 245–47 Conquest Granada The (Dryden) 6 conservatism 128–33 283–305 394 consilience 30 60 68 69–70 The human brain equips us to thrive in a world objects living things and other people Those entities have a large impact on our well-being and one would expect the brain to be well suited to detecting them and their powers Failing to recognize a steep precipice or a hungry panther or a jealous spouse can have significant negative consequences for biological fitness to put it mildly The fantastic complexity the brain is there in part to register consequential facts about the world around us  {198}  Shastri L & Ajjanagadde V 1993 From simple associations to systematic reasoning: A connectionist representation rules variables and dynamic bindings using temporal synchrony Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 417–494 Shatz A 1999 The guilty party Lingua Franca B17–B21 Shepard R N 1990 Mind sights: Original visual illusions ambiguities and other anomalies New York: W H Freeman Sherif M 1966 Group conflict and cooperation: Their social psychology London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Shipman P 1994 The evolution racism New York: Simon & Schuster Short P 1999 Mao: A life New York: Henry Holt Shoumatf A 1985 The mountain names: A history the human York: Simon & Schuster. Adams B Breazeal C Brooks R A & Scassellati B 2000 Humanoid robots: A new kind tool IEEE Intelligent Systems 25–31 Agrawal A.R Brodie E.D.I & Brown J 2001 Parent–fspring coadaptation and the dual genetic control maternal care Science 292 1710–1712 Ahn W.–K Kalish C Gelman S A Medin D L Luhmann C Atran S Coley J U & Shafto P 2001 Why essences are essential in the psychology concepts Cognition 82 59–69 Aiello R & Sloboda J A (Eds.) 1994 Musical perceptions New York: Oxford University Press Aiken N E 1998 The biological origins art Westport Conn.: Praeger. The great project modern art was to diagnose and cure the sickness unto death modern humankind [Its artistic mission] is to identify and strip away the false sense routine experience and interpretive framing provided by conformist mass commercial society and to make us experience nakedly and anew the immediacy reality through our peeled and rejuvenated senses This therapeutic work is also a spiritual  {411}  mission in that a community such transformed human beings would in theory be able to construct a better kind society The enemies the process are cooptation commercial exploitation and reproduction and kitsch Fresh raw experience — to which artists have an unmediated and childlike access — is routinized compartmentalized and dulled into insensibility by Philosophy TODAY GETS no respect Many scientists use the term as a synonym for effete speculation When my colleague Ned Block told his father that he would major in the subject his father's reply was “Luft!” — Yiddish for “air.” And then there's the joke in which a young man told his mother he would become a Doctor Philosophy and she said “Wonderful! But what kind disease is philosophy?” 10. damewood 2001 11. Ron Rosenbaum “Staring into the heart darkness,” New York Times Magazine June 4 1995; Daly & Wilson 1988 p 79 12. Antonaccio & Schweiker 1996; Brink 1989; Murdoch 1993; Nozick 1981; Sayre-McCord 1988 13. Singer 1981 PART IV: KNOW THYSELF   1 Alexander 1987 p 40  {450}    Chapter 12: In Touch with Reality   1. Quotation from Cartmill 1998 2. Shepard 1990. “against ‘Sociobiology'” (Gould et al.) 109 122 132 aggression see violence agriculture 143 237–38 Akerl George 302 Alcockjohn 134 135 Alcohol Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration 314 [One] should approach to the faults the state as to the wounds a father with pious awe and trembling solicitude By this wise prejudice we are taught to look with horror on those children their country who are prompt rashly to hack that aged parent in pieces and put him into the kettle magicians in hopes that by their poisonous weeds and wild incantations they may regenerate the paternal constitution and renovate their father's The tragedy reciprocal altruism is that sacrifices on behalf nonrelatives cannot survive without a web disagreeable emotions like anxiety mistrust guilt shame and anger As the journalist Matt Ridley puts it in his survey the evolution cooperation: Reciprocity hangs like a sword Damocles over every human head He's only asking me to his party so I'll give his book a good review They've been to dinner twice and never asked us back once After all I did for him how could he do that to me? If you do this for me I promise I'll make it up later What did I do to deserve that? You owe it to me Obligation; debt; favour; bargain; contract; exchange; deal Our language and our lives are permeated. Even the left-baiting author Tom Wolfe who admires neuroscience and evolutionary psychology worries about their moral implications In his essay “Sorry but Your Soul Just Died,” he writes that when science has finally killed the soul (“that last refuge values”) “the lurid carnival that will ensue may make [Nietzsche's] phrase ‘the total eclipse all values’ seem tame”:  {132}    To Don Judy Leda and John PENGUIN BOOKS ~ 2. goldberg 1968; Janda 1998; Neisser et al 1996 3. Jensen 1971 4. Plominetal 2001 5. Bouchard 1994; Bouchard et al 1990; Bouchard 1998; Loehlin 1992; Plomin 1994; Plominetal 2001 6. Plominetal 2001 7. McLearn et al 1997; Plomin Owen & McGuffin 1994 8. Bouchard 1994; Bouchard et al 1990; Bouchard 1998; Loehlin 1992; Lykken et al 1992; Plomin 1990; Plomin 1994; Stromswold 1998 9. Plominetal 2001 10. Bouchard et al 1990; Plomin 1991; Plomin 1994; Plomin & Daniels 1987. The two kinds visionaries thereby line up on opposite sides many issues that would seem to have little in common The Utopian Vision seeks to articulate social goals and devise policies that target them directly: economic inequality is attacked in a war on poverty pollution by environmental regulations racial imbalances by preferences carcinogens by bans on food additives The Tragic Vision points to the self-interested motives the people who would implement these policies — namely the expansion their bureaucratic fiefdoms — and to their ineptitude at anticipating the myriad consequences especially when the social goals are pitted against millions people pursuing their own interests Thus say the Tragic Visionaries the Utopians fail to anticipate that welfare might encourage dependency or that a restriction on one pollutant might force people to use another. 40. hare 1993; Lykken 1995; Rice 1997 41. Ghiglieri 1999; Wrangham & Peterson 1996 42. Davidson Putnam & Larson 2000; Renfrew 1997 43. Geary 1998 pp 226–227; Sherif 1966  {455}  44. R Tremblay quoted in C Holden “The violence the lambs,” Science 289 2000 pp 580–581 45. Buss & Duntley in press; Kenrick & Sheets 1994 46. Hobbes 1651/1957 p 185 47. Dawkins 1976/1989 p 66 48. Bueno de Mesquita 1981. Young Cathy 342 353 360 Yugoslavia 331 Zahavi Amotz 406 Zimbardo Philip 321 Zing Yang Kuo.       chapter 12 In Touch with Reality 197       Chapter 13 Out Our Depths 219       Chapter 14 The Many Roots Our Suffering 241       Chapter 15 The Sanctimonious Animal 269 The models also cannot properly distinguish among verbs that have the same sounds but different past-tense forms such as ring the bell-rang the bell and ring the city-ringed the city That is because the standard models represent only sound and are blind to the grammatical differences among verbs that call for different conjugations The key difference here is between simple roots like ring in the sense “resonate” (past tense rang) and complex verbs derived from nouns like ring in the sense “form a ring around” (past tense ringed) To register that difference a language-using system has to be equipped with compositional data structures (such as “a verb made from the noun ring”) and not just a beanbag units. Plomin R DeFries J C & Fulker D W 1988 Nature and nurture in infancy and early childhood New York: Cambridge University Press Plomin R DeFries J C McClearn G E & McGuffin P 2001 Behavior genetics (4th ed.) New York: Worth Plomin R DeFries J C McClearn G E & Rutter M 1997 Behavioral genetics (3rd ed.) New York: W H Freeman Plomin R Owen M J & McGuffin P 1994 The genetic basis complex human behaviors Science 264 1733–1739 Polti G 1921/1977 The thirty–six dramatic situations Boston: The Writer Inc Pons T.M Garraghty P.E Ommaya A.K Kass J.H Taub E & Mishkin M 1991 Massive cortical reorganization after sensory deafferentation in adult macaques Science 252 1857–1860. The rumors our death turned out to be greatly exaggerated and the other prophecies the afternoon fared no better The use analogy in reasoning far from being the work the devil is today a major research topic in cognitive science and is widely considered a key to what makes us smart Speech-recognition stware is routinely used in telephone information services and comes packaged with home computers where it has been a godsend for the disabled and for people with repetitive strain injuries And Weizenbaum's accusations stand as a reminder the political paranoia and moral exhibitionism that characterized university life in the 1970s the era in which the current opposition to the sciences human nature. For my part I consider the earth very noble and admirable precisely because the diverse alterations changes generations etc that occur in it incessantly If not being subject to any changes it were a vast desert sand or mountain jasper or if at the time the flood the waters which covered it had frozen and it had remained an enormous globe ice where nothing was ever born or ever altered or changed I should deem it a useless lump in the universe devoid activity and in a word superfluous and essentially nonexistent This is exactly the difference between a living animal and a dead one; and I say the same the moon Jupiter and all other world globes. What this astonishing variety suggests is that man's way life is largely determined by culture rather than by genes However it is still possible that human males in general have a tendency towards promiscuity and females a tendency to monogamy as we would predict on evolutionary grounds Which these tendencies wins in particular societies depends on details cultural circumstance just as in different animal species it depends on ecological 39. a Ferguson “The end nature and the next man” (Review F Fukuyama's The great disruption) Weekly Standard J 40. A Ferguson “How Steven Pinker's mind works” (Review S Pinker's How the mind works) Weekly Standard Janu 41. T Wolfe “Sorry but your soul just died,” Forbes ASAP December 2 1996; reprinted in slightly different form in Wolfe 2000 Ellipses in original 42. T Wolfe “Sorry but your soul just died,” Forbes ASAP December 2,1996; reprinted in slightly different form. The jurors ought to be told in all cases that every man is to be presumed to be sane and to possess a sufficient degree reason to be  {184}  responsible for his crimes until the contrary be proved to their satisfaction; and that to establish a defense on the ground insanity it must be clearly proved that at the time the committing the act the party accused was laboring under such a defect reason from disease the mind as not to know the nature and quality the act he was doing or if he did know it that he did not know he was doing what.       punishment and 180–85 263 293 330–32       see also rape; violence; psychopathy Crime in America (Clark) 313 Crime Imprisonment The (Shaw) 181 Crime Punishment The (Menninger) 181 The effects the unique environment can be measured by subtracting the correlation between identical twins (who share genes and an environment) from 1 (which is the sum the effects the genes the shared environment and the unique environment) By the same reasoning it can be measured in adoption studies by subtracting the heritabihty estimate and the shared-environment estimate from 1 In practice all these calculations are more complicated because they may try to account for nonadditive effects where the whole is not the sum the parts and for noise in the measurements But you now have the basic logic behind them. Krech S 1994 Genocide in tribal society Nature 371 14–15 Krech S 1999 The ecological Indian: Myth and history New York: Norton Krubitzer L & Huffman K J 2000 A realization the neocortex in mammals: Genetic and epigenetic contributions to the phenotype Brain Behavior and Evolution 55 322–335 Krueger R F Hicks B M & McGue M 2001 Altruism and antisocial behavior: Independent tendencies unique personality correlates distinct etiologies Psychological Science 12 397–402 Kubovy M 1981 Concurrent pitch segregation and the theory indispensable attributes In M Kubovy & J Pomerantz (Eds.) Perceptual organization Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Kubovy M 1986 The psychology perspective and Renaissance art New York: Cambridge University Press. Daly M 1991 Natural selection doesn't have goals but it's the reason organisms do (Commentary on P J H Shoemaker “The quest for optimality: A positive heuristic science?”) Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 219–220 Daly M Salmon C & Wilson M 1997 Kinship: The conceptual hole in psychological studies social cognition and close relationships In J Simpson & D Kenrick (Eds.) Evolutionary social psychology Mahwah N.J.: Erlbaum Daly M & Wilson M 1983 Sex evolution and behavior (2nd ed.) Belmont Calif: Wadsworth Daly M & Wilson M 1988 Homicide Hawthorne N.Y.: Aldine de Gruyter Daly M & Wilson M 1994 Evolutionary psychology male violence In J Archer (Ed.) Male violence London: Roufledge. But in three circumscribed areas the arts really do have something to be depressed about One is the traditions elite art that descended from prestigious European genres such as the music performed by symphony orchestras the art shown in major galleries and museums and the ballet performed by major companies Here there really may be a drought compelling new material For example 90 percent “classical music” was composed before 1900 and the most influential composers in the twentieth century were active before And the genes even if they by no means seal our fate don't sit easily with the intuition that we are ghosts in machines either Imagine that you are agonizing over a choice — which career to pursue whether to get married how to vote what to wear that day You have finally staggered to a decision when the phone rings It is the identical twin you never knew you had During the joyous conversation it comes out that she has just chosen a similar career has decided to get married at around the same time plans to cast her vote for the same presidential candidate and is wearing a shirt the same color — just as the behavioral geneticists who tracked you down would have bet How much discretion did the “you” making the choices actually have if the outcome could have been predicted in advance at least probabilistically based on events that took place in your mother's Fallopian tubes decades ago? The doctrine extreme plasticity has used the plasticity discovered in primary sensory cortex as a metaphor for what happens elsewhere in the brain The upshot these two sections is that it is not a very good metaphor If the plasticity sensory cortex symbolized the plasticity mental life as a whole it should be easy to change what we don't like about ourselves or other people  {94}  Patterson O 2000 Taking culture seriously: A framework and an Afro–American illustration In L E Harrison & S P Huntington (Eds.) Culture matters: How values shape human progress New York: Basic Books Pedersen N L McClearn G E Plomin R & Nesselroade J R 1992 Effects early rearing environment on twin similarity in the last half the life span British Journal Developmental Psychology 10 255–267 Pennock R T 2000 Tower Babel: The evidence against the new creationism Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Pennock R T (Ed.) 2001 Intelligent design: Creationism and its critics Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Peretz I Gagnon L & Bouchard B 1998 Music and emotion: Perceptual determinants immediacy and isolation after brain damage Cognition 68 111–141. Mallon R & Stich S 2000 The odd couple: The compatibility social construction and evolutionary psychology Philosophy Science 67 133–154 Marcus G F 1998 Rethinking eliminative connectionism Cognitive Psychology 37 243–282 Marcus G F 2001a The algebraic mind: Reflections on connectionism and cognitive science Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press Marcus G F 2001b Plasticity and nativism: Towards a resolution an apparent paradox In S Wermter J Austin & D Willshaw (Eds.) Emergent neural computational architectures based on neuroscience New York: Springer–Verlag Marcus G E Brinkmann U Clahsen H Wiese R & Pinker S 1995 German inflection: The exception that proves the rule Cognitive Psychology 29 189–256. The word culture used to refer to exalted genres entertainment such as poetry opera and ballet The other familiar sense — “the totality socially transmitted behavior patterns arts beliefs institutions and all other products human work and thought” — is only a century old This change in the English language is just one the legacies the father modern anthropology Franz Boas (1858–1942). Wolfe T 1975 The painted word New York: Bantam Books Wolfe T 1981 From Bauhaus to our house New York: Bantam Books Wolfe T 2000 Sorry but your soul just died In Hooking up New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux Wrangham R 1999 Is military incompetence adaptive? Evolution and Human Behavior 20 3–17 Wrangham R.W & Peterson D 1996 Demonic males: Apes and the origins human violence Boston: Houghton Mifflin Wright F A Lemon W J Zhao W D Sears R Zhuo D Wang J.–R Yang H.–Y Baer T Stredney D Spitzner J Stutz A Krahe R & Yuan B 2001 A draft annotation and overview the human genome Genome Biology 2 0025.1– Wright L 1995 Double mystery New Yorker August 7,45–62. 70. harris 1998a pp 78–79 71. Quoted in B M Rubin “Raising a ruckus being a parent is difficult but is it necessary?” Chicago Tribune Aug 72. Harris 1998a p 291 73. Harris 1998a p 342 Chapter 20: The Arts 1. R Brustein “The decline high culture,” New Republic November 3,1997 2. A Kernan Yale University Press 1992 3. A Delbanco New York Review Books November 4,1999 4. R Brustein New Republic November. Geary points out a final implication Because much the content education is not cognitively natural the process mastering it may not always be easy and pleasant notwithstanding the mantra that learning is fun Children may be innately motivated to make friends acquire status hone motor skills and explore the physical world but they are not necessarily motivated to adapt their cognitive faculties to unnatural tasks like formal mathematics A family peer group and culture that ascribe high status to school achievement may be needed to give a child the motive to persevere toward effortful feats learning whose rewards are apparent only over. 13. anderson 1993; Fodor & Pylyshyn 1988; Hadley 1994a; Hadley 1994b; Hummel & Holyoak 1997; Lachter & Bever 1988; Marcus 1998; Marcus 2001a; McCloskey & Cohen 1989; Minsky & Papert 1988; Shastri & Ajjanagadde 1993; Smolensky 1995; Sougne 1998 14. Berent Pinker & Shimron 1999; Marcus et al 1995; Pinker 1997; Pinker 1999; Pinker 2001a; Pinker & Prince 1988 15. Pinker 1997 pp 112–131 16. Pinker 1999 See also Clahsen 1999; Marcus 2001a; Marslen-Wilson & Tyler 1998; Pinker 1991 17. See Marcus et al 1995 and Marcus 2001a for examples 18. Hinton & Nowlan 1987; Nolfi Elman & Parisi 1994. Nor can most contemporary liberals and conservatives articulate the cores their belief systems Liberals think that conservatives are just amoral plutocrats and conservatives think that if you are not a liberal before you are twenty you have no heart but if you are a liberal after you are twenty you have no brain (attributed variously to Georges Clemenceau Dean Inge Benjamin Disraeli and Maurice Maeterlinck) Strategic alliances — such as the religious fundamentalists and free-market technocrats on the right or the identity politicians and civil libertarians on the left — may frustrate the search for any intellectual common denominator Everyday political debates such as whether tax rates should be exactly what they are or a few points higher or lower are just as uninformative. Trudeau Pierre 286 Truman Harry S 175 Tuchman Barbara 324 Turkheimer Eric 372 379 Turner Frederick 410–11 417 Turner Mark 417 Turner Terence 115–19 It is important to note how remarkably well the arts travel outside their home cultures: Beethoven and Shakespeare are beloved in Japan Japanese prints are adored by Brazilians Greek tragedy is performed worldwide while much to the regret many local movie industries Hollywood films have wide cross-cultural appeal Even Indian music while it sounds initially strange to the Western ear can be shown to rely on rhythmic pulse and acceleration repetition variation and surprise as well as modulation and divinely sweet melody: in fact all the same devices found in Western 81. babcock & Loewenstein 1997; Rue 1994; Taylor 1989 82. Aronson 1980; Festinger 1957; Greenwald 1988 83. Haidt 2001 84. Dutton 2001 p 209; Fox 1989; Hogan 1997; Polti 1921/1977; Storey 1996 pp 110 142 85. Steiner 1984 p 1 86. Steiner 1984 p 231 87. Steiner 1984 pp 300–301 88. Symons 1979 p 271 89. D Symons personal communication July 30,2001   Chapter 15: The Sanctimonious Animal   Scott J C 1998 Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human condition failed New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press Searle J R 1995 The construction social reality New York: Free Press Segal N 2000 Virtual twins: New findings on within–family environmental influences on intelligence Journal Educational Psychology 92 442–448 Segerstrale U 2000 Defenders the truth: The battle for sociobiology and beyond New York: Oxford University Press Seligman M E P 1971 Phobias and preparedness Behavior Therapy 2 307–320 Sen A 1984 Poverty and famines: An essay on entitlement and deprivation New York: Oxford University Press. Dickinson E 1976 The complete poems Emily Dickinson New York: Little Brown Dissanayake E 1992 Homo aestheticus: Where art comes from and why New York: Free Press Dissanayake E 1998 Komar and Melamid discover Pleistocene taste Philosophy and Literature 22 486–496 Dissanayake E 2000 Art and intimacy: How the arts began Seattle: University Washington Press  {468}  Divale W T 1972 System population control in the middle and upper Paleolithic: Inferences based on contemporary hunter–gatherers World Archaeology 4 222–243 Dorit R 1997 Review Michael Behe's “Darwin's black box.” American Scientist 85 474–475.   HOT BUTTONS   Beginning in the 1970s the mission modernism was extended by the set styles and philosophies called postmodernism Postmodernism was even more aggressively relativistic insisting that there are many perspectives on the world none them privileged It denied even more vehemently the possibility meaning knowledge progress and shared cultural values It was more Marxist and far more paranoid asserting that claims to truth and progress were tactics political domination which privileged the interests straight white males According to the doctrine mass-produced commodities and media-disseminated images and stories were designed to make authentic experience impossible. From the perspective evolutionary psychology this almost mystical and seemingly irreducible sort moral imperative is the output a mental mechanism with a straightforward adaptive function: to reckon justice and administer punishment by a calculus which ensures that violators reap no advantage from their misdeeds The enormous volume mystico-religious bafflegab about atonement and penance and divine justice and the like is the attribution to higher detached authority what is actually a mundane pragmatic matter: discouraging self-interested competitive acts by reducing their pritability to ~       east Pole–West Pole debate over 35–36 75 84 219–20       in Judeo–Christian theory human nature 1       levels analysis 70–71 Stephen James 182 stepparenting 164–65 stereotypes 201–7 Stevens Wallace 236 Stich Stephen 38 Stills Stephen 253 Sting 253 Stockhausen Karlheinz 416 26. anderson 1995; Gazzaniga Ivry & Mangun 1998 27. Calvin 1996a; Calvin 1996b; Calvin & Ojemann 2001; Crick 1994; Damasio 1994; Gazzaniga 2000a; Gazzaniga 2000b; Gazzaniga Ivry & Mangun 1998; Kandel Schwartz & Jessell 2000  {443}  28. Crick 1994 29. 1948 translated by C B Garnett (New York: Macmillan) p 664 30. Damasio 1994 31. Damasio 1994; Dennett 1991; Gazzaniga 1998 32. Gazzaniga 1992; Gazzaniga 1998 33. Anderson et al 1999; Blair & Cipolotti 2000; Lykken 1995. But the Blank Slate had and has a dark side The vacuum that it posited in human nature was eagerly filled by totalitarian regimes and it did nothing to prevent their genocides It perverts education childrearing and the arts into forms social engineering It torments mothers who work outside the home and parents whose children did not turn out as they would have liked It threatens to outlaw biomedical research that could alleviate human suffering Its corollary the Noble Savage invites contempt for the principles democracy and “a government laws and not men.” It blinds us to our cognitive and moral shortcomings And in matters policy it has elevated sappy dogmas above the search for workable solutions. Turner's syndrome 349 Tversky Amos 302 Twain Mark 428–31 ~ THERE IS ANOTHER bit moral psychology that is commonly associated with primitive thinking but is alive and well in modern minds: concepts the sacred and the taboo Some values are considered not just worthy but sacrosanct They have infinite or transcendental worth trumping all other considerations One is not permitted even to think trading them f against other values because the very thought is self-evidently sinful and deserves only condemnation and outrage. So the rumor that neural networks can replace mental structure with statistical learning is not true Simple generic networks are not up to the demands ordinary human thinking and speaking; complex specialized networks are a stone soup in which much the interesting work has been done in setting up the innate wiring the network Once this is recognized neural network modeling becomes an indispensable complement to the theory a complex human nature rather than a replacement for It bridges the gap between the elementary steps cognition and the physiological activity the brain and thus serves as an important link in the long chain explanation between biology and culture ~ Within the academy a growing number mavericks are looking to evolutionary psychology and cognitive science in an effort to reestablish human nature at the center any understanding the arts They include Brian Boyd Joseph Carroll Denis Dutton Nancy Easterlin David Evans Jonathan Gottschall Paul Hernadi Patrick Hogan Elaine Scarry Wendy Steiner Robert Storey Frederick Turner and Mark A good grasp how the mind works is indispensable to the arts and humanities for at least two reasons. In a section called “Connectoplasm” in How the Mind Works I laid out some simple logical relationships that underlie our understanding a complete thought (such as the meaning a sentence) but that are difficult to represent in generic One is the distinction between a kind and an individual: between ducks in general and this duck in particular Both have the same features (swims quacks has feathers and so on) and both are thus represented by the same set active units in a standard connectionist model But people know the difference. Proponents evolutionary psychology in the 1990s made some explorations in historical events but the response from historical experts was highly negative and there has been little effort to continue that line research Historian Lynn Hunt says that the historians complained that the researchers: have read the wrong studies misinterpreted the results experiments or worse yet turned to neuroscience looking for a universalizing anti-representational and anti-intentional ontology to bolster their claims.[28] Hunt states that "the few attempts to build up a subfield psychohistory collapsed under the weight its presuppositions." She concludes that as 2014 the "'iron curtain' between historians and psychology remains standing."[29] 49. trivers 1972 50. Chagnon 1992; Daly & Wilson 1988; Keeley 1996 51. Daly&Wilson 1988,p 163 52. Rogers 1994; Wilson & Daly 1997 53. Wilson & Herrnstein 1985 54. Mesquida& Wiener 1996 55. Singer 1981 56. Wright 2000 57. Glover 1999 58. Zimbardo Maslach & Haney 2000 59. Quoted in Glover 1999 p 53 60. Quoted in Glover 1999 pp 37–38. Huckleberry Finn revels in many human imperfections but perhaps the most tragicomic is the origin violence in a culture honor The culture honor is really a psychology honor: a package emotions that includes a loyalty to kin a hunger for revenge and a drive to maintain a reputation for toughness and valor When sparked by other human sins — envy lust self-deception  {429}  — they can fuel a vicious cycle violence as each side finds itself unable to abjure revenge against the other The cycle can become amplified in certain places among them the American South.       epidemiological models 65       learning 59–72       material success and 67  {495}        neural circuitry and 60       socialization. The division between the sociological and economic traditions is aligned  {286}  with the division between the political left and the political right but only roughly Marxism is obviously in the sociological tradition and free-market conservatism is obviously in the economic tradition In the liberal 1960s Lyndon Johnson wanted to forge a Great Society Pierre Trudeau a Just Society In the conservative 1980s Margaret Thatcher said “There is no such thing as society There are individual men and women and there are families.” Evolutionary psychology also explains why the slate is not blank The mind was forged in Darwinian competition and an inert medium would have been outperformed by rivals outfitted with high technology — with acute perceptual systems savvy problem-solvers cunning strategists and sensitive feedback circuits Worse still if our minds were truly malleable they would be easily manipulated by our rivals who could mold or condition us  {55}  into serving their needs rather than our own A malleable mind would quickly be selected out. Many experts such as Jerry Fodor write that the purpose perception is knowledge but evolutionary psychologists hold that its primary purpose is to guide action.[65] For example they say depth perception seems to have evolved not to help us know the distances to other objects but rather to help us move around in space.[65] Evolutionary psychologists say that animals from fiddler crabs to humans use eyesight for collision avoidance suggesting that vision is basically for directing action not providing knowledge.[65]   Chapter 3 The Last Wall To Fall IN 1755 SAMUEL JOHNSON wrote that his dictionary should not be expected to “change sublunary nature and clear the world at once from folly vanity and affectation.” Few people today are familiar with the lovely word sublunary literally “below the moon.” It alludes to the ancient belief in a strict division between the pristine lawful unchanging cosmos above and our grubby chaotic fickle Earth below The division was already obsolete when Johnson used the word: Newton had shown that the same force that pulled an apple toward the ground kept the moon in its celestial orbit.       psychological roots 404–9 412 417       sexual attraction and 407–8       three ailing areas 403–4       universal tastes and 408–9 In this passage Gould presents a more-or-less reasonable summary why scientists might think that human violence can be illuminated by evolution But then he casually slips in some outrageous non sequiturs (“an ultimate escape from full moral responsibility,” “we cannot be blamed”) as if the scientists had no choice but to believe those too He concludes his essay: In 1525 thousands German peasants were slaughtered and Michelangelo worked on the Medici Chapel Both sides this dichotomy represent our common evolved humanity Which ultimately shall we choose? As to the potential path genocide and destruction let us take this stand It need not be We. Far from being empty receptacles or universal learners then children are equipped with a toolbox implements for reasoning and learning in particular ways and those implements must be cleverly recruited to master problems for which they were not designed That requires not just inserting new facts and skills in children's minds but debugging and disabling old ones Students cannot learn Newtonian physics until they unlearn their intuitive impetus-based They cannot learn modern biology until they unlearn their intuitive biology which thinks in terms vital essences And they cannot learn evolution until they unlearn their intuitive engineering which attributes design to the intentions a Cutting across these sets emotions we find a distinction among three spheres morality each which frames moral judgments in a different way The ethic autonomy pertains to an individual's interests and rights It emphasizes fairness as the cardinal virtue and is the core morality as it is understood by secular educated people in Western cultures The ethic community pertains to the mores the social group; it includes values like duty respect adherence to convention and deference to a hierarchy The ethic divinity pertains to a sense exalted purity and holiness which is opposed to a sense contamination and defilement  {272}  A third idea: An infinite range behavior can be generated by finite combinatorial programs in the mind Cognitive science has undermined the Blank Slate and the Ghost in the Machine in another way People can be forgiven for scfing at the suggestion that human behavior is “in the genes” or “a product evolution” in the senses familiar from the animal world Human acts are not selected from a repertoire knee-jerk reactions like a fish attacking a red spot or a hen sitting on eggs Instead people may worship goddesses auction kitsch on the Internet play air guitar fast to atone for past sins build forts out lawn chairs and so on seemingly without limit A glance at National Geographic shows that even the strangest acts in our own culture do not exhaust what our species is capable If anything goes one might think then perhaps we are Silly Putty or unconstrained agents. Willerman L Schultz R Rutledge J N & Bigler E D 1991 In vivo brain size and intelligence American Journal Physical Anthropology 15 223–238 Williams G C 1966 Adaptation and natural selection: A critique some current evolutionary thought Princeton N.J.: Princeton University Press  {489}  Williams G C 1988 Huxley's evolution and ethics in sociobiological peispec6ic^gmcl Religion and Science 23 383–407 Williams J M 1990 Style: Toward clarity and grace Chicago: University Chicago Pies Williams K Harkins S & Latane B 1981 Identifiability as a deterrent to social 1 cheering l Personality and Social Psychology 40 303–311. • if the mind is structureless at birth and shaped by its experience a society that wants the right kind minds must control the experience (“It is on a blank page that the most beautiful poems are written”).53 Twentieth-century Marxist states were not just dictatorships but totalitarian dictatorships They tried to control every aspect life: childrearing education clothing entertainment architecture the arts even food and sex Authors in the Soviet Union were enjoined to become “engineers human souls.” In China and Cambodia mandatory communal dining halls same-sex adult dormitories and the separation children from parents were recurring (and detested) experiments. Johnson Samuel 30 137 142 418 Jones Owen 165 176 367 371 Jong Erica 253 254 Joshua 137 judicial activism 291 Language surely does affect our thoughts rather than just labeling them for the sake labeling them Most obviously language is the conduit through which people share their thoughts and intentions and thereby acquire the knowledge customs and values those around them In the song “Christmas” from their rock opera The Who described the plight a boy without language: “Tommy doesn't know what day it is; he doesn't know who Jesus was or what prayin’ is.” A third vice with political implications is selfishness If people like other animals are driven by selfish genes selfishness might seem inevitable or even a virtue The argument is fallacious from the start because selfish genes do not necessarily grow selfish organisms Still let us consider the possibility that people might have some tendency to value their own interests and those their family and friends above the interests the tribe society or species The political implications are spelled out in the two major philosophies how societies should be organized which make opposite assumptions about innate human selfishness: It is not from the benevolence the butcher the brewer or the baker that we expect our dinner but from their regard to their own interest We address ourselves not to their humanity but to their self-love —. In a free and unprejudiced labor market people will be hired and paid according to the match between their traits and the demands the job A given job requires some mixture cognitive talents (such as mathematical or linguistic skill) personality traits (such as risk taking or cooperation) and tolerance lifestyle demands (rigid schedules relocations updating job skills) And it fers some mixture personal rewards: people gadgets ideas the  {355}  outdoors pride in workmanship The salary is influenced among other things by supply and demand: how many people want the job how many can do it and how many the employer can pay to do it Readily filled jobs may pay less; difficult-to-fill jobs may. In Born to Rebel Sulloway predicted that firstborns should parlay their advantages into a more assertive And because they identify with their parents and by extension with the status quo they should grow up to be more conservative and conscientious Laterborns in contrast should be more conciliatory and open to new ideas and experiences Though family therapists and laypeople have had these impressions for a long time Sulloway tried to explain them in terms Trivers's theory parent-fspring conflict and its corollary sibling rivalry He found some support for these ideas in a meta-analysis (a quantitative literature review) studies birth. 48. redmond 1994 p 125; quoted in John Tooby Slate October 24,2000 49. Sponsel 1996 p 115 50. Sponsel 1996 pp 99 103 51. Sponsel 1998 p 114 52. Tierney 2000 p 38 53. Neel 1994 54. John J Miller “The Fierce People: The wages anthropological incorrectness,” National Review November 20,2000 55. Tierney 2000 p xxiv   Chapter 7: The Holy Trinity   1. Hunt 1999. Brownmiller S & Merh B 1992 A feminist response to rape as an adaptation in men Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15 381–382 Bruer J 1997 Education and the brain: A bridge too far Educational Researcher 26 4–16 Bruer J 1999 The myth the first three years: A new understanding brain development and lifelong learning New York: Free Press Brugger P Kollias S S Muri R M Crelier G Hepp–Reymond M.–C & Regard M 2000 Beyond re–membering: Phantom sensations congenially absent limbs Proceedings the National Academy Scie–6172 Bueno de Mesquita B 1981 The war trap New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press Bullock A 1991 Hitler and Stalin: Parallel lives London: HarperCollins. There would be no falling in love because there would be no alternative mates to choose among and falling in love would be a huge waste You would literally love your mate as yourself but that's the point: you don't really love yourself except metaphorically; you are yourself The two you would be as far as evolution is concerned one flesh and your relationship would be governed by mindless physiology You might feel pain if you observed your mate cut herself but all the feelings we have about our mates that make a relationship so wonderful when it is working well (and so painful when it is not) would never evolve Even if a species had them when they took up this way life they would be selected out as surely as the eyes a cave-dwelling fish are selected out because they would be all cost. Writing systems represent language using visual symbols which may or may not correspond to the sounds spoken language The Latin alphabet (and those on which it is based or that have been derived from it) was originally based on the representation single sounds so that words were constructed from letters that generally denote a single consonant or vowel in the structure the word In syllabic scripts such as the Inuktitut syllabary each sign represents a whole syllable In logographic scripts each sign represents an entire word,[70] and will generally bear no relation to the sound that word in spoken language Most people don't commit horrendous crimes without proundly damaging things happening to them It isn't that monsters are being born right and left It's that children are being born right and left and are being subjected to horrible things As a consequence they end up doing horrible things And I would much rather live in that world than in a world where monsters are just born.7 The other is about a social work student in Manhattan: Tiffany F Goldberg a 25-year-old from Madison Wis was struck on the head with a chunk concrete by a stranger this month Afterward she expressed concern for her attacker speculating that he must have had a troubled childhood. Everybody knows that if the rules are violated there are penalties Knowledge the code is thus largely defensive; it is literally necessary for operating in public Therefore even though families with a decency orientation are usually opposed to the values the code they ten reluctantly encourage their children's familiarity with it to enable them to negotiate the inner-city But Hobbes is famous for presenting not just the causes violence but a means preventing it: “a common power to keep them all in awe.” His commonwealth was a means implementing the principle “that a man be willing when others are so too to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with so much liberty against other men as he would allow other men against himself.”90 People vest authority in a sovereign person or assembly who can use the collective force the contractors to hold each one to the agreement because “covenants without the sword are but words and no strength to secure a man at all.”91 Religious conceptions of sin and responsibility simply extend this lever by implying that any wrongdoing that is undiscovered or unpunished by one's fellows will be discovered and punished by God Martin Daly and Margo Wilson sum up the ultimate rationale of our intuitions about responsibility and godly retribution: